46 Works

Data from: Exposing the structure of an Arctic food web

Eero J. Vesterinen, Helena K. Wirta, Peter A. Hambäck, Elisabeth Weingartner, Claus Rasmussen, Jeroen Reneerkens, Niels M. Schmidt, Olivier Gilg & Tomas Roslin
How food webs are structured has major implications for their stability and dynamics. While poorly studied to date, arctic food webs are commonly assumed to be simple in structure, with few links per species. If this is the case, then different parts of the web may be weakly connected to each other, with populations and species united by only a low number of links. We provide the first highly resolved description of trophic link structure...

Data from: Genetic variability and structuring of Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) populations in northern Fennoscandia

Takahito Shikano, Antero Järvinen, Paula Marjamäki, Kimmo K. Kahilainen & Juha Merilä
Variation in presumably neutral genetic markers can inform us about evolvability, historical effective population sizes and phylogeographic history of contemporary populations. We studied genetic variability in 15 microsatellite loci in six native landlocked Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) populations in northern Fennoscandia, where this species is considered near threatened. We discovered that all populations were genetically highly (mean FST ≈ 0.26) differentiated and isolated from each other. Evidence was found for historical, but not for recent...

Data from: Novel R pipeline for analyzing Biolog phenotypic microarray data

Minna Vehkala, Mikhail Shubin, Thomas R. Connor, Nicholas R. Thomson & Jukka Corander
Data produced by Biolog Phenotype MicroArrays are longitudinal measurements of cells’ respiration on distinct substrates. We introduce a three-step pipeline to analyze phenotypic microarray data with novel procedures for grouping, normalization and effect identification. Grouping and normalization are standard problems in the analysis of phenotype microarrays defined as categorizing bacterial responses into active and non-active, and removing systematic errors from the experimental data, respectively. We expand existing solutions by introducing an important assumption that active...

Data from: Genetic divergence between the sympatric queen morphs of the ant Myrmica rubra

Jenni Leppänen, Perttu Seppä, Kari Vepsäläinen & Riitta Savolainen
Pairs of obligate social parasites and their hosts, where some of the parasites have recently diverged from their host through intraspecific social parasitism, provide intriguing systems for studying the modes and processes of speciation. Such speciation, probably in sympatry, has also been propounded in the ant Myrmica rubra and its intraspecific social parasite. In this species, parasitism is associated with queen size dimorphism, and the small microgyne has become a social parasite of the large...

Data from: Migration and isolation during the turbulent Ponto-Caspian Pleistocene create high diversity in the crustacean Paramysis lacustris

Asta Audzijonyte, Laima Baltrūnaitė, Risto Väinölä & Kęstutis Arbačiauskas
The Ponto-Caspian brackish-water fauna inhabits estuaries and rivers of the Black, Azov and Caspian seas and is fragmented by higher salinity waters and a major interbasin watershed. The fauna is known for the high levels of endemism, complex zoogeographic histories, and as a recent source of successful invasive species. It remains debated whether the Black and Azov Sea brackish-water populations survived unfavourable Pleistocene conditions in multiple separate refugia or whether the two seas were (repeatedly)...

Data from: Comparison of dogs and humans in visual scanning of social interaction

Heini Törnqvist, Sanni Somppi, Aija Koskela, Christina M. Krause, Outi Vainio & Miiamaaria V. Kujala
Previous studies have demonstrated similarities in gazing behaviour of dogs and humans, but comparisons under similar conditions are rare, and little is known about dogs' visual attention to social scenes. Here, we recorded the eye gaze of dogs while they viewed images containing two humans or dogs either interacting socially or facing away: the results were compared with equivalent data measured from humans. Furthermore, we compared the gazing behaviour of two dog and two human...

Data from: Environmental fluctuations restrict eco-evolutionary dynamics in predator-prey system

Teppo Hiltunen, Gökçe B. Ayan & Lutz Becks
Environmental fluctuations, species interactions and rapid evolution are all predicted to affect community structure and their temporal dynamics. Although the effects of the abiotic environment and prey evolution on ecological community dynamics have been studied separately, these factors can also have interactive effects. Here we used bacteria–ciliate microcosm experiments to test for eco-evolutionary dynamics in fluctuating environments. Specifically, we followed population dynamics and a prey defence trait over time when populations were exposed to regular...

Data from: Understanding the dominant controls on litter decomposition

Mark A. Bradford, Bjorn Berg, Daniel S. Maynard, William R. Wieder & Stephen A. Wood
Litter decomposition is a biogeochemical process fundamental to element cycling within ecosystems, influencing plant productivity, species composition and carbon storage. Climate has long been considered the primary broad-scale control on litter decomposition rates, yet recent work suggests that plant litter traits may predominate. Both decomposition paradigms, however, rely on inferences from cross-biome litter decomposition studies that analyse site-level means. We re-analyse data from a classical cross-biome study to demonstrate that previous research may falsely inflate...

Data from: Thermal biology of flight in a butterfly: genotype, flight metabolism, and environmental conditions

Anniina L. K. Mattila
Knowledge of the effects of thermal conditions on animal movement and dispersal is necessary for a mechanistic understanding of the consequences of climate change and habitat fragmentation. In particular, the flight of ectothermic insects such as small butterflies is greatly influenced by ambient temperature. Here, variation in body temperature during flight is investigated in an ecological model species, the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Attention is paid on the effects of flight metabolism, genotypes at...

Data from: Rewetting of drained boreal spruce swamp forests results in rapid recovery of Sphagnum production

Liisa Maanavilja, Laura Kangas, Lauri Mehtätalo & Eeva-Stiina Tuittila
1. Peatland rewetting aims to restore biomass accumulation from peat-forming plants for climate change mitigation, biotope conservation and water purification purposes. Boreal spruce swamp forests in Europe have suffered heavily from drainage for forestry and are now a focus of restoration efforts. 2. We measured Sphagnum height and biomass increment by allowing Sphagnum to grow through mesh nets located in nine undrained, nine drained and 18 rewetted boreal spruce swamp forests. 3. At the moss...

Data from: Strategies of zooplanktivory shape dynamics and diversity of littoral plankton communities: a mesocosm approach

Laura K. Helenius, Anna Aymà Padros, Elina Leskinen, Hannu Lehtonen & Leena Nurminen
Planktivorous fish can exert strong top-down control on zooplankton communities. By incorporating different feeding strategies, from selective particulate feeding to cruising filter feeding, fish species target distinct prey. In this study, we investigated the effects of two species with different feeding strategies, the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus (L.)) and roach (Rutilus rutilus (L.)), on a low-diversity brackish water zooplankton community using a 16-day mesocosm experiment. The experiment was conducted on a small-bodied spring zooplankton community...

Data from: Temporal stability of genetic variability and differentiation in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus)

Jacquelin DeFaveri & Juha Merilä
Temporal variation in allele frequencies, whether caused by deterministic or stochastic forces, can inform us about interesting demographic and evolutionary phenomena occurring in wild populations. In spite of the continued surge of interest in the genetics of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations, little attention has been paid towards the temporal stability of allele frequency distributions, and whether there are consistent differences in effective size (Ne) of local populations. We investigated temporal stability of genetic variability...

Data from: Different DMRT3 genotypes are best adapted for harness racing and riding in Finnhorses

Kim Jäderkvist Fegraeus, Lisa Johansson, Minna Mäenpää, Anna Mykkänen, Lisa S. Andersson, Brandon D. Velie, Leif Andersson, Thorvaldur Árnason & Gabriella Lindgren
Previous studies showed a positive effect of the DMRT3 “gait keeper” mutation on harness racing performance in Standardbreds, French-, and Nordic trotters. The mutation has also been shown to influence riding traits in multiple breeds. This study investigated the effect of the DMRT3 mutation on harness racing performance and riding traits in Finnhorses. Finnhorses used for harness racing (n = 180) and for riding (n = 59) were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. For the...

Data from: Age-related effects of chronic hantavirus infection on female host fecundity

Eva R. Kallio, Heikki Helle, Esa Koskela, Tapio Mappes & Olli Vapalahti
1. Pathogens often cause detrimental effects to their hosts and, consequently, may influence host population dynamics that may, in turn, feed back to pathogen transmission dynamics. Understanding fitness effects of pathogens upon animal host populations can help to predict the risks that zoonotic pathogens pose to humans. 2. Here we determine whether chronic infection by Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) affects important fitness-related traits, namely the probability of breeding, reproductive effort and mother and offspring condition, in...

Data from: Air humidity thresholds trigger active moss spore release to extend dispersal in space and time

Victor Johansson, Niklas Lönnell, Üllar Rannik, Sebastian Sundberg & Kristoffer Hylander
1. Understanding the complete dispersal process is important for making realistic predictions of species distributions, but mechanisms for diaspore release in wind-dispersed species are often unknown. However, diaspore release under conditions that increase the probability of longer dispersal distances and mechanisms that extend dispersal events in time may have evolutionary advantages. 2. We quantified air humidity thresholds regulating spore release in the moss Brachythecium rutabulum. We also investigated the prevailing micrometeorological conditions when these thresholds...

Data from: Enriched rearing environment and wild genetic background can enhance survival and disease resistance of salmonid fishes during parasite epidemics

Anssi Karvonen, Mariella Aalto-Araneda, Anna-Maija Virtala, Raine Kortet, Perttu Koski & Pekka Hyvärinen
The importance and volume of aquaculture is increasing world-wide. Rearing practices play a key role in determining growth rate, survival and disease resistance in aquaculture fishes. Recent evidence suggests that in comparison with a standard stimulus-poor rearing environment, an enriched or variable rearing environment has significant positive effects on several traits underlying growth and well-being of fish. However, the effect of enriched rearing on one of the most important threats for aquaculture development, occurrence of...

Data from: The dual role of rivers in facilitating or hindering movements of the false heath fritillary butterfly

Mar Cabeza, Henna Fabritius, Joona Lehtomäki, Otso Ovaskainen, Katja Rönkä & Niklas Wahlberg
Background: Species movement responses to landscape structures have been studied using a variety of methods, but movement research is still in need of simple methods that help predicting and comparing movements across structurally different landscapes. We demonstrate how habitat-specific movement models can be used to disentangle causes of differentiated movement patterns in structurally different landscapes and to predict movement patterns in altered and artificial landscapes. In our case study, we studied the role of riparian...

Data from: Food provisioning alters infection dynamics in populations of a wild rodent

Kristian M. Forbes, Heikki Henttonen, Varpu Hirvelä-Koski, Anja Kipar, Tapio Mappes, Peter Stuart & Otso Huitu
While pathogens are often assumed to limit the growth of wildlife populations, experimental evidence for their effects is rare. A lack of food resources has been suggested to enhance the negative effects of pathogen infection on host populations, but this theory has received little investigation. We conducted a replicated two-factor enclosure experiment, with introduction of the bacterium Bordetella bronchiseptica and food supplementation, to evaluate the individual and interactive effects of pathogen infection and food availability...

Data from: Crown asymmetry in high latitude forests: disentangling the directional effects of tree competition and solar radiation

Tuomas Aakala, Ichiro Shimatani, Toshihiro Abe, Yasuhiro Kubota & Timo Kuuluvainen
Light foraging by trees is a fundamental process shaping forest communities. In heterogeneous light environments this behavior is expressed as plasticity of tree growth and the development of structural asymmetries. We studied the relative influence of neighborhood structure and directional solar radiation on horizontal asymmetry of tree crowns in late-successional high latitude (67–68°N) forests in northern Fennoscandia. We described crown asymmetries as crown vectors (i.e. horizontal vectors from stem center to crown center), which we...

Data from: Ants medicate to fight disease

Nick Bos, Liselotte Sundström, Siiri Fuchs & Dalial Freitak
Parasites are ubiquitous, and the ability to defend against these is of paramount importance. One way to fight diseases is self-medication, which occurs when an organism consumes biologically active compounds to clear, inhibit or alleviate disease symptoms. Here, we show for the first time that ants selectively consume harmful substances (Reactive Oxygen Species, ROS) upon exposure to a fungal pathogen, yet avoid these in the absence of infection. This increased intake of ROS, while harmful...

Data from: Quantitative genetic analysis of brain size variation in sticklebacks: support for the mosaic model of brain evolution

Kristina Noreikiene, Gábor Herczeg, Abigél Gonda, Gergely Balázs, Arild Husby & Juha Merilä
The mosaic model of brain evolution postulates that different brain regions are relatively free to evolve independently from each other. Such independent evolution is possible only if genetic correlations among the different brain regions are less than unity. We estimated heritabilities, evolvabilities and genetic correlations of relative size of the brain, and its different regions in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We found that heritabilities were low (average h2 = 0.24), suggesting a large plastic...

Data from: Effects of spring temperatures on the strength of selection on timing of reproduction in a long-distance migratory bird

Marcel E. Visser, Phillip Gienapp, Arild Husby, Michael Morrisey, Iván De La Hera, Francisco Pulido & Christiaan Both
Climate change has differentially affected the timing of seasonal events for interacting trophic levels, and this has often led to increased selection on seasonal timing. Yet, the environmental variables driving this selection have rarely been identified, limiting our ability to predict future ecological impacts of climate change. Using a dataset spanning 31 years from a natural population of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca), we show that directional selection on timing of reproduction intensified in the first...

Data from: The de novo genome assembly and annotation of a female domestic dromedary of North African origin

Robert R. Fitak, Elmira Mohandesan, Jukka Corander & Pamela A. Burger
The single-humped dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) is the most numerous and widespread of domestic camel species and is a significant source of meat, milk, wool, transportation and sport for millions of people. Dromedaries are particularly well adapted to hot, desert conditions and harbour a variety of biological and physiological characteristics with evolutionary, economic and medical importance. To understand the genetic basis of these traits, an extensive resource of genomic variation is required. In this study, we...

Data from: Establishing a community-wide DNA barcode library as a new tool for arctic research

H. Wirta, G. Várkonyi, C. Rasmussen, R. Kaartinen, N. M. Schmidt, P. D. N. Hebert, M. Barták, G. Blagoev, H. Disney, S. Ertl, P. Gjelstrup, D. J. Gwiazdowicz, L. Huldén, J. Ilmonen, J. Jakovlev, M. Jaschhof, J. Kahanpää, T. Kankaanpää, P. H. Krogh, R. Labbee, C. Lettner, V. Michelsen, S. A. Nielsen, T. R. Nielsen, L. Paasivirta … & T. Roslin
DNA sequences offer powerful tools for describing the members and interactions of natural communities. In this study, we establish the to-date most comprehensive library of DNA barcodes for a terrestrial site, including all known macroscopic animals and vascular plants of an intensively studied area of the High Arctic, the Zackenberg Valley in Northeast Greenland. To demonstrate its utility, we apply the library to identify nearly 20 000 arthropod individuals from two Malaise traps, each operated...

Data from: Lake size and fish diversity determine resource use and trophic position of a top predator in high-latitude lakes

Antti P. Eloranta, Kimmo K. Kahilainen, Per-Arne Amundsen, Rune Knudsen, Chris Harrod & Roger I. Jones
Prey preference of top predators and energy flow across habitat boundaries are of fundamental importance for structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as they may have strong effects on production, species diversity, and food-web stability. In lakes, littoral and pelagic food-web compartments are typically coupled and controlled by generalist fish top predators. However, the extent and determinants of such coupling remains a topical area of ecological research and is largely unknown in oligotrophic...

Registration Year

  • 2015
    46

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    46

Affiliations

  • University of Helsinki
    46
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    6
  • University of Jyväskylä
    6
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
    4
  • University of Eastern Finland
    3
  • Eötvös Loránd University
    3
  • University of Groningen
    2
  • University of Cambridge
    2
  • Finnish Environment Institute
    2
  • Australian National University
    2