83 Works

Diurnal foraging ant–tree co-occurrence networks are similar between canopy and understorey in a Neotropical rain forest

Reuber Antoniazzi, Jose Garcia-Franco, Milan Janda, Maurice Leponce & Wesley Dáttilo
Discussion of the vertical stratification of organisms in tropical forests has traditionally focused on species distribution. Most studies have shown that, due to differences in abiotic conditions and resource distribution, species can be distributed along the vertical gradient according to their eco-physiological needs. However, the network structure between distinct vertical strata remains little-explored. To fill this gap in knowledge, we used baits to sample ants in the canopy and understorey trees of a Mexican tropical...

Ecological mechanisms explaining interactions within plant-hummingbird networks: morphological matching increases towards lower latitudes

Jesper Sonne, Jeferson Vizentin-Bugoni, Pietro K. Maruyama, Andréa C. Araújo, Edgar Chávez-González, Aline G. Coelho, Peter A. Cotton, Oscar H. Marín-Gómez, Carlos Lara, Liliana R. Lasprilla, Caio G. Machado, Maria A. Maglianesi, Tiago S. Malucelli, Ana M. Martín-González, Genilda M. Oliveira, Paulo E. Oliveira, Raul Ortiz-Pulido, Márcia A. Rocca, Licléia C. Rodrigues, Ivan Sazima, Benno I. Simmons, Boris Tinoco, Isabela G. Varassin, Marcelo F. Vasconcelos, Bob O’Hara … & Bo Dalsgaard
Interactions between species are influenced by different ecological mechanisms, such as morphological matching, phenological overlap, and species abundances. How these mechanisms explain interaction frequencies across environmental gradients remains poorly understood. Consequently, we also know little about the mechanisms that drive the geographical patterns in network structure, such as complementary specialization and modularity. Here, we use data on morphologies, phenologies and abundances to explain interaction frequencies between hummingbirds and plants at a large geographic scale. For...

Vocal recognition suggests premating isolation between lineages of a lekking hummingbird

Clementina Gonzalez, Nataly Cruz-Yepez & Juan Francisco Ornelas
Species with genetically differentiated allopatric populations commonly differ in phenotypic traits due to drift and/or selection, which can be important drivers of reproductive isolation. Wedge-tailed sabrewing (Campylopterus curvipennis) is a species complex composed of three genetically and acoustically differentiated allopatric lineages which correspond to currently recognized subspecies in Mexico: C. c. curvipennis (Sierra Madre Oriental), C. c. pampa (Yucatán Peninsula), and C. c. excellens (Los Tuxtlas). Although excellens is taxonomically recognized as a distinct species,...

Data from: At the passing gate: past introgression in the process of species formation between Amazilia violiceps and A. viridifrons hummingbirds along the Mexican Transition Zone

Flor Rodríguez-Gómez & Juan Francisco Ornelas
Aim: We tested whether populations of violet-crowned and green-fronted hummingbirds, Amazilia violiceps and Amazilia viridifrons, are genetically and environmentally differentiated, and examined the role of past geological and climatic changes in driving their diversification. Location: Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Methods: Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of individuals collected throughout the species' ranges were sequenced and then analysed using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Species tree analysis, Bayesian species delimitation, divergence time inference, historical demography, palaeodistribution modelling, and niche...

Data from: Post-glacial northward expansion and genetic differentiation between migratory and sedentary populations of the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus)

Andreia Malpica & Juan Francisco Ornelas
Unlike other migratory hummingbirds in North America, the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus) exhibits both long-distance migratory behaviour in the USA and sedentary behaviour in Mexico and Guatemala. We examined the evolution of migration linked to its northward expansion using a multi-perspective approach. We analysed variation in morphology, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, estimated migration rates between migratory and sedentary populations, compared divergence times with the occurrence of Quaternary climate events, and constructed species distribution models to...

Data from: Pleistocene range expansions promote divergence with gene flow between migratory and sedentary populations of Calothorax hummingbirds

Yuyini Licona-Vera, Juan Francisco Ornelas, Susan Wethington & Kelly B. Bryan
We investigate the influence of postglacial population expansion on genetic structure of reproductively isolated populations that come into secondary contact and produce hybrid zones. We test migratory behaviour to explain geographic patterns of genetic diversity and phylogeographic structure in migratory and sedentary populations of hummingbirds in the Chihuahuan Desert. We assessed genetic structure, demographic expansion and introgression in Calothorax hummingbirds using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs), and ecological niche modelling (ENM) to predict...

Data from: Phylogeography and population differentiation in the Psittacanthus calyculatus (Loranthaceae) mistletoe: a complex scenario of climate-volcanism interaction along the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

María José Pérez-Crespo, Juan Francisco Ornelas, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez, Antonio Acini Vásquez-Aguilar & Santiago Ramírez-Barahona
Aim The formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) played an important role in driving inter- and intraspecific diversification at high elevations. However, Pleistocene climate changes and ecological factors might also contribute to plant genetic structuring along the volcanic belt. Here, we analysed phylogeographic patterns of the parrot-mistletoe Psittacanthus calyculatus to determine the relative contribution of these different factors. Location Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt Methods Using nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence data for 370 individuals, we...

Data from: Development of a genotype-by-sequencing immunogenetic assay as exemplified by screening for variation in red fox with and without endemic rabies exposure

Michael E. Donaldson, Yessica Rico, Karsten Hueffer, Halie M. Rando, Anna V. Kukekova & Christopher J. Kyle
Pathogens are recognized as major drivers of local adaptation in wildlife systems. By determining which gene variants are favored in local interactions among populations with and without disease, spatially explicit adaptive responses to pathogens can be elucidated. Much of our current understanding of host responses to disease comes from a small number of genes associated with an immune response. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies, such as genotype-by-sequencing (GBS), facilitate expanded explorations of genomic variation among populations....

Data from: Functional extinction of birds drives rapid evolutionary changes in seed size.

Mauro Galetti, Roger Guevara, Marina C. Côrtes, Fadini Rodrigo, Sandro Von Matter, Abraão B. Leite, Fábio Labecca, Thiago Ribeiro, Carolina S. Carvalho, Rosane G. Collevatti, Mathias M. Pires, , Pedro H. Brancalion, Milton C. Ribeiro & Pedro Jordano
Local extinctions have cascading effects on ecosystem functions, yet little is known about the potential for the rapid evolutionary change of species in human-modified scenarios. We show that the functional extinction of large-gape seed dispersers in the Brazilian Atlantic forest is associated with the consistent reduction of seed size of a keystone palm species. Among 22 palm populations, areas deprived of large avian frugivores for several decades present smaller seeds than non-defaunated forests, with negative...

Data from: A dark scenario for Cerrado plant species: effects of future climate, land use and protected areas ineffectiveness

Santiago José Elías Velazco, Fabricio Villalobos, Franklin Galvão & Paulo De Marco Júnior
Aim: The anthropogenic climate change and land-use change are considered two of the main factors that are altering biodiversity at the global scale. An evaluation that combined both factors can be relevant to detect which species could be the most vulnerable and reveal the regions of highest stability or susceptibility to biodiversity. We aimed to (i) assess the effect of climate change and land-use on the distribution of Cerrado plant species for different countries where...

Data from: Coordinated species importation policies are needed to reduce serious invasions globally: the case of alien bumblebees in South America

Marcelo A. Aizen, Cecilia Smith-Ramirez, Carolina L. Morales, Lorena Vieli, Agustín Sáez, Rodrigo M. Barahona-Segovia, Marina P. Arbetman, José Montalva, Lucas A. Garibaldi, David W. Inouye & Lawrence D. Harder
The global trade of species promotes diverse human activities but also facilitates the introduction of potentially invasive species into new environments. As species ignore national boundaries, unilateral national decisions concerning species trade set the stage for transnational species invasion with significant conservation, economic and political consequences. The need for a coordinated approach to species importation policies is demonstrated by the introduction of two bumblebee species into Chile for crop pollination, despite Argentina banning commercial importation...

Data from: Limited genetic evidence for host plant-related differentiation in the Western cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae)

Gilbert Saint Jean, Glen R. Hood, Scott P. Egan, Thomas H.Q. Powell, Hannes Schuler, Meredith M. Doellman, Mary M. Glover, James J. Smith, Wee L. Yee, Robert B. Goughnour, Howard M.A. Thistlewood, Sheri A. Maxwell, Nusha Keyghobadi, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja, Jeffrey L. Feder & Thomas H. Q. Powell
The shift of the fruit fly Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) in the mid-1800s from downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis (Torrey & Asa Gray) Scheele, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica (Borkhausen), in the eastern USA is a model for ecological divergence with gene flow. A similar system may exist in the northwestern USA and British Columbia, Canada, where Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae) attacks the native bitter cherry Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton (Rosaceae). Populations of...

Data from: The modulating role of group stability on fitness effects of group size is different in females and males of a communally rearing rodent

Luis A. Ebensperger, Loreto A. Correa, Cecilia León, Juan Ramírez-Estrada, Sebastian Abades, Alvaro Villegas & Loren D. Hayes
Group size may influence fitness benefits and costs that emerge from cooperative and competitive interactions in social species. However, evidence from plural breeding mammals indicates that group size is insufficient to explain variation in direct fitness, implying other attributes of social groups were overlooked. We studied the natural population of a social rodent during 5 years to test the hypothesis that social stability – in terms of group composition – modulates the effects of increasing...

Data from: Coexistence and the niche in a nurse-cactus interaction: is cyclic dynamics justified?

Arnoldo Flores-Torres, Carlos Montaña & Miguel Franco
1. The interaction between the nurse plant Larrea tridentata and the cacti Cylindropuntia leptocaulis is thought to follow cyclical-replacement dynamics. However, the required changing nature of their interaction, from facilitation to competition, has not been investigated through their full life cycle. 2. In order to test the hypothesised cyclical dynamics, we compared the demography of four sub-populations (LA = Larrea associated to Cylindropuntia; CA = Cylindropuntia associated to Larrea, LS = solitary Larrea; CS =...

Data from: Dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in terrestrial plants: a global synthesis

Jordi Martinez-Vilalta, Anna Sala, Dolores Asensio, Lucia Galiano, Guenter Hoch, Sara Palacio, Frida I. Piper & Francisco Lloret
Plants store large amounts of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). While multiple functions of NSC have long been recognized, the interpretation of NSC seasonal dynamics is often based on the idea that stored NSC is a reservoir of carbon that fluctuates depending on the balance between supply via photosynthesis and demand for growth and respiration (the source-sink dynamics concept). Consequently, relatively high NSC concentrations in some plants have been interpreted to reflect excess supply relative to demand....

Data from: Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations

Tomas Roslin, Bess Hardwick, Vojtech Novotny, William K. Petry, Nigel R. Andrew, Ashley Asmus, Isabel C. Barrio, Yves Basset, Andrea Larissa Boesing, Timothy C. Bonebrake, Erin K. Cameron, Wesley Dáttilo, David A. Donoso, Pavel Drozd, Claudia L. Gray, David S. Hik, Sarah J. Hill, Tapani Hopkins, Shuyin Huang, Bonny Koane, Benita Laird-Hopkins, Liisa Laukkanen, Owen T. Lewis, Sol Milne, Isaiah Mwesige … & Eleanor M. Slade
Biotic interactions underlie ecosystem structure and function, but predicting interaction outcomes is difficult. We tested the hypothesis that biotic interaction strength increases toward the equator, using a global experiment with model caterpillars to measure predation risk. Across an 11,660-kilometer latitudinal gradient spanning six continents, we found increasing predation toward the equator, with a parallel pattern of increasing predation toward lower elevations. Patterns across both latitude and elevation were driven by arthropod predators, with no systematic...

Data from: Searching for keystone plant resources in fruit-frugivore interaction networks across the Neotropics

João Vitor De S. Messeder, Tadeu J. Guerra, Wesley Dáttilo & Fernando A. O. Silveira
Identifying keystone plant resources (KPR) is a contentious issue in ecology and conservation. Despite recent advances provided by mutualistic networks, we still lack studies addressing large-scale identification of keystone plants. We developed a novel quantitative framework for the large-scale identification of KPR that combines centrality and effects of simulated removals on networks properties. We built a database with 38 fruit-frugivore networks comprising 6180 pairwise interactions from Neotropical forest and non-forest ecosystems ranging from sea level...

Data from: Niche divergence versus neutral processes: combined environmental and genetic analyses identify contrasting patterns of differentiation in recently diverged pine species

Alejandra Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra Ortíz-Medrano & Daniel Piñero
Background and Aims: Solving relationships of recently diverged taxa, poses a challenge due to shared polymorphism and weak reproductive barriers. Multiple lines of evidence are needed to identify independently evolving lineages. This is especially true of long-lived species with large effective population sizes, and slow rates of lineage sorting. North American pines are an interesting group to test this multiple approach. Our aim is to combine cytoplasmic genetic markers with environmental information to clarify species...

Data from: Functional connectivity and home range inferred at a microgeographic landscape genetics scale in a desert-dwelling rodent

Alejandro Flores-Manzanero, Madisson A. Luna- Bárcenas, Rodney J. Dyer & Ella Vázquez-Domínguez
Gene flow in animals is limited or facilitated by different features within the landscape matrix they inhabit. The landscape representation in landscape genetics (LG) is traditionally modeled as resistance surfaces (RS), where novel optimization approaches are needed for assigning resistance values that adequately avoid subjectivity. Also, desert ecosystems and mammals are scarcely represented in LG studies We addressed these issues by evaluating, at a microgeographic scale, the effect of landscape features on functional connectivity of...

Data from: Heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura along a latitudinal gradient: contrasting patterns between plastic and genetic responses

Luis E. Castañeda, Enrico L. Rezende & Mauro Santos
Susceptibility to global warming relies on how thermal tolerances respond to increasing temperatures through plasticity or evolution. Climatic adaptation can be assessed examining the geographic variation in thermal-related traits. We studied latitudinal patterns in heat tolerance in Drosophila subobscura reared at two temperatures. We used four static stressful temperatures to estimate the thermal death time curves (TDT), and two ramping assays with fast and slow heating rates. TDT curves allow estimating the critical thermal maximum...

Data from: Historical and current introgression in a Mesoamerican hummingbird species complex: a biogeographic perspective

Rosa Alicia Jiménez & Juan Francisco Ornelas
The influence of geologic and Pleistocene glacial cycles might result in morphological and genetic complex scenarios in the biota of the Mesoamerican region. We tested whether berylline, blue-tailed and steely-blue hummingbirds, Amazilia beryllina, Amazilia cyanura and Amazilia saucerottei, show evidence of historical or current introgression as their plumage colour variation might suggest. We also analysed the role of past and present climatic events in promoting genetic introgression and species diversification. We collected mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)...

Data from: Female Infidelity Is Constrained by El Niño Conditions in a Long-lived Bird

Lynna Marie Kiere & Hugh Drummond
Explaining the remarkable variation in socially monogamous females’ extra-pair (EP) behaviour revealed by decades of molecular paternity testing remains an important challenge. One hypothesis proposes that restrictive environmental conditions (e.g. extreme weather, food scarcity) limit females’ resources and increase EP behaviour costs, forcing females to reduce EP reproductive behaviours. For the first time, we tested this hypothesis by directly quantifying within-pair and EP behaviours rather than inferring behaviour from paternity. We evaluated whether warmer sea...

Data from: Games academics play and their consequences: how authorship, h-index, and journal impact factors are shaping the future of academia

Jan Gogarten, Colin Chapman, Julio Bicca-Marques, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Pengfei Fan, Peter Fashing, Songtao Guo, Claire Hemingway, Fabian Leendertz, Baoguo Li, Ikki Matsuda, Rong Hou, Juan Carlos Serio-Silva & Nils Chr. Stenseth
Research is a highly competitive profession where evaluation plays a central role; journals are ranked and individuals are evaluated based on their publication number, the number of times they are cited, and their h-index. Yet, such evaluations are often done in inappropriate ways that are damaging to individual careers, particularly for young scholars, and to the profession. Furthermore, as with all indices, people can play games to better their scores. This has resulted in the...

Data from: Evidence for spatial clines and mixed geographic modes of speciation for North American cherry-infesting Rhagoletis (Diptera:Tephritidae) flies

Meredith Doellman, Gilbert Saint Jean, Scott Egan, Thomas Powell, Glen Hood, Hannes Schuler, Daniel Bruzzese, Mary Glover, James Smith, Wee Yee, Robert Goughnour, Juan Rull, Martin Aluja & Jeffrey Feder
An important criterion for understanding speciation is the geographic context of population divergence. Three major modes of allopatric, parapatric, and sympatric speciation define the extent of spatial overlap and gene flow between diverging populations. However, mixed modes of speciation are also possible, whereby populations experience periods of allopatry, parapatry, and/or sympatry at different times as they diverge. Here, we report clinal patterns of variation for 21 nuclear-encoded microsatellites and a wing spot phenotype for cherry-infesting...

Data from: Spatiotemporal dynamics of the ant community in a dry forest differ by vertical strata but not by successional stage

Frederico Neves, Reuber Antoniazzi, Flávio Camarota, Fábio Pacelhe & Scott Powell
Ants are diverse and ecologically important organisms in tropical forests, where their spatiotemporal distribution can be highly complex. This complexity arises mainly from marked differences in microclimatic conditions and resource availability through space and time that is even more evident in highly seasonal environments, such as tropical dry forests. However, it is unclear how seasonality interacts with other factors that might shape temporal variation of ant composition (β-diversity), like vertical strata and habitat disturbance. Our...

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