90 Works

Data from: Experimental defaunation of terrestrial mammalian herbivores alters tropical rain forest understory diversity

Angela A. Camargo-Sanabria, Eduardo Mendoza, Roger Guevara, Miguel Martínez-Ramos & Rodolfo Dirzo
It has been suggested that tropical defaunation may unleash community-wide cascading effects, leading to reductions in plant diversity. However, experimental evidence establishing cause–effect relationships thereof is poor. Through a 5 year exclosure experiment, we tested the hypothesis that mammalian defaunation affects tree seedling/sapling community dynamics leading to reductions in understorey plant diversity. We established plot triplets (n = 25) representing three defaunation contexts: terrestrial-mammal exclosure (TE), medium/large mammal exclosure (PE) and open access controls (C)....

Data from: Influence of Pleistocene glacial/interglacial cycles on the genetic structure of the mistletoe cactus Rhipsalis baccifera (Cactaceae) in Mesoamerica

Juan Francisco Ornelas & Flor Rodríguez-Gómez
Phylogeographical work on cloud forest-adapted species provides inconsistent evidence on cloud forest dynamics during glacial cycles. A study of Rhipsalis baccifera (Cactaceae), a bird-dispersed epiphytic mistletoe cactus, was conducted to investigate genetic variation at sequence data from nuclear [internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 677 bp] and chloroplast (rpl32-trnL, 1092bp) DNA for 154 individuals across the species range in Mesoamerica to determine if such patterns are consistent with the expansion/contraction model of cloud forest during glacial cycles....

Data from: Transgenes in Mexican maize: molecular evidence and methodological considerations for GMO detection in landrace populations

Alma Piñeyro-Nelson, Joost Van Heerwaarden, Hugo R. Perales, José A. Serratos-Hernández, Alicia Rangel, Matthew B. Hufford, Paul Gepts, Adriana Garay-Arroyo, Rafael Rivera-Bustamante & Elena R. Álvarez-Buylla
A possible consequence of planting GMOs in centers of crop origin is unintended gene flow into traditional landraces. In 2001, a study reported the presence of the transgenic 35S promoter in maize landraces sampled in 2000 from the Sierra Juarez of Oaxaca, Mexico. Analysis of a large sample taken from the same region in 2003 and 2004 could not confirm the existence of transgenes, thereby casting doubt on the earlier results. These two studies were...

Data from: Evolution of the bamboos (Bambusoideae; Poaceae): a full plastome phylogenomic analysis

William P. Wysocki, Lynn G. Clark, Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez, Lakshmi Attigala & Melvin R. Duvall
Background: Bambusoideae (Poaceae) comprise three distinct and well-supported lineages: tropical woody bamboos (Bambuseae), temperate woody bamboos (Arundinarieae) and herbaceous bamboos (Olyreae). Phylogenetic studies using chloroplast markers have generally supported a sister relationship between Bambuseae and Olyreae. This suggests either at least two origins of the woody bamboo syndrome in this subfamily or its loss in Olyreae. Results: Here a full chloroplast genome (plastome) phylogenomic study is presented using the coding and noncoding regions of 13...

Data from: Primates adjust movement strategies due to changing food availability

Rafael Reyna-Hurtado, Julie A. Teichroeb, Tyler R. Bonnell, Raul Uriel Hernández-Sarabia, Sofia M. Vickers, Juan Carlos Serio-Silva, Pascale Sicotte & Colin A. Chapman
Animals are hypothesized to search their environments in predictable ways depending on the distribution of resources. Evenly distributed foods are thought to be best exploited with random Brownian movements; while foods that are patchy or unevenly distributed require non-Brownian strategies, such as Lévy walks. Thus, when food distribution changes due to seasonal variation, animals should show concomitant changes in their search strategies. We examined this issue in six monkey species from Africa and Mexico: three...

Data from: Genetic structuring and secondary contact in the white-chested Amazilia hummingbird species complex

Flor Rodríguez-Gómez & Juan F. Ornelas
Pleistocene climate cycles have been recognized to be a major driver of postglacial northward range expansion of North American bird populations. During glacial maxima, allopatric lineages that were reproductively isolated might have come into secondary contact with one another during expansion periods and the genetic signatures of past hybridization as a result of secondary contact events should produce detectable hybrid zones. The white-chested hummingbirds, Amazilia violiceps and A. viridifrons, constitute a species complex showing phenotypic...

Data from: Jaguar Movement Database: a GPS-based movement dataset of an apex predator in the Neotropics

Ronaldo G. Morato, Jeffrey J. Thompson, Agustín Paviolo, J. Antonio De La Torre, Fernando Lima, , Rogério C. Paula, , Leandro Silveira, Daniel L.Z. Kantek, Emiliano E. Ramalho, Louise Maranhão, Mario Haberfeld, Denis A. Sana, Rodrigo A. Medellin, Eduardo Carrillo, Victor Montalvo, Octavio Monroy-Vilchis, Paula Cruz, Anah Tereza Jácomo, Natalia M. Torres, Giselle B. Alves, Ivonne Cassaigne, Ron Thompson, Carolina Saenz-Bolanos … & Joares A. May
The field of movement ecology has rapidly grown during the last decade, with important advancements in tracking devices and analytical tools that have provided unprecedented insights into where, when, and why species move across a landscape. Although there has been an increasing emphasis on making animal movement data publicly available, there has also been a conspicuous dearth in the availability of such data on large carnivores. Globally, large predators are of conservation concern. However, due...

Data from: The role of livestock intensification and landscape structure in maintaining tropical biodiversity

Fredy Alvarado, Federico Escobar, David R. Williams, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez & Fernando Escobar-Hernández
1. As tropical cattle ranching continues to expand, successful conservation will require an improved understanding of the relative impacts of different livestock systems and landscape structure on biodiversity. Here, we provide the first empirical and multi-scale assessment of the relative effects of livestock intensification and landscape structure on biodiversity in the threatened tropical dry forests of Mesoamerica. 2. We used a dataset of dung beetles (169 372 individuals from 33 species) collected from twenty 1-km2...

Data from: Community composition and diversity of Neotropical root-associated fungi in common and rare trees

John W. Schroeder, Jessica T. Martin, Diego F. Angulo, Jomar M. Barbosa, Ramón Perea, Itzel Arias-Del Razo, Esther Sebastián-González & Rodolfo Dirzo
Interactions between plants and root-associated fungi can affect the assembly, diversity, and relative abundances of tropical plant species. Host-symbiont compatibility and some degree of host specificity are prerequisites for these processes to occur, and these prerequisites may vary with host abundance. However, direct assessments of whether specificity of root-associated fungi varies with host abundance are lacking. Here, in a diverse tropical forest in Los Tuxtlas, Mexico, we couple DNA metabarcoding with a sampling design that...

Data from: Ecomorphological convergence in Eleutherodactylus frogs: a case of replicate radiations in the Caribbean

Álvaro Dugo-Cota, Carles Vilà, Ariel Rodríguez & Alejandro Gonzalez-Voyer
Replicate radiations, the repeated multiplication of species associated with ecological divergence, have attracted much attention and generated as much debate. Due to the few well‐studied cases, it remains unclear whether replicate radiations are an exceptional result of evolution or a relatively common example of the power of adaptation by natural selection. We examined the case of Eleutherodactylus frogs, which radiated in the Caribbean islands resulting in more than 160 species that occupy very diverse habitats....

Data from: Host plant phylogeny and abundance predict root-associated fungal community composition and diversity of mutualists and pathogens

John W. Schroeder, Jessica T. Martin, Diego F. Angulo, Itzel Arias-Del Razo, Jomar M. Barbosa, Ramón Perea, Esther Sebastián-González & Rodolfo Dirzo
• Interactions between plants and their root-associated fungi (RAF) may influence the relative abundance of tree species and determine forest community diversity. Such plant-soil feedbacks in turn depend on the degree to which spatial distance and phylogenetic relatedness of host trees structure pathogen and mutualist communities, but research detailing these aspects of RAF communities is lacking. Here, we characterize plant-RAF associations across a diverse plant community, focusing on the degree to which RAF communities are...

Data from: The influence of spatial sampling scales on ant-plant interaction network architecture

Wesley Dáttilo, Jeferson Vizentin-Bugoni, Vanderlei J. Debastiani, Pedro Jordano & Thiago J. Izzo
1.Despite great interest in metrics to quantify the structure of ecological networks, the effects of sampling and scale remain poorly understood. In fact, one of the most challenging issues in ecology is how to define suitable scales (i.e., temporal or spatial) to accurately describe and understand ecological systems. 2.Here, we sampled a series of ant‐plant interaction networks in the southern Brazilian Amazon rainforest in order to determine whether the spatial sampling scale, from local to...

Data from: Pollinator-mediated interactions between cultivated papaya and co-flowering plant species

Raúl Badillo-Montana, Armando Aguirre & Miguel A. Munguía‐Rosas
Many modern crop varieties rely on animal pollination to set fruit and seeds. Intensive crop plantations usually do not provide suitable habitats for pollinators so crop yield may depend on the surrounding vegetation to maintain pollination services. However, little is known about the effect of pollinator-mediated interactions among co-flowering plants on crop yield or the underlying mechanisms. Plant reproductive success is complex, involving several pre- and post-pollination events; however, the current literature has mainly focused...

The influence of biogeographical and evolutionary histories on morphological trait-matching and resource specialization in mutualistic hummingbird-plant networks

Bo Dalsgaard, Pietro Maruyama, Jesper Sonne, Katrine Hansen, Thais Zanata, Stefan Abrahamczyk, Ruben Alarcon, Andréa Araujo, Francielle Araújo, Silvana Buzato, Edgar Chávez-González, Aline Coelho, Pete Cotton, Román Díaz-Valenzuela, Maria Dufke, Paula Enríquez, Manoel Martins Dias Filho, Erich Fischer, Glauco Kohler, Carlos Lara, Flor Maria Las-Casas, Liliana Rosero Lasprilla, Adriana Machado, Caio Machado, Maria Maglianesi … & Ana M. Martín González
Functional traits can determine pairwise species interactions, such as those between plants and pollinators. However, the effects of biogeography and evolutionary history on trait-matching and trait-mediated resource specialization remain poorly understood. We compiled a database of 93 mutualistic hummingbird-plant networks (including 181 hummingbird and 1,256 plant species), complemented by morphological measures of hummingbird bill and floral corolla length. We divided the hummingbirds into their principal clades and used knowledge on hummingbird biogeography to divide the...

Discovery-defense strategy as a mechanism of social foraging of ants in tropical rainforest canopies

Wesley Dáttilo, Reuber Antoniazzi, Flavio Camarota & Maurice Leponce
Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain the coexistence of ants sharing similar food resources, including ecological trade-offs, however, these hypotheses have mostly been tested in ground-dwelling ant communities. For instance, the discovery-dominance trade-off hypothesis states that species with overlapping food resources differ in their ability to find and dominate resources. However, ant species may use different strategies to share food resources, including discovery-defense, in which the first species to arrive at a food resource...

Incorporating evolutionary and threat processes into crop wild relatives conservation

Wolke Tobón-Niedfeldt, Alicia Mastretta-Yanes, Tania Urquiza-Haas, Bárbara Goettsch, Ángela P. Cuervo-Robayo, Esmeralda Urquiza-Haas, M. Andrea Orjuela-R, Francisca Acevedo-Gasman, Oswaldo Oliveros-Galindo, Caroline Burgeff, Diana M. Rivera-Rodríguez, José De Jesús Sánchez González, Jesús Alarcón-Guerrero, Araceli Aguilar-Meléndez, Flavio Aragón Cuevas, Valeria Alavez, Gabriel Alejandre-Iturbide, Carlos-H. Avendaño-Arrazate, César Azurdia Pérez, Alfonso Delgado-Salinas, Pablo Galán, Manuel González-Ledesma, Jesús Hernández-Ruíz, Francisco G. Lorea-Hernández, Rafael Lira Saade … & Patricia Koleff
Crop wild relatives (CWR) intra- and interspecific diversity is essential for crop breeding and food security. However, intraspecific genetic diversity, which is central given the idiosyncratic threats to species in landscapes, is usually not considered in planning frameworks. Here, we introduce an approach to develop proxies of genetic differentiation to identify conservation areas, applying systematic conservation planning tools that produce hierarchical prioritizations of the landscape. It accounts for: (i) evolutionary processes, including historical and environmental...

Data from: Post-glacial northward expansion and genetic differentiation between migratory and sedentary populations of the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus)

Andreia Malpica & Juan Francisco Ornelas
Unlike other migratory hummingbirds in North America, the broad-tailed hummingbird (Selasphorus platycercus) exhibits both long-distance migratory behaviour in the USA and sedentary behaviour in Mexico and Guatemala. We examined the evolution of migration linked to its northward expansion using a multi-perspective approach. We analysed variation in morphology, mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, estimated migration rates between migratory and sedentary populations, compared divergence times with the occurrence of Quaternary climate events, and constructed species distribution models to...

Data from: Functional extinction of birds drives rapid evolutionary changes in seed size.

Mauro Galetti, Roger Guevara, Marina C. Côrtes, Fadini Rodrigo, Sandro Von Matter, Abraão B. Leite, Fábio Labecca, Thiago Ribeiro, Carolina S. Carvalho, Rosane G. Collevatti, Mathias M. Pires, , Pedro H. Brancalion, Milton C. Ribeiro & Pedro Jordano
Local extinctions have cascading effects on ecosystem functions, yet little is known about the potential for the rapid evolutionary change of species in human-modified scenarios. We show that the functional extinction of large-gape seed dispersers in the Brazilian Atlantic forest is associated with the consistent reduction of seed size of a keystone palm species. Among 22 palm populations, areas deprived of large avian frugivores for several decades present smaller seeds than non-defaunated forests, with negative...

Data from: At the passing gate: past introgression in the process of species formation between Amazilia violiceps and A. viridifrons hummingbirds along the Mexican Transition Zone

Flor Rodríguez-Gómez & Juan Francisco Ornelas
Aim: We tested whether populations of violet-crowned and green-fronted hummingbirds, Amazilia violiceps and Amazilia viridifrons, are genetically and environmentally differentiated, and examined the role of past geological and climatic changes in driving their diversification. Location: Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Methods: Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA of individuals collected throughout the species' ranges were sequenced and then analysed using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Species tree analysis, Bayesian species delimitation, divergence time inference, historical demography, palaeodistribution modelling, and niche...

Data from: The modulating role of group stability on fitness effects of group size is different in females and males of a communally rearing rodent

Luis A. Ebensperger, Loreto A. Correa, Cecilia León, Juan Ramírez-Estrada, Sebastian Abades, Alvaro Villegas & Loren D. Hayes
Group size may influence fitness benefits and costs that emerge from cooperative and competitive interactions in social species. However, evidence from plural breeding mammals indicates that group size is insufficient to explain variation in direct fitness, implying other attributes of social groups were overlooked. We studied the natural population of a social rodent during 5 years to test the hypothesis that social stability – in terms of group composition – modulates the effects of increasing...

Data from: Dynamics of non-structural carbohydrates in terrestrial plants: a global synthesis

Jordi Martinez-Vilalta, Anna Sala, Dolores Asensio, Lucia Galiano, Guenter Hoch, Sara Palacio, Frida I. Piper & Francisco Lloret
Plants store large amounts of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC). While multiple functions of NSC have long been recognized, the interpretation of NSC seasonal dynamics is often based on the idea that stored NSC is a reservoir of carbon that fluctuates depending on the balance between supply via photosynthesis and demand for growth and respiration (the source-sink dynamics concept). Consequently, relatively high NSC concentrations in some plants have been interpreted to reflect excess supply relative to demand....

Data from: Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations

Tomas Roslin, Bess Hardwick, Vojtech Novotny, William K. Petry, Nigel R. Andrew, Ashley Asmus, Isabel C. Barrio, Yves Basset, Andrea Larissa Boesing, Timothy C. Bonebrake, Erin K. Cameron, Wesley Dáttilo, David A. Donoso, Pavel Drozd, Claudia L. Gray, David S. Hik, Sarah J. Hill, Tapani Hopkins, Shuyin Huang, Bonny Koane, Benita Laird-Hopkins, Liisa Laukkanen, Owen T. Lewis, Sol Milne, Isaiah Mwesige … & Eleanor M. Slade
Biotic interactions underlie ecosystem structure and function, but predicting interaction outcomes is difficult. We tested the hypothesis that biotic interaction strength increases toward the equator, using a global experiment with model caterpillars to measure predation risk. Across an 11,660-kilometer latitudinal gradient spanning six continents, we found increasing predation toward the equator, with a parallel pattern of increasing predation toward lower elevations. Patterns across both latitude and elevation were driven by arthropod predators, with no systematic...

Data from: Development of a genotype-by-sequencing immunogenetic assay as exemplified by screening for variation in red fox with and without endemic rabies exposure

Michael E. Donaldson, Yessica Rico, Karsten Hueffer, Halie M. Rando, Anna V. Kukekova & Christopher J. Kyle
Pathogens are recognized as major drivers of local adaptation in wildlife systems. By determining which gene variants are favored in local interactions among populations with and without disease, spatially explicit adaptive responses to pathogens can be elucidated. Much of our current understanding of host responses to disease comes from a small number of genes associated with an immune response. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies, such as genotype-by-sequencing (GBS), facilitate expanded explorations of genomic variation among populations....

Data from: Phylogeography and population differentiation in the Psittacanthus calyculatus (Loranthaceae) mistletoe: a complex scenario of climate-volcanism interaction along the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

María José Pérez-Crespo, Juan Francisco Ornelas, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez, Antonio Acini Vásquez-Aguilar & Santiago Ramírez-Barahona
Aim The formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) played an important role in driving inter- and intraspecific diversification at high elevations. However, Pleistocene climate changes and ecological factors might also contribute to plant genetic structuring along the volcanic belt. Here, we analysed phylogeographic patterns of the parrot-mistletoe Psittacanthus calyculatus to determine the relative contribution of these different factors. Location Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt Methods Using nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequence data for 370 individuals, we...

Data from: Coordinated species importation policies are needed to reduce serious invasions globally: the case of alien bumblebees in South America

Marcelo A. Aizen, Cecilia Smith-Ramirez, Carolina L. Morales, Lorena Vieli, Agustín Sáez, Rodrigo M. Barahona-Segovia, Marina P. Arbetman, José Montalva, Lucas A. Garibaldi, David W. Inouye & Lawrence D. Harder
The global trade of species promotes diverse human activities but also facilitates the introduction of potentially invasive species into new environments. As species ignore national boundaries, unilateral national decisions concerning species trade set the stage for transnational species invasion with significant conservation, economic and political consequences. The need for a coordinated approach to species importation policies is demonstrated by the introduction of two bumblebee species into Chile for crop pollination, despite Argentina banning commercial importation...

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