33 Works

Data from: Quantifying physiological influences on otolith microchemistry

Anna M. Sturrock, Ewan Hunter, J. Andrew Milton, Edinburgh Ion Microprobe Facility, Rachel C. Johnson, Colin P. Waring & Clive N. Trueman
1. Trace element concentrations in fish earstones (“otoliths”) are widely used to discriminate spatially discrete populations or individuals of marine fish, based on a commonly held assumption that physiological influences on otolith composition are minor, and thus variations in otolith elemental chemistry primarily reflect changes in ambient water chemistry. 2. We carried out a long-term (1-yr) experiment, serially sampling seawater, blood plasma and otoliths of mature and immature European plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.) to test...

Data from: Inbreeding ratio and genetic relationships among strains of the Western clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis

Takeshi Igawa, Ai Watanabe, Atsushi Suzuki, Akihiko Kashiwagi, Keiko Kashiwagi, Anna Noble, Matt Guille, David E. Simpson, Marko E. Horb, Tamotsu Fujii & Masayuki Sumida
The Western clawed frog, Xenopus tropicalis, is a highly promising model amphibian, especially in developmental and physiological research, and as a tool for understanding disease. It was originally found in the West African rainforest belt, and was introduced to the research community in the 1990s. The major strains thus far known include the Nigerian and Ivory Coast strains. However, due to its short history as an experimental animal, the genetic relationship among the various strains...

Increasing numbers of harbour seals and grey seals in the Solent

Sarah Marley, Robyne Castles, Fiona Woods, Peter Hughes, John Arnott & Louise MacCallum
Harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) and grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) both occur within the UK, but display regional contrasting population trends. Whilst grey seals are typically increasing in number, harbour seals have shown varying trends in recent decades following repeated pandemics. There is a need for monitoring of regional and local populations to understand overall trends. This study utilised a 20-year dataset of seal counts from two neighbouring harbours in the Solent region of south England....

Data from: An unusual new neosauropod dinosaur from the lower Cretaceous Hastings Beds Group of East Sussex, England

Michael P. Taylor & Darren Naish
Xenoposeidon proneneukos gen. et sp. nov. is a neosauropod represented by BMNH R2095, a well-preserved partial mid-to-posterior dorsal vertebra from the Berriasian–Valanginian Hastings Beds Group of Ecclesbourne Glen, East Sussex, England. It was briefly described by Lydekker in 1893, but it has subsequently been overlooked. This specimen's concave cotyle, large lateral pneumatic fossae, complex system of bony laminae and camerate internal structure show that it represents a neosauropod dinosaur. However, it differs from all other...

Data from: A four-component model of the action potential in mouse detrusor smooth muscle cell

Mithun Padmakumar, Keith L. Brain, John S. Young & Rohit Manchanda
Detrusor smooth muscle cells (DSMCs) of the urinary bladder are electrically connected to one another via gap junctions and form a three dimensional syncytium. DSMCs exhibit spontaneous electrical activity, including passive depolarizations and action potentials. The shapes of spontaneous action potentials (sAPs) observed from a single DSM cell can vary widely. The biophysical origins of this variability, and the precise components which contribute to the complex shapes observed are not known. To address these questions,...

Effects of low-dose ionising radiation on reproduction and DNA damage in marine and freshwater amphipod crustaceans

N. Fuller, J.T. Smith & A.T. Ford
Data comprise results of laboratory experiments assessing the impacts of beta radiation (phosphorus-32) on reproduction, development and DNA damage in a marine and freshwater crustacean species. All crustacean samples were collected either from Lock Lake, Portsmouth (marine crustacean Echinogammarus marinus) or from the River Ems, Emsworth (freshwater crustacean, Gammarus pulex). Laboratory experiments were conducted periodically from summer 2015 to autumn 2016 at the University of Portsmouth. The data are of use in elucidating the mechanisms...

Data from: Feeding the enemy: loss of nectar and nectaries to herbivores reduces tepal damage and increases pollinator attraction in Iris bulleyana

Ya-Ru Zhu, Min Yang, Jana C. Vamosi, W. Scott Armbruster, Tao Wan & Yan-Bing Gong
Floral nectar usually functions as a pollinator reward, yet it may also attract herbivores. However, the effects of herbivore consumption of nectar or nectaries on pollination have rarely been tested. We investigated Iris bulleyana, an alpine plant that has showy tepals and abundant nectar, in the Hengduan Mountains of SW China. In this region, flowers are visited mainly by pollen-collecting pollinators and nectarivorous herbivores. We tested the hypothesis that, in I. bulleyana, sacrificing nectar and...

Data from: Rainfall seasonality predicts the germination behaviour of a tropical dry-forest vine

Adriana A. Martins, Øystein H. Opedal, W. Scott Armbruster & Christophe Pélabon
Seed dormancy is considered an adaptive strategy in seasonal and/or unpredictable environments because it prevents germination during climatically favourable periods that are too short for seedling establishment. Tropical dry forests are seasonal environments where seed dormancy may play an important role in plant resilience and resistance to changing precipitation patterns. We studied the germination behaviour of seeds from six populations of the Neotropical vine Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae) originating from environments of contrasting rainfall seasonality. Seeds...

Data from: Does multiple paternity affect seed mass in angiosperms? An experimental test in Dalechampia scandens

C. Pélabon, E. Albertsen, M. Falahati-Anbaran, J. Wright, W. S. Armbruster & W.S. Armbruster
Flowers fertilized by multiple fathers may be expected to produce heavier seeds than those fertilized by a single father. However, the adaptive mechanisms leading to such differences remain unclear, and the evidence inconsistent. Here, we first review the different hypotheses predicting an increase in seed mass when multiple paternity occurs. We show that distinguishing between these hypotheses requires information about average seed mass, but also about within-fruit variance in seed mass, bias in siring success...

Data from: Non-equilibrium dynamics and floral trait interactions shape extant angiosperm diversity

Brian C. O'Meara, Stacey D. Smith, W. Scott Armbruster, Lawrence D. Harder, Christopher R. Hardy, Lena C. Hileman, Larry Hufford, Amy Litt, Susana Magallon, Stephen A. Smith, Peter F. Stevens, Charles B. Fenster & Pamela K. Diggle
Why are some traits and trait combinations exceptionally common across the tree of life, whereas others are vanishingly rare? The distribution of trait diversity across a clade at any time depends on the ancestral state of the clade, the rate at which new phenotypes evolve, the differences in speciation and extinction rates across lineages, and whether an equilibrium has been reached. Here we examine the role of transition rates, differential diversification (speciation minus extinction), and...

Impact of environmental radiation on the health and reproductive status of fish from Chernobyl, Ukraine 2014 to 2015

A. Lerebours & J.T. Smith
Data comprise health, reproductive status and relative abundance of mature perch and roach collected in September 2014, March 2015, June 2015 and September 2015 from lakes in Belarus and Ukraine. Measurements presented include age, weight, length, presence of external signs of disease and presence of macroscopic tumors. The Fulton condition index (K), hepatosomatic index (HSI) and gonadosomatic index (GSI) of fish are also presented. The lakes (selected according to hydrological properties and long-term exposure to...

Using ecological context to interpret spatiotemporal variation in natural selection

Elena Albertsen, Elena Albertsen, Øystein Opedal, Geir Bolstad, Rocio Barrales, Thomas Hansen, Christophe Pelabon & W. Scott Armbruster
Spatiotemporal variation in natural selection is expected, but difficult to estimate. Pollinator-mediated selection on floral traits provides a good system for understanding and linking variation in selection to differences in ecological context. We studied pollinator-mediated selection in five populations of Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae) in Costa Rica and Mexico. Using a nonlinear path-analytical approach, we assessed several functional components of selection, and linked variation in pollinator-mediated selection across time and space to variation in pollinator assemblages....

Acoustic data in four species of macaques

Nancy Rebout, Bernard Thierry, Alban Lemasson, Micheletta Jérôme & Roberto Cozzolino
We provide comparative data on vocal signals in adult females of four species of macaque : Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana), crested macaques (M. nigra), Japanese macaques (M. fuscata), and rhesus macaques (M. mulatta). We distinguished three social contexts: agonistic, affiliative and neutral. The agonistic context included aggression (supplantation, lunge, chase, slap, grab, bite, facial threat display) and response to aggression (aggression, avoidance, flight, crouch, submissive facial displays). The affiliative context included affiliative behaviours (approach, sitting...

The social function of the feeling and expression of guilt

Eglantine Julle-Danière, Jamie Whitehouse, Aldert Vrij, Erik Gustafsson & Bridget M Waller
Humans are uniquely cooperative and form crucial short- and long-term social bonds between individuals that ultimately shape human societies. The need for such intense cooperation may have provided a particularly powerful selection pressure on the emotional and communicative behaviours regulating cooperative processes, such as guilt. Guilt is a social, other-oriented moral emotion that promotes relationship repair and pro-sociality. For example, people can be more lenient towards wrongdoers who display guilt than towards those who do...

Data and scripts for: Quantitative assessment of observed vs. predicted responses to selection

Christophe Pelabon, Elena Albertsen, Arnaud Le Rouzic, Cyril Firmat, Geir H. Bolstad, W. Scott Armbruster & Thomas Hansen
Although artificial-selection experiments seem well suited to testing our ability to predict evolution, the correspondence between predicted and observed responses is often ambiguous due to the lack of uncertainty estimates. We present equations for assessing prediction error in direct and indirect responses to selection that integrate uncertainty in genetic parameters used for prediction and sampling effects during selection. Using these, we analyzed a selection experiment on floral traits replicated in two taxa of the Dalechampia...

WorldClim, elevation and distribution data for all palms from: The ecology of palm genomes: Repeat-associated genome size expansion is constrained by aridity

Rowan Schley, Jaume Pellicer, Xue-Jun Ge, Craig Barrett, Sidonie Bellot, Maite Guignard, Petr Novak, Donald Fraser, William Baker, Steven Dodsworth, Jiri Macas, Andrew Leitch & Ilia Leitch
Genome size varies 2,400-fold across plants, influencing their evolution through changes in cell size and cell division rates which impact plants’ environmental stress tolerance. Repetitive element expansion explains much genome size diversity, and the processes structuring repeat ‘communities’ are analogous to those structuring ecological communities. However, which environmental stressors influence repeat community dynamics has not yet been examined from an ecological perspective. We measured genome size and leveraged climatic data for 91% of genera within...

Data from: Genetic constraints predict evolutionary divergence in Dalechampia blossoms

Geir H. Bolstad, Thomas F. Hansen, Christophe Pélabon, Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran, Rocío Pérez-Barrales & W. Scott Armbruster
If genetic constraints are important, then rates and direction of evolution should be related to trait evolvability. Here we use recently developed measures of evolvability to test the genetic constraint hypothesis with quantitative genetic data on floral morphology from the Neotropical vine Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae). These measures were compared against rates of evolution and patterns of divergence among 24 populations in two species in the D. scandens species complex. We found clear evidence for genetic...

Data from: Skin temperature changes in wild chimpanzees upon hearing vocalizations of conspecifics

Guillaume Dezecache, Klaus Zuberbuhler, Marina Davila-Ross & Christoph D. Dahl
A growing trend of research using infrared thermography (IRT) has shown that changes in skin temperature, associated with activity of the autonomic nervous system, can be reliably detected in human and non-human animals. A contact-free method, IRT provides the opportunity to uncover emotional states in free-ranging animals during social interactions. Here, we measured nose and ear temperatures of wild chimpanzees of Budongo Forest, Uganda, when exposed to naturally occurring vocalizations of conspecifics. We found a...

Data from: Euglossine bees mediate only limited long-distance gene flow in a tropical vine

Øystein H. Opedal, Mohsen Falahati-Anbaran, Elena Albertsen, W. Scott Armbruster, Rocío Pérez-Barrales, Hans K. Stenøien & Christophe Pélabon
Euglossine bees (Apidae: Euglossini) have long been hypothesized to act as long-distance pollinators of many low-density tropical plants. We tested this hypothesis by the analysis of gene flow and genetic structure within and among populations of the euglossine bee-pollinated vine Dalechampia scandens. Using microsatellite markers, we assessed historical gene flow by the quantification of regional-scale genetic structure and isolation by distance among 18 populations, and contemporary gene flow by the estimation of recent migration rates...

Impacts of chronic radiation exposure on reproduction, development and genetic diversity of the freshwater crustacean Asellus aquaticus at Chernobyl

N. Fuller, J.T. Smith, A. Ford, L.L. Nagorskaya & D.I. Gudkov
This dataset contains morphological data from the isopod crustacean, Asellus aquaticus collected from Chernobyl affected areas of Belarus and Ukraine in 2015. This data was collected to calculate fluctuating asymmetry, a measure of developmental stability, in organisms along a gradient of radiation contamination. Five different morphological characters were measured and fluctuating asymmetry (right side minus left side) was calculated. Fluctuating asymmetry was calculated here as FA2: [|R-L|/(R+L)/2)] where R and L represent measurements in micrometres...

Data from: Differential divergence in autosomes and sex chromosomes is associated with intra-island diversification at a very small spatial scale in a songbird lineage

Yann Bourgeois, Joris Bertrand, Boris Delahaie, Helene Holota, Christophe Thebaud & Borja Mila
Recently diverged taxa showing marked phenotypic and ecological diversity are optimal systems to understand the genetic processes underlying speciation. We used genome-wide markers to investigate the diversification of the Reunion grey white eye (Zosterops borbonicus) on the small volcanic island of Reunion (Mascarene archipelago), where this species complex exhibits four geographic forms that are parapatrically distributed across the island and differ strikingly in plumage colour. One form restricted to the highlands is separated by a...

Deformation and acoustic emission of Neapolitan Yellow Tuff

P. Rowley, P.P. Benson & C.J. Bean
These data represent a series of analyses exploring the seismic behaviours of low-cohesion volcanic sediments – in this case the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff - under varying strain rates. The data include deformation logs from triaxial compression experiments, and the accompanying 12-channel acoustic emission recordings at 10 MHz. These are paired with X-Ray Computed Tomography images of one of the cores from both before and after deformation, to examine damage behaviour. These data include: Deformation logs...

Data from: Chimpanzee communities differ in their inter- and intrasexual social relationships

Bruce Rawlings, Edwin J. C. Van Leeuwen & Marina Davila-Ross
Male and female human social bonding strategies are both culturally and genetically shaped. Chimpanzees, our phylogenetically joint closest living relatives, exhibit complex social structures and show impressive cultural diversity. Whether chimpanzee male and female bonding patterns are culturally shaped remains unclear. Studies of wild chimpanzees bonding across sex show that in some communities males show strong bonds with other males, whereas in others females form particularly strong intra-sex bonds. This suggests that there may be...

Learning experiences: understanding the experiences of BAME students in a post-92 university

Rosa Marvell, Roger Dalrymple & Samantha Child

Data from: Floral paedomorphy leads to secondary specialization in pollination of Malagasy Dalechampia (Euphorbiaceae)

W. Scott Armbruster, Joongku Lee, Mary E. Edwards & Bruce G. Baldwin
The traditional evolutionary interpretation of Von Baer’s “laws” of embryology is that retention of early developmental forms into adulthood (paedomorphosis) leads to the evolution of simpler or more generalized morphology and ecology. Here we show that paedomorphosis can also be involved in an increase in ecological specialization, in this case of plant-pollinator relationships. A paedomorphic transition from generalized pollination (by several functional types of pollinators) to specialized pollination (by one or a few species in...

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