119 Works

Data from: Multi-level patterns in population genetics: variogram series detects a hidden isolation-by- distance- dominated structure of Scandinavian brown bears Ursus arctos

Julia Schregel, Jaanus Remm, Hans Geir Eiken, Jon E. Swenson, Urmas Saarma & Snorre B. Hagen
1. Large-scale pattern-oriented approaches are useful to understand the multi-level processes that shape the genetic structure of a population. Matching the scales of patterns and putative processes is both a key to success and a challenge. 2. We have developed a simple statistical approach, based on variogram analysis, that identifies multiple spatial scales where the population pattern, in this case genetic structure, have highest expression (i.e. the spatial scales at which the strength of patterning...

Data from: A comparative morphometric study of sensory capacity in geometrid moths

Juhan Javoiš, Robert B. Davis & Toomas Tammaru
Diet breadth and the degree of capital breeding have been established as major determinants of species-specific ecology of herbivorous insects. The relationship of these variables with sensory capacity, although allowing an array of hypotheses, has remained poorly studied, let alone in phylogenetically explicit multi-species comparisons. We contribute to filling this gap in a study of 60 species of geometrid moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), using adult head measures (eye size, antennal length and shape, forehead width) as...

Data from: Temporal variation of Bistorta vivipara-associated ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in the High Arctic

Sunil Mundra, Mohammad Bahram, Leho Tedersoo, Håvard Kauserud, Rune Halvorsen, Pernille Eidesen & Pernille Bronken Eidesen
Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are important for efficient nutrient uptake of several widespread arctic plant species. Knowledge of temporal variation of ECM fungi, and the relationship of these patterns to environmental variables, is essential to understand energy and nutrient cycling in Arctic ecosystems. We sampled roots of Bistorta vivipara ten times over two years; three times during the growing-season (June, July and September) and twice during winter (November and April) of both years. We found 668...

Data from: Generation of a neutral FST baseline for testing local adaptation on gill-raker number within and between European whitefish ecotypes in the Baltic Sea basin

Mikhail Yu Ozerov, Mikael Himberg, Tutku Aykanat, Dmitry S. Sendek, Henry Hägerstrand, Aare Verliin, Teet Krause, Jens Olsson, Craig R. Primmer & Anti Vasemägi
Divergent selection at ecologically important traits is thought to be a major factor driving phenotypic differentiation between populations. To elucidate the role of different evolutionary processes shaping the variation in gill-raker number of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus sensu lato) in the Baltic Sea basin, we assessed the relationships between genetic and phenotypic variation among and within three whitefish ecotypes (sea-, river and lake-spawners). To generate expected neutral distribution of FST and to evaluate whether highly...

Data from: The bacterial community structure and functional profile in the heavy metal contaminated paddy soils,surrounding a nonferrous smelter in South Korea

Sherlyn C. Tipayno, Jaak Truu, Sandipan Samaddar, Marika Truu, Jens-Konrad Preem, Kristjan Oopkaup, Mikk Espenberg, Poulami Chatterjee, Yeongyeong Kang, Kiyoon Kim & Tongmin Sa
The pollution of agricultural soils by the heavy metals affects the productivity of the land and has an impact on the quality of the surrounding ecosystems. The present study investigated the bacterial community structure in the heavy metal contaminated sites along a smelter and a distantly located paddy field to elucidate the factors that are related to the alterations of the bacterial communities under the conditions of heavy metal pollution. Among the study sites, the...

Data from: Higher predation risk for insect prey at low latitudes and elevations

Tomas Roslin, Bess Hardwick, Vojtech Novotny, William K. Petry, Nigel R. Andrew, Ashley Asmus, Isabel C. Barrio, Yves Basset, Andrea Larissa Boesing, Timothy C. Bonebrake, Erin K. Cameron, Wesley Dáttilo, David A. Donoso, Pavel Drozd, Claudia L. Gray, David S. Hik, Sarah J. Hill, Tapani Hopkins, Shuyin Huang, Bonny Koane, Benita Laird-Hopkins, Liisa Laukkanen, Owen T. Lewis, Sol Milne, Isaiah Mwesige … & Eleanor M. Slade
Biotic interactions underlie ecosystem structure and function, but predicting interaction outcomes is difficult. We tested the hypothesis that biotic interaction strength increases toward the equator, using a global experiment with model caterpillars to measure predation risk. Across an 11,660-kilometer latitudinal gradient spanning six continents, we found increasing predation toward the equator, with a parallel pattern of increasing predation toward lower elevations. Patterns across both latitude and elevation were driven by arthropod predators, with no systematic...

Data from: Co-introduction of native mycorrhizal fungi and plant seeds accelerates restoration of post-mining landscapes

Tanel Vahter, C. Bueno, John Davison, Koit Herodes, Inga Hiiesalu, Liis Kasari-Toussaint, Jane Oja, Pal Olsson, Siim Sepp, Martin Zobel, Martti Vasar & Maarja Öpik
1. Grasslands are among the most threatened terrestrial biomes, and habitat conservation alone will be insufficient to meet biodiversity goals. While restoration of indigenous grasslands is a priority, conflict with economic objectives means that incorporation of alternative habitats is necessary to offset grassland loss. With up to 800,000 km² of land affected by mining globally, there is an opportunity to create additional grassland habitat in post-mining landscapes. 2. We aimed to assess whether co-introduction of...

Data from: Impacts of dead-wood manipulation on the biodiversity of temperate and boreal forests - A systematic review

Jennie Sandström, Claes Bernes, Kaisa Junninen, Asko Lohmus, Ellen Macdonald, Jörg Müller & Bengt Gunnar Jonsson
Dead wood (DW) provides critical habitat for thousands of species in forests, but its amount, quality and diversity have been heavily reduced by forestry. Therefore, interventions aiming to increase DW might be necessary to support its associated biodiversity, even in protected forests, which may be former production forests. Our aim was to synthesise the current state of knowledge drawn from replicated experimental studies into solid quantitative evidence of the effects of DW manipulation on forest...

Phototactic choices of Drosophila melanogaster

Indrikis Krams, Tatjana Krama, Ronalds Krams, Giedrius Trakimas, Sergejs Popovs, Priit Jõers, Maris Munkevics, Didzis Elferts, Markus Rantala, Janis Makna & Benjamin De Bivort
When organisms' environmental conditions vary unpredictably in time, it can be advantageous for individuals to hedge their phenotypic bets. It has been shown that a bet-hedging strategy underlies the high inter-individual diversity of phototactic choice in Drosophila melanogaster. This study shows that fruit flies from a population living in a boreal and relatively unpredictable climate had more variable phototactic choices than fruit flies from a more stable tropical climate, consistent with bet-hedging theory. We experimentally...

Data from: Wintering bird communities are tracking climate change faster than breeding communities

Aleksi Lehikoinen, Åke Lindström, Andrea Santangeli, Päivi Sirkiä, Lluis Brotons, Vincent Devictor, Jaanus Elts, Ruud P. B. Fobben, Henning Heldbjerg, Sergi Herrando, Marc Herremans, Marie-Anne R. Hudson, Frederic Jiguet, Alison Johnston, Romain Lorrilliere, Emma-Liina Marjakangas, Nicole L. Michel, Charlotte M. Moshøj, Renno Nellis, Jean-Yves Paquet, Adam C. Smith, Tibor Szep & Chris Van Turnhout
1. Global climate change is driving species’ distributions towards the poles and mountain tops during both non-breeding and breeding seasons, leading to changes in the composition of natural communities. However, the degree of season differences in climate-driven community shifts has not been thoroughly investigated at large spatial scales. 2. We compared the rates of change in the community composition during both winter (non-breeding season) and summer (breeding) and their relation to temperature changes. 3. Based...

Data from: Timing of spring departure of long distance migrants correlates with previous year's conditions at their breeding site

Françoise Amélineau, Nicolas Delbart, Philipp Schwemmer, Riho Marja, Jérôme Fort, Stefan Garthe, Jaanus Elts, Philippe Delaporte, Pierre Rousseau, Françoise Duraffour & Pierrick Bocher
Precise timing of the migration is crucial for animals targeting seasonal resources at locations encountered across their annual cycle. Upon departure, long distance migrants need to anticipate unknown environmental conditions at their arrival site, and they do zkzdsxso with their internal annual clock. Here, we tested the hypothesis that long distance migrants synchronize their circannual clock according to the phenology of their environment during the breeding season, and therefore adjust their spring departure date according...

Supplement to: Global impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on stroke care and intravenous thrombolysis

Raul Nogueira, Muhammed Qureshi, Mohamad Abdalkader, Sheila Martins, Hiroshi Yamagami, Zhongming Qiu, Ossama Mansour, Anvitha Sathya, Anna Czlonkowska, Georgios Tsivgoulis, Diana Aguiar De Sousa, Jelle Demeestere, Robert Mikulik, Peter Vanacker, James Siegler, Janika Korv, Jose Biller, Conrad Liang, Navdeep Sangha, Alicia Zha, Alexandra Czap, Christine Holmstedt, Tanya Turan, George Ntaios, Konark Malhotra … & Thanh Nguyen
Objective: The objectives of this study were to measure the global impact of the pandemic on the volumes for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with two control 4-month periods. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes and/or classifications in...

Small RNA expression and miRNA modification dynamics in human oocytes and early embryos

Pauliina Paloviita, Christel Hydén-Granskog, Juha S. Tapanainen, Timo Tuuri & Sanna Vuoristo
Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles during the oocyte-to-embryo transition (OET), when the maternal phenotype is reprogrammed, and the embryo genome is gradually activated. The transcriptional program driving early human development has been studied with the focus mainly on protein-coding RNAs, and expression dynamics of sRNAs remains largely unexplored. We profiled sRNAs in human oocytes and early embryos using an RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) method suitable for low inputs of material. We show that OET in...

Data from: Plant traits determine the phylogenetic structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities

Álvaro López-García, Sara Varela-Cervero, Martti Vasar, Maarja Öpik, Jose Miguel Barea & Concepción Azcón-Aguilar
Functional diversity in ecosystems has traditionally been studied using aboveground plant traits. Despite the known effect of plant traits on the microbial community composition, their effects on the microbial functional diversity are only starting to be assessed. In this study, the phylogenetic structure of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities associated to plant species differing in life cycle and growth form, i.e. plant life forms, was determined to unravel the effect of plant traits on the...

Data from: Mitochondrial phylogeny of the Chrysis ignita (Hymenoptera: Chrysididae) species group based on simultaneous Bayesian alignment and phylogeny reconstruction

Villu Soon & Urmas Saarma
The ignita species group within the genus Chrysis includes over 100 cuckoo wasp species, which all lead a parasitic lifestyle and exhibit very similar morphology. The lack of robust, diagnostic morphological characters has hindered phylogenetic reconstructions and contributed to frequent misidentification and inconsistent interpretations of species in this group. Therefore, molecular phylogenetic analysis is the most suitable approach for resolving the phylogeny and taxonomy of this group. We present a well-resolved phylogeny of the Chrysisignita...

Data from: The structural and functional connectivity of the grassland plant Lychnis flos-cuculi

Tsipe Aavik, Rolf Holderegger & Janine Bolliger
Understanding the relationship between structural and functional connectivity is essential for successful restoration and conservation management, particularly in intensely managed agricultural landscapes. We evaluated the relationship between structural and functional connectivity of the wetland plant Lychnis flos-cuculi in a fragmented agricultural landscape using landscape genetic and network approaches. First, we studied the effect of structural connectivity, such as geographic distance and various landscape elements (forest, agricultural land, settlements and ditch verges), on gene flow among...

Data from: Functional traits of marine macrophytes predict primary production

Holger Jänes, Jonne Kotta, Merli Pärnoja, Tasman P. Crowe, Fabio Rindi & Helen Orav-Kotta
The relationship between community structure and the functioning of ecosystems is the subject of ongoing debate. Biological or functional trait-based approaches that capture life strategy, morphology and behavioural characteristics have received far less attention than taxonomic diversity in this context, despite their more intuitive link to ecosystem functioning. Macrophyte primary production underpins aquatic food webs, regulates benthic and pelagic ecosystems and is a key aspect of the global carbon cycle. This study spans a range...

Data from: Relatedness with plant species in native community influences ecological consequences of range expansions

Kadri Koorem, Olga Kostenko, L. Basten Snoek, Carolin Weser, Kelly S. Ramirez, Rutger A. Wilschut & Wim H. Van Der Putten
Global warming is enabling many plant species to expand their range to higher latitudes and altitudes, where they may suffer less from natural aboveground and belowground enemies. Reduced control by natural enemies can enable climate warming-induced range expanders to get an advantage in competition with natives and become disproportionally abundant in their new range. However, so far studies have examined individual growth of range expanders, which have common congeneric plant species in their new range....

Data from: Spatial genetic analyses reveal cryptic population structure and migration patterns in a continuously harvested grey wolf (Canis lupus) population in north-eastern Europe

Maris Hindrikson, Jaanus Remm, Peep Männil, Egle Tammeleht, Janis Ozolins & Urmas Saarma
Spatial genetics is a relatively new field in wildlife and conservation biology that is becoming an essential tool for unravelling the complexities of animal population processes, and for designing effective strategies for conservation and management. Conceptual and methodological developments in this field are therefore critical. Here we present two novel methodological approaches that further the analytical possibilities of STRUCTURE and DResD. Using these approaches we analyse structure and migrations in a grey wolf (Canis lupus)...

Data from: Parasite infection and decreased thermal tolerance: impact of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) on a wild salmonid fish in the context of climate change

Matthieu Bruneaux, Marko Visse, Riho Gross, Lilian Pukk, Lauri Saks & Anti Vasemägi
Parasites and pathogens can have an important effect on their host's thermal resistance. The impact of parasite infection on host physiological performances has traditionally been studied in controlled laboratory conditions, and much less is known about its actual effects in wild populations. Nonetheless, such knowledge is critical when assessing the effect of climate change on the future survival of the host. Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is a myxozoan endoparasite causing proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in salmonids. Infection...

Data from: A synthesis of empirical plant dispersal kernels

James M. Bullock, Laura Mallada González, Riin Tamme, Lars Götzenberger, Steven M. White, Meelis Pärtel & Danny A. P. Hooftman
Dispersal is fundamental to ecological processes at all scales and levels of organization, but progress is limited by a lack of information about the general shape and form of plant dispersal kernels. We addressed this gap by synthesizing empirical data describing seed dispersal and fitting general dispersal kernels representing major plant types and dispersal modes. A comprehensive literature search resulted in 107 papers describing 168 dispersal kernels for 144 vascular plant species. The data covered...

Worldwide evidence of a unimodal relationship between productivity and plant species richness

Lauchlan H. Fraser, Jason Pither, Anke Jentsch, Marcelo Sternberg, Martin Zobel, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Jonathan A. Bennett, Alex Bittel, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Ilsi I. Boldrini, Edward Bork, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, James Cahill, Cameron N. Carlyle, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Anna-Maria Csergo, Sandra Diaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Alessandra Fidelis … & Szilárd Szentes
The search for predictions of species diversity across environmental gradients has challenged ecologists for decades. The humped-back model (HBM) suggests that plant diversity peaks at intermediate productivity; at low productivity few species can tolerate the environmental stresses, and at high productivity a few highly competitive species dominate. Over time the HBM has become increasingly controversial, and recent studies claim to have refuted it. Here, by using data from coordinated surveys conducted throughout grasslands worldwide and...

Data from: Contagious fear: escape behaviour increases with flock size in European gregarious birds

Federico Morelli, Yanina Benedetti, Mario Diaz, Tomas Grim, Juan Ibáñez-Álamo, Jukka Jokimäki, Marja-Liisa Kaisanlahti-Jokimäki, Kunter Tätte, Gábor Markó, Yiting Jiang, Piotr Tryjanowski & Anders P. Møller
Flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which individuals take flight when approached by a potential (human) predator, is a tool for understanding predator-prey interactions. Among the factors affecting FID, tests of effects of group size (i.e. number of potential prey) on FID have yielded contrasting results. Group size or flock size could either affect FID negatively (i.e. the dilution effect caused by the presence of many individuals) or positively (i.e. increased vigilance due to...

Data from: Soil biota and chemical interactions promote co-existence in co-evolved grassland communities

Marina Semchenko, Siim Nettan, Anette Sepp, Qiaoying Zhang, Maria Abakumova, John Davison, Rein Kalamees, Anu Lepik, Kersti Püssa, Sirgi Saar, Merilin Saarma, Marge Thetloff & Kristjan Zobel
1. Plant populations can exhibit local adaptation to their abiotic environment, such as climate and soil properties, as well as biotic components such as the chemical signatures of dominant plant species and mutualistic and pathogenic microbial populations. While patterns of local adaptation in individual species are widely recorded, the importance of microevolutionary processes for plant community assembly and function is poorly understood. 2. Here we examined how a history of long-term co-existence, and thus potential...

Data from: Crosstalk between growth and somatic maintenance in young animals

Jaanis Lodjak & Marko Magi
Growing animals face allocation problems whenever receiving suboptimal amounts of resources in very stochastic natural environments, possibly through a trade-off between growth and somatic maintenance. However, the extent to which such a trade-off exists has remained an open question. We used an insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) injection treatment in free-living pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings to see how IGF-1 levels mediate the development of an antioxidant phenotype via glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Our study showed...

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