112 Works

Data from: A tale of the ciliate tail: investigation into the adaptive significance of this sub-cellular structure

Brad J. Gemmell, Houshuo Jiang & Edward J. Buskey
Ciliates can form an important link between the microbial loop and higher trophic levels primarily through consumption by copepods. This high predation pressure has resulted in a number of ciliate species developing rapid escape swimming behaviour. Several species of these escaping ciliates also possess a long contractile tail for which the functionality remains unresolved. We use high-speed video, specialized optics and novel fluid visualization tools to evaluate the role of this contractile appendage in two...

Data from: Physiological and ecological drivers of early spring blooms of a coastal phytoplankter

Kristen R. Hunter-Cevera, Michael G. Neubert, Robert J. Olson, Andrew R. Solow, Alexi Shalapyonok & Heidi M. Sosik
Climate affects the timing and magnitude of phytoplankton blooms that fuel marine food webs and influence global biogeochemical cycles. Changes in bloom timing have been detected in some cases, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive, contributing to uncertainty in long-term predictions of climate change impacts. Here we describe a 13-year hourly time series from the New England shelf of data on the coastal phytoplankter Synechococcus, during which the timing of its spring bloom varied by...

Data from: Linking oceanographic conditions, migratory schedules and foraging behaviour during the non‐breeding season to reproductive performance in a long‐lived seabird

Marine Desprez, Stephanie Jenouvrier, Christophe Barbraud, Karine Delord & Henri Weimerskirch
1. Studies of the mechanisms underlying climate-induced population changes are critically needed to better understand and accurately predict population responses to climate change. Long-lived migratory species might be particularly vulnerable to climate change as they are constrained by different climate conditions and energetic requirements during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. Yet, most studies primarily focus on the breeding season of these species lifecycle. Environmental conditions experienced in the non-breeding season may have downstream effects on...

Stratification, Wind, and Waves on the Inner shelf of Martha’s Vineyard (SWWIM)

Steven Lentz
Time series of current velocity, water temperature, and salinity profiles, and near-bottom water depth from the 7-m, 12-m, 17-m, and 27-m site of an inner-shelf array deployed as part of the Stratification, Wind, and Waves on the Inner shelf of Martha’s Vineyard (SWWIM) study. There were 6 deployments of an array of four sites across the inner-shelf south of Martha's Vineyard, Massachusetts. The four sites are designated by nominal depth 7-m, 12-m (MVCO node), 17-m...

Horizontal Stirring over the Northeast U.S. Continental Shelf: the Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Surface Eddy Kinetic Energy

Kirincich Anthony R., Pierre J. Flament, Victoria Futch & Benjamin A. Hodges

Sea-level rise will drive divergent sediment transport patterns on fore reefs and reef flats, potentially causing erosion on Atoll Islands

James Bramante, Andrew D. Ashton, Curt D. Storlazzi, Olivia M. Cheriton & Jeffrey P. Donnelly
Atoll reef islands primarily consist of unconsolidated sediment, and their ocean-facing shorelines are maintained by sediment produced and transported across their reefs. Changes in incident waves can alter cross-shore sediment exchange and thus affect the sediment budget and morphology of atoll reef islands. Here we investigate the influence of sea-level rise and projected wave climate change on wave characteristics and cross-shore sediment transport across an atoll reef at Kwajalein Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands....

Mechanisms of exchange flow in an estuary with a narrow, deep channel and wide, shallow shoals

W. Rockwell Geyer, David Ralston & Jia-Lin Chen
Delaware Bay is a large estuary with a deep, relatively narrow channel and wide, shallow banks, providing a clear example of a “channel-shoal” estuary. This numerical modeling study addresses the exchange flow in this channel-shoal estuary, specifically to examine how the lateral geometry affects the strength and mechanisms of exchange flow. We find that the exchange flow is exclusively confined to the channel region during spring tides, when stratification is weak, and it broadens laterally...

The rheological behavior of CO2 ice: application to glacial flow on Mars

Andrew Cross, David L. Goldsby, Travis F. Hager & Isaac B. Smith
Vast amounts of solid CO2 reside in topographic basins of the south polar layered deposits (SPLD) on Mars and exhibit morphological features indicative of glacial flow. Previous experimental studies showed that coarse-grained CO2 ice is 1–2 orders of magnitude weaker than water ice under Martian polar conditions. Here we present data from a series of deformation experiments on high-purity, fine-grained CO2 ice over a broader range of temperatures than previously explored (158–213 K). The experiments...

Images of cellular ultrastructure of benthic foraminifera from Arctic seeps

Joan Bernhard, Veronique Le Roux & Jonathan Martin
Dissociation of methane hydrates due to ocean warming releases methane, a powerful greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere. Dissociation of gas hydrates may have led to rapid and dramatic environmental changes in the past. Thus, understanding the impact of those events requires information about their timing and magnitudes. While the foraminiferal fossil record provides a powerful tool to understand past environmental conditions, seep-endemic foraminifera are unknown, which limits evaluation of seep-specific information. However, geographically widespread benthic...

2017 HF Radar observations off the East Taiwan Coast

Anthony Kirincich, Yu-hung Hsiao & Yiing Jang Yang
High-frequency radar-based observations of surface currents along the east coast of Taiwan, obtained over a 50-day period in early 2017, are used to examine the occurrence, generation, and downstream advection of submesoscale eddies in the Kuroshio. Measured at an effective depth of 2 m and radial resolution of 3 km from four land-based HF radar systems spanning an 250-km along-stream distance, the surface current observations reveal the instantaneous position of the Kuroshio on hourly time...

IFCB Plankton Image Time Series at the Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO)

Heidi Sosik, Joe Futrelle, Emily E. Peacock, Taylor Crockford, Alexi Shalapyonok & Robert J. Olson
Imaging FlowCytobot (IFCB) deployments have been conducted since June 2006 at the Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO; 41° 19.5’ N, 70° 34.0’ W). IFCB, an automated submersible imaging-in-flow cytometer, is specially designed to operate in the ocean and image plankton and other particulate material approximately 5 to 200 micrometers in length. In conjunction with image acquisition, IFCB also uses a diode laser to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence and light scattering associated each imaged target. IFCB...

North River estuary 2017 dataset

W. Rockwell Geyer, David Ralston, Wouter Kranenburg, Adrian Mikhail Garcia & Tong Bo
These are the observational data collected in 2017 from the North River estuary. Data files include the long-term (LT) CTD and Aquadopp measurements from April to July, the short-term (STI from April to May and STII in late July) CTD measurements, eight shipboard CTD and ADCP surveys in April, May and July, the ADV measurements in late July, the North River mid-estuary region bathymetry, and the North River discharge (from USGS measurements).

Data from: Interacting effects of unobserved heterogeneity and individual stochasticity in the life-history of the Southern fulmar

Stéphanie Jenouvrier, Lise M. Aubry, Christophe Barbraud, Henri Weimerskirch & Hal Caswell
1.Individuals are heterogeneous in many ways. Some of these differences are incorporated as individual states (e.g., age, size, breeding status) in population models. However, substantial amounts of heterogeneity may remain unaccounted for, due to unmeasurable genetic, maternal, or environmental factors. 2.Such unobserved heterogeneity (UH) affects the behavior of heterogeneous cohorts via intra-cohort selection and contributes to inter-individual variance in demographic outcomes such as longevity and lifetime reproduction. Variance is also produced by individual stochasticity, due...

Data from: Evolutionary history and biogeographical patterns of barnacles endemic to deep-sea hydrothermal vents

Santiago Herrera & Timothy M. Shank
The characterization of evolutionary and biogeographical patterns is of fundamental importance to identify factors driving biodiversity. Due to their widespread but discontinuous distribution, deep-sea hydrothermal vent barnacles represent an excellent model for testing biogeographic hypotheses regarding the origin, dispersal, and diversity of modern vent fauna. Here we characterize the global genetic diversity of vent barnacles to infer their time of radiation, place of origin, mode of dispersal, and diversification. Our approach was to target a...

Exploring the use of environmental DNA (eDNA) to detect animal taxa in the mesopelagic zone

Annette Govindarajan, Rene Francolini, Michael Jech, Andone Lavery, Joel Llopiz, Peter Wiebe & Weifeng Zhang
Animal biodiversity in the ocean’s vast mesopelagic zone is relatively poorly studied due to technological and logistical challenges. Environmental DNA (eDNA) analyses show great promise for efficiently characterizing biodiversity and could provide new insight into the presence of mesopelagic species, including those that are missed by traditional net sampling. Here, we explore the utility of eDNA for identifying animal taxa. We describe the results from an August 2018 cruise in Slope Water off the northeast...

Physical processes determine spatial structure in water temperature and residence time on a wide reef flat

Kristen Davis, Emma Reid, Steven Lentz, Thomas DeCarlo & Anne Cohen
On coral reefs, flow determines residence time of water, influencing physical and chemical environments and creating observable microclimates within the reef structure. Understanding the physical mechanisms driving variability on coral reefs, which distinguishes them from the open ocean, can be important for understanding what contributes to thermal resilience of coral communities and predicting their response to future anomalies. In June 2014, a field experiment was conducted at Dongsha Atoll in the northern South China Sea...

Isotopic data of kelps and particulate organic matter (POM) from relevant studies and estimated contributions of kelps to local consumers

Emma Elliott Smith & Michael Fox
Kelp forests are highly productive coastal habitats that serve as biodiversity hotspots and provide valuable ecosystem services. Despite being one the largest marine biomes, kelp forests have been drastically understudied relative to other marine systems. Notably, while the role of kelp as habitat-forming, or ‘foundation species’, is well-documented, a comprehensive understanding of kelp forest food web structure is lacking, particularly regarding the importance of kelp-derived energy/nutrients to consumers. Here, we provide a biogeographic perspective on...

Increased typhoon activity in the Pacific deep tropics driven by Little Ice Age circulation changes

James Bramante, Murray Ford, Paul Kench, Andrew D. Ashton, Michael Toomey, Richard M. Sullivan, Kristopher B. Karnauskas, Caroline C. Ummenhofer & Jeffrey P. Donnelly
The instrumental record reveals that tropical cyclone activity is sensitive to oceanic and atmospheric variability on inter-annual and decadal scales. However, our understanding of climate’s influence on tropical cyclone behavior is restricted by the short historical record and sparse prehistorical reconstructions, particularly in the western North Pacific where coastal communities suffer loss of life and livelihood from typhoons annually. Here we reconstruct three millennia of deep tropical North Pacific cyclogenesis and compare with other records...

How variable is mixing efficiency in the abyss?

Takashi Ijichi, Louis St. Laurent, Kurt L. Polzin & John Toole
This directory contains BBTRE/DoMORE processed data (“all_BBTRE.mat” and “all_DoMORE.mat”) that was used to produce all figures in the above research letter. Each mat file has two structure arrays named “location” and “patch10”. The “location” array includes microstructure profile information used in this study (Table D1). The “patch10” array includes 10-m patch-wise parameter estimates used in this study (Table D2). Note that bulk averaged parameters can be constructed from parameters saved in “patch10” (see the above...

Causes of oceanic crustal thickness oscillations along a 74-Myr Mid-Atlantic Ridge flow line

William Shinevar, Hannah Mark, Fiona Clerc, Emmanuel A. Codillo, Jianhua Gong, Jean-Arthur Olive, Stephanie Brown, Paris T. Smalls, Yang Liao, Véronique Le Roux & Mark Behn
Gravity, magnetic, and bathymetry data collected along a continuous 1400-km-long spreading-parallel flow line across the Mid-Atlantic Ridge indicate significant tectonic and magmatic fluctuations in the formation of oceanic crust over a range of timescales. The transect spans from 28 Ma on the African Plate to 74 Ma on the North American plate, crossing the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 35.8 ºN. Gravity-derived crustal thicknesses vary from 3–9 km with a standard deviation of 1 km. Spectral analysis...

Numerical model simulating the sea ice and ocean conditions in the Amundsen Sea over the period Jan. 1, 2006 to Dec. 31, 2013

Pierre St-Laurent, Eileen E. Hofmann, Robert M. Sherrell, Sharon E. Stammerjohn, Patricia L. Yager, Mathew Biddle & Amber D. York
Numerous coastal polynyas fringe the Antarctic continent and strongly influence the productivity of Antarctic shelf systems. Of the 46 Antarctic coastal polynyas documented in a recent study, the Amundsen Sea Polynya (ASP) stands out as having the highest net primary production per unit area. Incubation experiments suggest that this productivity is partly controlled by the availability of dissolved iron (dFe). As a first step toward understanding the iron supply of the ASP, we introduce four...

The Paris Climate Agreement and future sea level rise from Antartica

Robert M. DeConto, David Pollard, Richard B. Alley, Isabella Velicogna, Edward Gasson, Natalya Gomez, Shaina Sadai, Alan Condron, Daniel M. Gilford, Erica L. Ashe, Robert E. Kopp, Dawei Li & Andrea Dutton

Martha’s Vineyard Coastal Observatory

Eve Cinquino, Janet J. Fredericks, John D. Sisson, Stephen M. Faluotico, Hugh Popenoe, Zoe O. Sandwith, E. Taylor Crockford, Emily E. Peacock, Alexi Shalapyonok, Heidi M. Sosik, Anthony R Kirincich, James B. Edson & John H. Trowbridge
Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) is a leading research and engineering facility operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. MVCO has been collecting ocean and atmospheric data at 3 sites on and near Martha's Vineyard since 2001. A meteorological mast (met mast) on South Beach in Edgartown, MA has collected atmospheric data since May 31 2001. An Air Sea Interaction Tower (ASIT) has been collecting atmospheric and subsurface oceanic data since August 5, 2004. A seafloor...

Temporal trends and effects of noise on upsweep calls of Eastern South Pacific southern right whales

Ellen Jacobs, Rafaela Landea & Laela Sayigh
Eastern South Pacific southern right whales (ESPSRW) are a subpopulation of southern right whales (Eubalaena australis) off the coasts of Peru and Chile recognized by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) as critically endangered as a result of heavy whaling efforts in the late 18th to 20th centuries. Most recent population estimates put their numbers around 50 individuals. To test for the efficacy of passive acoustic monitoring of this population, we recorded...

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