120 Works

Data from: Crosstalk between growth and somatic maintenance in young animals

Jaanis Lodjak & Marko Magi
Growing animals face allocation problems whenever receiving suboptimal amounts of resources in very stochastic natural environments, possibly through a trade-off between growth and somatic maintenance. However, the extent to which such a trade-off exists has remained an open question. We used an insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) injection treatment in free-living pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings to see how IGF-1 levels mediate the development of an antioxidant phenotype via glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Our study showed...

Data from: Review of the sawfly genus Empria (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae) in Japan

Marko Prous, Mikk Heidemaa, Akihiko Shinohara & Villu Soon
The following eleven Empria species are reported from Japan: E. candidata (Fallén, 1808), E. japonica Heidemaa & Prous, 2011, E. liturata (Gmelin, 1790), E. loktini Ermolenko, 1971, E. plana (Jakowlew, 1891), E. quadrimaculata Takeuchi, 1952, E. rubicola Ermolenko, 1971, E. tridens (Konow, 1896), E. tridentis Lee & Ryu, 1996, E. honshuana Prous & Heidemaa, sp. n., and E. takeuchii Prous & Heidemaa sp. n. The lectotypes of Poecilosoma pallipes Matsumura, 1912, Empria itelmena Malaise, 1931,...

Data from: Male mealworm beetles increase resting metabolic rate under terminal investment

Indrikis A. Krams, Tatjana Krama, Fhionna R. Moore, Inese Kivleniece, Aare Kuusik, Todd M. Freeberg, Raivo Mänd, M. J. Rantala, Janina Daukšte & Marika Mänd
Harmful parasite infestation can cause energetically costly behavioural and immunological responses, with the potential to reduce host fitness and survival. It has been hypothesized that the energetic costs of infection cause resting metabolic rate (RMR) to increase. Furthermore, under terminal investment theory, individuals exposed to pathogens should allocate resources to current reproduction when life expectancy is reduced, instead of concentrating resources on an immune defence. In this study, we activated the immune system of Tenebrio...

Data from: Age-specific patterns of maternal investment in common gull egg yolk

Janek Urvik, Kalev Rattiste, Mathieu Giraudeau, Monika Okuliarova, Peeter Horak & Tuul Sepp
While the general patterns of age-specific changes in reproductive success are quite well established in long-lived animals, we still do not know if allocation patterns of maternally-transmitted compounds are related to maternal age. We measured yolk testosterone, carotenoids and vitamins A and E levels in a population of known-aged common gulls (Larus canus) and found an age-specific pattern in yolk lutein and vitamin A concentrations. Middle-aged mothers allocated more of these substances to yolk compared...

Data from: Carotenoid coloration is related to fat digestion efficiency in a wild bird

Christina Madonia, Pierce Hutton, Mathieu Giraudeau & Tuul Sepp
Some of the most spectacular visual signals found in the animal kingdom are based on dietarily derived carotenoid pigments (which cannot be produced de novo), with a general assumption that carotenoids are limited resources for wild organisms, causing trade-offs in allocation of carotenoids to different physiological functions and ornamentation. This resource trade-off view has been recently questioned, since the efficiency of carotenoid processing may relax the trade-off between allocation toward condition or ornamentation. This hypothesis...

Data from: Candidate genes for colour and vision exhibit signals of selection across the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) breeding range

Paula K. Lehtonen, Toni Laaksonen, Aleksandr V. Artemyev, Eugen Belskii, Paul R. Berg, Christiaan Both, Laura Buggiotti, Stanislav Bureš, Malcolm D. Burgess, Andrey V. Bushuev, Indrikis Krams, Juan Moreno, Marko Mägi, Andreas Nord, Jaime Potti, Pierre-Alain Ravussin, Glenn Peter Sætre, Paivi Sirkiä, Wolfgang Winkel & Craig R. Primmer
The role of natural selection in shaping adaptive trait differentiation in natural populations has long been recognized. Determining its molecular basis, however, remains a challenge. Here, we search for signals of selection in candidate genes for colour and its perception in a passerine bird. Pied flycatcher plumage varies geographically in both its structural and pigment-based properties. Both characteristics appear to be shaped by selection. A single-locus outlier test revealed two of fourteen loci to exhibit...

Data from: Homogenous population genetic structure of the non-native raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in Europe as a result of rapid population expansion

Frank Drygala, Николай Кораблев, Hermann Ansorge, Joerns Fickel, Marja Isomursu, Morten Elmeros, Rafal Kowalczyk, Laima Baltrunaite, Linas Balciauskas, Urmas Saarma, Christoph Schulze, Peter Borkenhagen, Alain C. Frantz & Rafał Kowalczyk
The extent of gene flow during the range expansion of non-native species influences the amount of genetic diversity retained in expanding populations. Here, we analyse the population genetic structure of the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) in north-eastern and central Europe. This invasive species is of management concern because it is highly susceptible to fox rabies and an important secondary host of the virus. We hypothesized that the large number of introduced animals and the species’...

Exposure to artificial light at night alters innate immune response in wild great tit nestlings

Ann-Kathrin Ziegler, Watson Hannah, Hegemann Arne, Meitern Richard, Canoine Virginie, Nilsson Jan-Åke & Isaksson Caroline
The large-scale impact of urbanization on wildlife is rather well documented; however, the mechanisms underlying the effects of urban environments on animal physiology and behaviour are still poorly understood. Here, we focused on one major urban pollutant - artificial light at night (ALAN) - and its effects on the capacity to mount an innate immune response in wild great tit (Parus major) nestlings. Exposure to ALAN alters circadian rhythms of physiological processes, by disrupting the...

Spatial mapping of root systems reveals diverse strategies of soil exploration and resource contest in grassland plants

Marina Semchenko, Anu Lepik, Maria Abakumova, John Davison & Kristjan Zobel
1. When foraging and competing for belowground resources, plants have to coordinate the behaviour of thousands of root tips in a manner similar to that of eusocial animal colonies. While well described in animals, we know little about the spatial behaviour of plants, particularly at the level of individual roots. 2. Here, we employed statistical methods previously used to describe animal ranging behaviour to examine root system overlap and the efficiency of root positioning in...

Paternal effects in a wild-type zebrafish implicate a role of sperm-derived small RNAs

James Ord, Paul Heath, Alireza Fazeli & Penelope Watt
While the importance of maternal effects has long been appreciated, a growing body of evidence now points to the paternal environment having an important influence on offspring phenotype. Indeed, research on rodent models suggests that paternal stress leaves an imprint on the behaviour and physiology of offspring via non-genetic information carried in the spermatozoa, however fish have been understudied with regard to these sperm-mediated effects. Here we investigated whether the zebrafish was subject to heritable...

Modern pollen–plant diversity relationships inform palaeoecological reconstructions of functional and phylogenetic diversity in calcareous fens

Ansis Blaus, Triin Reitalu, Jhonny Capichoni Massante, Inga Hiiesalu, Pille Gerhold & Siim Veski
Predicting the trajectory of ongoing diversity loss requires knowledge of historical development of community assemblages. Long-term data from paleoecological investigations combined with key biodiversity measures in ecology such as taxonomic richness, functional diversity (FD), phylogenetic diversity (PD) and environmental factors expressed as Ellenberg indicator values (EIVs) could provide that knowledge. We explored the modern pollen–plant (moss polster pollen vs. surrounding vegetation) diversity relationships for herbaceous and woody taxa in calcareous fens from two different regions...

Stability of rocky intertidal communities in response to species removal varies across spatial scales

Nelson Valdivia, Daniela Lopez, Eliseo Fica, Alexis Catalán, Moisés Aguilera, Marjorie Araya, Claudia Betancourtt, Katherine Burgos-Andrade, Thais Carvajal-Baldeon, Valentina Escares, Simon Gartenstein, Mariana Grossmann, Bárbara Gutiérrez, Jonne Kotta, Diego Morales-Torres, Bárbara Riedemann-Saldivia, Sara Rodríguez, Catalina Velasco-Charpentier, Vicente Villalobos & Bernardo Broitman
Improving our understanding of stability across spatial scales is crucial in the current scenario of biodiversity loss. Still, most empirical studies of stability target small scales. Here we experimentally removed the local space-dominant species (macroalgae, barnacles, or mussels) at eight sites spanning more than 1000 km of coastline in north- and south-central Chile, and quantified the relationship between area (the number of aggregated sites) and stability in aggregate community variables (total cover) and taxonomic composition....

Data from: Niche differentiation and expansion of plant species are associated with mycorrhizal symbiosis

Maret Gerz, C. Guillermo Bueno, Wim A. Ozinga, Martin Zobel & Mari Moora
Mycorrhizal symbiosis is a widespread association between plant roots and mycorrhizal fungi, which is thought to contribute to plant niche differentiation and expansion. However, this has so far not been explicitly tested. To address the effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis on plants’ realized niches, we addressed how mycorrhizal status (i.e. the frequency of occurrence of mycorrhizal symbiosis), flexibility (i.e. the ability to grow both with and without mycorrhizal symbiosis) and type of a plant species affect...

Data from: Low but contrasting neutral genetic differentiation shaped by winter temperature in European great tits

Mélissa Lemoine, Kay Lucek, Charles Perrier, Verena Saladin, Frank Adriaensen, Emilio Barba, Eduardo J. Belda, Anne Charmantier, Mariusz Cichon, Eeva Tapio, Arnaud Gregoire, Camilla A. Hinde, Arild Johnsen, Jan Komdeur, Raivo Mand, Erik Matthysen, Ana Claudia Norte, Natalia Pitala, Ben C. Sheldon, Tore Slagsvold, Joost M. Tinbergen, Janos Torok, Richard Ubels, Kees Van Oers, Marcel E. Visser … & Tapio Eeva
Gene flow is usually thought to reduce genetic divergence and impede local adaptation by homogenising gene pools between populations. However, evidence for local adaptation and phenotypic differentiation in highly mobile species, experiencing high levels of gene flow, is emerging. Assessing population genetic structure at different spatial scales is thus a crucial step towards understanding mechanisms underlying intraspecific differentiation and diversification. Here, we studied the population genetic structure of a highly mobile species – the great...

Data from: Partial genomic survival of cave bears in living brown bears

Axel Barlow, James A. Cahill, Stefanie Hartmann, Christoph Theunert, Georgios Xenikoudakis, Gloria G. Fortes, Johanna L. A. Paijmans, Gernot Rabeder, Christine Frischauf, Aurora Grandal-D'Anglade, Ana García-Vázquez, Marine Murtskhvaladze, Urmas Saarma, Peeter Anijalg, Tomaž Skrbinšek, Giorgio Bertorelle, Boris Gasparian, Guy Bar-Oz, Ron Pinhasi, Montgomery Slatkin, Love Dalén, Beth Shapiro & Michael Hofreiter
Although many large mammal species went extinct at the end of the Pleistocene epoch, their DNA may persist due to past episodes of interspecies admixture. However, direct empirical evidence of the persistence of ancient alleles remains scarce. Here, we present multifold coverage genomic data from four Late Pleistocene cave bears (Ursus spelaeus complex) and show that cave bears hybridized with brown bears (Ursus arctos) during the Pleistocene. We develop an approach to assess both the...

Data from: Body shape diversity in Triassic‒Early Cretaceous neopterygian fishes: sustained holostean disparity and predominantly gradual increases in teleost phenotypic variety

John T. Clarke & Matt Friedman
Comprising Holostei and Teleostei, the ~32,000 species of neopterygian fishes are anatomically disparate and represent the dominant group of aquatic vertebrates today. However, the pattern by which teleosts rose to represent almost all of this diversity, while their holostean sister group dwindled to 8 extant species and two broad morphologies, is poorly constrained. A geometric morphometric approach was taken to generate a morphospace from over 400 fossil taxa, representing almost all articulated neopterygian taxa known...

Data from: Less is more: extreme genome complexity reduction with ddRAD using Ion Torrent semiconductor technology

Lilian Pukk, Freed Ahmad, Shihab Hasan, Veljo Kisand, Riho Gross & Anti Vasemägi
Massively parallel sequencing a small proportion of the whole genome at high coverage enables answering a wide range of questions from molecular evolution and evolutionary biology to animal and plant breeding and forensics. In this study, we describe the development of restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) sequencing approach for Ion Torrent PGM platform. Our protocol results in extreme genome complexity reduction using two rare-cutting restriction enzymes and strict size selection of the library allowing sequencing of...

Data from: North-Western Palaearctic species of the Pristiphora ruficornis group (Hymenoptera, Tenthredinidae)

Marko Prous, Veli Vikberg, Andrew David Liston & Katja Kramp
The Pristiphora ruficornis group, defined here based on the structure of the penis valve and the genetic data, includes morphologically and genetically highly similar species that remain taxonomically challenging. Study of most of the relevant type material, examination of female saws and male genitalia, some rearing experiments, and genetic data enabled us to solve most of the taxonomic problems involving northern European taxa. As a result, 17 species are recognised in northern Europe. The following...

Data from: Re-visiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations

Alain C. Frantz, Allan D. McDevitt, Lisa C. Pope, Joanna Kochan, John Davison, Chris F. Clements, Morten Elmeros, Guillem Molina-Vacas, Aritz Ruiz-Gonzalez, Alessandro Balestrieri, Koen Van Den Berge, Peter Breyne, Emmanuel Do Linh San, Erik O. Ågren, Franz Suchentrunk, Laurent Schley, Rafał Kowalczyk, Berit I. Kostka, Dusko Ćirović, Nikica Šprem, Marc Colyn, Marco Ghirardi, Venislava Racheva, Christophe Braun, Rita Oliveira … & Terry Burke
Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples...

Data from: Larval melanism in a geometrid moth: promoted neither by a thermal nor seasonal adaptation but desiccating environments

Panu Välimäki, Sami M. Kivelä, Jani Raitanen, Veli-Matti Pakanen, Emma Vatka, Maarit I. Mäenpää, Netta Keret & Toomas Tammaru
1. Spatio-temporal variation in the degree of melanism is often considered in the context of thermal adaptation, melanism being advantageous under suboptimal thermal conditions. Yet, other mutually non-exclusive explanations exist. Analysis of geographical patterns combined with laboratory experiments on the mechanisms of morph induction helps to unveil the adaptive value of particular cases of polyphenism. 2. In the context of the thermal melanism hypothesis and seasonal adaptations, we explored an array of environmental factors that...

Data from: Extensive gene flow over Europe and possible speciation over Eurasia in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria amethystina complex.

Lucie Vincenot, Kazuhide Nara, Christopher Sthultz, Jessy Labbé, Marie-Pierre Dubois, Leho Tedersoo, Francis Martin & Marc-André Selosse
Biogeographic patterns and large-scale genetic structure have been little studied in ectomycorrhizal fungi, despite the ecological and economic importance of ectomycorrhizal symbioses. We coupled population genetics and phylogenetic approaches to understand spatial structure in fungal populations on a continental scale. Using 9 microsatellite markers, we characterised gene flow among 16 populations of the widespread ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Laccaria amethystina over Europe (over 2900km). We also widened our scope to two additional populations from Japan (104 km...

Data from: Degree of specialization is related to body size in herbivorous insects: a phylogenetic confirmation

Robert B. Davis, Erki Õunap, Juhan Javoiš, Pille Gerhold & Toomas Tammaru
Numerous studies have suggested a general relationship between the degree of host specialization and body size in herbivorous animals. In insects, smaller species are usually shown to be more specialized than larger-bodied ones. Various hypotheses have attempted to explain this pattern but rigorous proof of the body size-diet breadth relationship has been lacking, primarily because the scarceness of reliable phylogenetic information has precluded formal comparative analyses. Explicitly using phylogenetic information for a group of herbivores...

Data from: Predicting the cover and richness of intertidal macroalgae in remote areas: a case study in the Antarctic Peninsula

Jonne Kotta, Nelson Valdivia, Tiit Kutser, Kaire Toming, Merli Rätsep & Helen Orav-Kotta
1. Antarctica is an iconic region for scientific explorations as it is remote and a critical component of the global climate system. Recent climate change causes dramatic retreat of ice in Antarctica with associated impacts to its coastal ecosystem. These anthropogenic impacts have a potential to increase habitat availability for Antarctic intertidal assemblages. Assessing the extent and ecological consequences of these changes requires us to develop accurate biotic baselines and quantitative predictive tools. 2. In...

Data from: Improved demethylation in ecological epigenetic experiments: testing a simple and harmless foliar demethylation application

Javier Puy, Hana Dvořáková, Carlos P. Carmona, Francesco De Bello, Inga Hiiesalu & Vitek Latzel
1. Experimental demethylation of plant DNA enables testing for epigenetic effects in a simple and straightforward way without the use of expensive and laborious DNA sequencing. Plants are commonly demethylated during their germination with the application of agents such as 5-azacytidine (5-azaC). However, this approach can cause unwanted effects such as underdeveloped root systems and high mortality of treated plants, hindering a full comparison with untreated plants, and can be applied only on plant reproducing...

Data from: The evolution of male-biased sexual size dimorphism is associated with increased body size plasticity in males

Patrick T. Rohner, Tiit Teder, Toomas Esperk, Stefan Lüpold & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
1.Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) can vary drastically across environments, demonstrating pronounced sex-specific plasticity. In insects, females are usually the larger and more plastic sex. However, the shortage of taxa with male-biased SSD hampers the assessment of whether the greater plasticity in females is driven by selection on size or represents an effect of the female reproductive role. Here we specifically address the role of sex-specific plasticity of body size in the evolution of SSD reversals...

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