16 Works

Data from: Non-random loss of phylogenetically distinct rare species degrades phylogenetic diversity in semi-natural grasslands

Kei Uchida, Masayoshi K. Hiraiwa & Marc W. Cadotte
1. Although biodiversity loss is a critically important topic, our understanding of how both land abandonment and land-use intensification in semi-natural grasslands alters the community diversity and assembly mechanisms is very limited. Large-scale economic drivers of land-use change might inadvertently result in the loss of vulnerable species and reduce ecosystem services provisioning. 2. In this study, we assessed non-random community change by examining patterns of low-abundance species loss, and community assembly in semi-natural grasslands due...

A graphical null model for scaling biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships

Kathryn Barry, Gabriella Pinter, Joseph Strini, Karrisa Yang, Istvan Lauko, Stefan Schnizter, Adam Clark, Jane Cowles, Akira Mori, Laura Williams, Peter Reich & Alexandra Wright
1. Global biodiversity is declining at rates faster than at any other point in human history. Experimental manipulations at small spatial scales have demonstrated that communities with fewer species consistently produce less biomass than higher diversity communities. Understanding how the global extinction crisis is likely to impact global ecosystem functioning requires applying these local experimental results at substantially larger spatial and temporal scales. 2. Here we propose a null model for scaling biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships...

Data from: Tree leaf and root traits mediate soil faunal contribution to litter decomposition across an elevational gradient

Saori Fujii, Johannes H. C. Cornelissen, Matty P. Berg & Akira S. Mori
1.Plant litter decomposition is key to carbon and nutrient cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil fauna are important litter decomposers, but how their contribution to decomposition changes with alterations in plant composition and climate is not well established. 2.Here we quantified how soil mesofauna affect decomposition rate interactively with climate and leaf and root traits. We conducted an in situ decomposition experiment using eight dominant tree species per forest site across four elevations (50, 400, 600...

Data from: Intraspecific variation in cephalopod conchs changes during ontogeny: perspectives from three-dimensional morphometry of Nautilus pompilius

Amane Tajika, Naoki Morimoto, Ryoji Wani & Christian Klug
Intraspecific variation of organisms is of great importance to correctly carry out taxonomic work, which is a prerequisite for important disciplines in paleontology such as community paleoecology, biostratigraphy, and biogeography. However, intraspecific variation is rarely studied in ectocochleate cephalopods (ammonoids and nautiloids), in which an excessive number of taxa were established during the past centuries. Since intraspecific variation of fossilized organisms suffers from various biases (time averaging and taphonomy), an extant example is needed for...

Biodiversity-productivity relationships are key to nature-based climate solutions

Akira Mori, Laura Dee, Andrew Gonzalez, Haruka Ohashi, Jane Cowles, Alexandra Wright, Michel Loreau, Yann Hautier, Tim Newbold, Peter Reich, Tetsuya Matsui, Wataru Takeuchi, Kei-Ichi Okada, Rupert Seidl & Forest Isbell
The global impacts of biodiversity loss and climate change are interlinked but the feedbacks between them are rarely assessed. Areas with greater tree diversity tend to be more productive, providing a greater carbon sink, and biodiversity loss could reduce these natural C sinks. Here, we quantify how tree and shrub species richness could affect biomass production at biome, national and regional scales. We find that greenhouse gas mitigation could help maintain tree diversity and thereby...

Data from: Plant quantity and quality regulate the diversity of arthropod communities in a semi-arid grassland

Xiaoming Lu, Xuezhen Zhao, Taiki Tachibana, Kei Uchida, Takehiro Sasaki & Yongfei Bai
The quantity (e.g. biomass production) and quality (e.g. leaf nutrient content) of plants can strongly influence arthropod diversity, but few studies have tried to disentangle such effects. In this study, we examined the independent effects of plant productivity and leaf traits on the taxon richness and abundance of entire arthropod communities and multiple arthropod orders in replicated monocultures of 15 herbaceous species in the Inner Mongolian grassland. Total taxon richness of arthropod communities increased with...

Data from: Ontogenetic trajectories of septal spacing and shell shape in the Late Cretaceous gaudryceratid ammonoids: implications for their post-embryonic palaeoecology

Yoshitaka Kawakami, Naomi Uchiyama & Ryoji Wani
In this study, we analysed the ontogenetic trajectories of septal spacing between succeeding chambers of the gaudryceratid ammonoid, Gaudryceras tenuiliratum, which were excavated in the Tomamae and Mikasa areas of Hokkaido, Japan. The ontogenetic trajectories of septal spacing in G. tenuiliratum demonstrate a general trend: two cycles of increasing to decreasing septal spacing until the ~30th septum, gradually decreasing septal spacing until the ~70th septum, and then gradually increasing septal spacing at least until the...

Data from: Ontogenetic trajectories of septal spacing in Early Jurassic belemnites from Germany and France, and their palaeobiological implications

Ryoji Wani, Amane Tajika, Kenji Ikuno & Tetsuro Iwasaki
Based on well-preserved belemnites, the ontogenetic trajectories of septal spacing between succeeding chambers were analysed. In the examined species (Passaloteuthis laevigata, Parapassaloteuthis zieteni and Pseudohasitites longiformis) that come from Buttenheim, Germany, and Lixhausen, France, the ontogenetic trajectories of septal spacing follow exponentially increasing trends with no decreasing phase of septal crowding during the earliest ontogenetic stage. The absence of a decreasing trend at the earliest ontogenetic stage is a unique character in contrast with those...

Data from: Historical changes in grassland area determined the demography of semi-natural grassland butterflies in Japan

Naoyuki Nakahama, Kei Uchida, Atushi Ushimaru & Yuji Isagi
Semi-natural grassland areas expanded worldwide several thousand years ago following an increase in anthropogenic activities. However, semi-natural grassland habitat areas have been declining in recent decades due to changes in landuse, which have caused a loss of grassland biodiversity. Reconstructing historical and recent demographic changes in semi-natural grassland species will help clarify the factors affecting their population decline. Here, we quantified past and recent demographic histories of Melitaea ambigua (Lepidoptera; Nymphalidae), an endangered grassland butterfly...

Data from: Catch diversification provides multiple benefits in inland fisheries

Shin-Ichiro S. Matsuzaki, Ryuichiro Shinohara, Kei Uchida & Takehiro Sasaki
1. Diversification of fisheries and agroecosystems can increase and stabilize production and revenue, despite unpredictable changes in ecosystems and markets. Recent work suggests that diversification can provide multiple benefits simultaneously, but empirical evidence of relationships between catch or crop diversification and the provision of multiple benefits is scarce. The effect of diversification on multiple benefits may vary temporally and among systems. 2. Using long-term (11–54 years) capture fishery statistics from five Japanese lakes, we examined...

Data from: Disentangling relationships between plant diversity and decomposition processes under forest restoration

Saori Fujii, Akira S. Mori, Dai Koide, Kobayashi Makoto, Shunsuke Matsuoka, Takashi Osono & Forest Isbell
Biodiversity has been elucidated to be one of the major factors sustaining ecosystem functioning. The vast majority of studies showing a relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have come from experiments, and this knowledge has not yet been applied to most real-world cases of conservation and management. This is especially true in forest ecosystems, characterized by the dominance of long-lived organisms (trees) and high levels of structural complexity and environmental heterogeneity. To apply biodiversity–function relationships...

Data from: Biodiversity-ecosystem function relationships change through primary succession

Akira Mori, Takashi Osono, J. Hans C. Cornelissen, Joseph Craine & Masaki Uchida
Ecologists traditionally use environmental parameters to predict successional shifts in compositional characteristics of local species assemblages (environmental control). Another important focus in ecology is to understand functional roles of species assemblages in determining local environmental properties (diversity control). Then, the question emerges: which is the cause, and which is the consequence? To clarify the causal relationships between species assemblages and environmental properties, we focused on seral changes in species/functional diversity of vascular plants in tundra...

Data from: Prolonged impacts of past agriculture and ungulate overabundance on soil fungal communities in restored forests

Shinichi Tatsumi, Shunsuke Matsuoka, Saori Fujii, Kobayashi Makoto, Takashi Osono, Forest Isbell & Akira Mori
Soil fungi can help improve ecosystem restoration, yet our understanding of how they reassemble in degraded land is limited. Here, using DNA metabarcoding, we studied the fungal community structure in reforested sites following agricultural abandonment and ungulate overabundance. Two treatments, namely ‘reforestation using different numbers of tree species’ and ‘deer exclusion,’ have been applied for multiple decades in the study sites. We found that local fungal richness (alpha diversity) and total fungal richness (gamma diversity)...

Spatio-temporal dynamics of abiotic and biotic properties explain biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships

Felix Gottschall, Simone Cesarz, Harald Auge, Kyle Kovach, Akira Mori, Charles Nock & Nico Eisenhauer
There is increasing evidence that spatial and temporal dynamics of biodiversity and ecosystem functions play an essential role in biodiversity-ecosystem functioning (BEF) relationships. Despite the known importance of soil processes for forest ecosystems, belowground functions in response to tree diversity and spatio-temporal dynamics of ecological processes and conditions remain poorly described. We propose a novel conceptual framework integrating spatio-temporal dynamics in BEF relationships and hypothesized a positive tree species richness effect on soil ecosystem functions...

Nutritional constraints on brain evolution: sodium and nitrogen limit brain size

Emilie Snell-Rood, Eli Matthew Swanson, Anne Espeset, Sarah Jaumann, Kinsey Philips, Courtney Walker, Brandon Semke, Akira Mori, Gerhard Boenisch, Jens Kattge, Eric Seabloom & Elizabeth Borer
Nutrition has been hypothesized as an important constraint on brain evolution. However, it is unclear whether the availability of specific nutrients or the difficulty of locating high quality diets limits brain evolution, especially over long periods of time. We show that dietary nutrient content predicted brain size across 42 species of butterflies. Brain size, relative to body size, was associated with the sodium and nitrogen content of a species’ diet. There was no evidence that...

Bottom-up effects of plant quantity and quality on arthropod diversity across multiple trophic levels in a semi-arid grassland

Xiaoming Lu, Xuezhen Zhao, Taiki Tachibana, Kei Uchida, Takehiro Sasaki & Yongfei Bai
1. Plant quantity and quality can independently affect the diversity of the entire arthropod communities and multiple arthropod taxa in grassland ecosystems. However, it remains unclear how these effects on arthropod taxa at one trophic level propagate through food web to influence the diversity of higher trophic levels. 2. We performed a monoculture experiment with 15 herbaceous species in the Inner Mongolian grassland to investigate how natural variations in plant productivity and host leaf traits...

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