69 Works

Morphoecological characteristics of grasses used to restore degraded semi-arid African rangelands

Kevin Mganga, Eric Kaindi, Aphaxard Ndathi, Luwieke Bosma, Theophilus Kioko, Nancy Kadenyi, Steven Wambua, Frank Van Steenbergen & Nashon Musimba
Progressive loss of productivity and plant diversity has been a major concern for land managers of global arid and semi-arid rangelands. This is often attributed to heavy grazing by large livestock herds and wildlife leading to land degradation threatening millions of livelihoods that rely on rangeland resources. Consequently, combating land degradation has increasingly become important global agenda. Active restoration technologies such as indigenous grass reseeding has been identified as a viable ecological solution for restoring...

Data for: Microclimate structures communities, predation and herbivory in the High Arctic

Tuomas Kankaanpää, Nerea Abrego, Eero Vesterinen & Tomas Roslin
In a warming world, changes in climate may result in species-level responses as well as changes in community structure through knock-on effects on ecological interactions such as predation and herbivory. Yet, the links between these responses at different levels are still inadequately understood. Assessing how microclimatic conditions affect each of them at local scales provides information essential for understanding the consequences of macroclimatic changes projected in the future. Focusing on the rapidly changing High Arctic,...

Data from: Multidimensional plasticity in the Glanville fritillary butterfly: larval performance is temperature, host and family specific

Nadja Verspagen, Suvi Ikonen, Marjo Saastamoinen & Erik Van Bergen
Variation in environmental conditions during development can lead to changes in life-history traits with long-lasting effects. Here, we study how variation in temperature and host plant, i.e. the consequences of potential maternal oviposition choices, affects a suite of life-history traits in pre-diapause larvae of the Glanville fritillary butterfly. We focus on offspring survival, larval growth rates and relative fat reserves, and pay specific attention to intraspecific variation in the responses (GxExE). Globally, thermal performance and...

Evolution in interacting species alters predator life history traits, behavior and morphology in experimental microbial communities

Johannes Cairns, Felix Moerman, Emanuel Fronhofer, Florian Altermatt & Teppo Hiltunen
Predator-prey interactions are key for the dynamics of many ecosystems. An increasing body of evidence suggests that rapid evolution and co-evolution can alter these interactions, with important ecological implications, by acting on traits determining fitness, including reproduction, anti-predatory defense and foraging efficiency. However, most studies to date have focused only on evolution in the prey species, and the predator traits in (co-)evolving systems remain poorly understood. Here we investigated changes in predator traits after ~600...

A metacommunity approach for detecting species influenced by mass effect

Thibault Leboucher, Juliette Tison-Rosebery, William R. Budnick, Aurélien Jamoneau, Wim Vyverman, Janne Soininen, Sébastien Boutry & Sophia I. Passy
1. Mass effect, allowing species to persist in unfavourable habitats, and dispersal limitation, preventing species from reaching favourable habitats, are the two major dispersal processes. While dispersal limitation can be detected by experimental or modeling techniques, mass effect is more challenging to evaluate, which hampers our ability to disentangle the influence of the environment vs. dispersal on species distribution. This is undesirable for biomonitoring programs built on known species-environment relationships. 2. We developed an approach...

Data from: Ecological speciation in European whitefish is driven by a large‐gaped predator

Gunnar Öhlund, Mats Bodin, Karin Nilsson, Sven-Ola Öhlund, Kenyon Mobley, Alan Hudson, Mikael Peedu, Åke Brännström, Pia Bartels, Kim Præbel, Catherine Hein, Petter Johansson & Göran Englund
Lake‐dwelling fish that form species pairs/flocks characterized by body size divergence are important model systems for speciation research. Although several sources of divergent selection have been identified in these systems, their importance for driving the speciation process remains elusive. A major problem is that in retrospect, we cannot distinguish selection pressures that initiated divergence from those acting later in the process. To address this issue, we studied the initial stages of speciation in European whitefish...

Data from: Reproduction under light pollution: maladaptive response to spatial variation in artificial light in a glow-worm

Christina Elgert, Juhani Hopkins, Arja Kaitala & Ulrika Candolin
The amount of artificial light at night is growing worldwide, impacting the behaviour of nocturnal organisms. Yet, we know little about the consequences of these behavioural responses for individual fitness and population viability. We investigated if females of the common glow-worm Lampyris noctiluca – which glow in the night to attract males – mitigate negative effects of artificial light on mate attraction by adjusting the timing and location of glowing to spatial variation in light...

Unstandardized breeding choice grouped by maternal litter

David Arthur Wells, Hazel Nichols, Joseph Hoffman, Michael Cant, Faye Thompson, Harry Marshall & Emma Vitikainen
Banded mongooses play a delicate balancing act between incest and warfare. Some females have to choose between mating with a relative within their own social group or trying to sneakily mate with a male from a rival group during fights between groups. We show that females are more likely to mate with extra-group males when the risk of inbreeding within their group is high, but not all females get this opportunity for extra-group mating.

Genetic population structure constrains local adaptation in sticklebacks

Petri Kemppainen
Repeated and independent adaptation to specific environmental conditions from standing genetic variation is common. However, if genetic variation is limited, the evolution of similar locally adapted traits may be restricted to genetically different and potentially less optimal solutions or prevented from happening altogether. Using a quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approach, we identified the genomic regions responsible for the repeated pelvic reduction (PR) in three crosses between nine-spined stickleback populations expressing full and reduced pelvic...

Data from: Cis-regulatory differences in isoform expression associate with life history strategy variation in Atlantic salmon

Jukka-Pekka Verta, Paul Debes, Nikolai Piavchenko, Annukka Ruokolainen, Outi Ovaskainen, Jacqueline Moustakas-Verho, Seija Tillanen, Noora Parre, Tutku Aykanat, Jaakko Erkinaro & Craig Primmer
A major goal in biology is to understand how evolution shapes variation in individual life histories. Genome-wide association studies have been successful in uncovering genome regions linked with traits underlying life history variation in a range of species. However, lack of functional studies of the discovered genotype-phenotype associations severely restrains our understanding how alternative life history traits evolved and are mediated at the molecular level. Here, we report a cis-regulatory mechanism whereby expression of alternative...

Population genomics reveals repeated signals of adaptive divergence in the Atlantic salmon of northeastern Europe

Ksenia Zueva, Jaakko Lumme, Alexey Veselov, Craig Primmer & Victoria Pritchard
Our ability to examine genetic variation across entire genomes have enabled many studies searching for the genetic basis of local adaptation. These studies have identified numerous loci as candidates for differential local selection, however relatively few have examined the overlap among candidate loci identified from independent studies of the same species in different geographic areas or evolutionary lineages. We used an allelotyping approach with a 220K SNP array to characterize the population genetic structure of...

An ancient and eroded social supergene is widespread across Formica ants

Alan Brelsford, Jessica Purcell, Amaury Avril, Patrick Tran Van, Junxia Zhang, Timothée Brütsch, Liselotte Sundström, Heikki Helanterä & Michel Chapuisat
Supergenes, clusters of tightly linked genes, play a key role in the evolution of complex adaptive variation. While supergenes have been identified in many species, we lack an understanding of their origin, evolution and persistence. Here, we uncover 20-40 MY of evolutionary history of a supergene associated with polymorphic social organization in Formica ants. We show that five Formica species exhibit homologous divergent haplotypes spanning 11 Mbp on chromosome 3. Despite the size of the...

The signal detection problem of aposematic prey revisited: integrating prior social and personal experience

Rose Thorogood & Liisa Hämäläinen
Data collected during three separate experiments using the "novel world" (Alatalo & Mappes, Nature 1996) approach to test how social information changes predator discrimination of novel aposematic prey from a cryptic palatable alternative. Experiments were conducted with great tits (Parus major), captured from the wild and released afterwards, at the University of Jyväskylä Research Station, Konnevesi, Finland (62.6° N, 26.3° E) during three winters (2013-2014, 2016-2017, 2017-2018). Social information was provided by video playback of...

Data from: Genuine cross-frequency coupling networks in human resting-state electrophysiological recordings

Felix Siebenhühner, Sheng H Wang, Gabriele Arnulfo, Lino Nobili, J Matias Palva, Satu Palva & Anna Lampinen
Phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations in specific frequency bands coordinates anatomically distributed neuronal processing and communication. Typically, oscillations and synchronization take place concurrently in many distinct frequencies, which serve separate computational roles in cognitive functions. While within-frequency phase synchronization has been studied extensively, less is known about the mechanisms that govern neuronal processing distributed across frequencies and brain regions. Such integration of processing between frequencies could be achieved via cross-frequency coupling (CFC), either by phase-amplitude...

Predator community and resource use jointly modulate the inducible defense response in body height of crucian carp

Ilaria De Meo, Kjartan Østbye, Kimmo Kahilainen, Brian Hayden, Christian Fagertun & Antonio Poléo
Phenotypic plasticity can be expressed as changes in body shape in response to environmental variability. Crucian carp (Carassius carassius), a widespread cyprinid, displays remarkable plasticity in body morphology and increases body depth when exposed to cues from predators, suggesting the triggering of an anti-predator defense mechanism. However, these morphological changes could also be related to resource use and foraging behavior, as an indirect effect of predator presence. In order to determine whether phenotypic plasticity in...

Threats from the air: damselfly predation on diverse prey taxa

Eero J. Vesterinen, Kari Kaunisto, , Mark Forbes, Andre Morrill, Anna Puisto, Ilari Sääksjärvi & Thomas Lilley
1. To understand the diversity and strength of predation in natural communities, researchers must quantify the total amount of prey species in the diet of predators. Metabarcoding approaches have allowed widespread characterization of predator diets with high taxonomic resolution. To determine the wider impacts of predators, researchers should combine DNA techniques with estimates of population size of predators using mark-release-recapture (MRR) methods, and with accurate metrics of food consumption by individuals. 2. Herein, we estimate...

Data for: Temperature-mediated male condition shapes female fitness and oviposition preference in a butterfly

Elena Rosa
Habitat choice by ovipositing females critically shapes fitness in species lacking parental care. We aimed at manipulating female oviposition choosiness using the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) as study species. We tested whether female choosiness is influenced by individual condition and/or that of the mating partner, which was manipulated experimentally by subjecting adults to night temperatures warmer than usual. Against our prediction, female life expectancy was not altered by the treatment and impacted her fitness...

Data from: Effects of ambient temperatures on evolutionary potential of reproductive timing in boreal passerines

Emma Vatka, Markku Orell, Seppo Rytkönen & Juha Merilä
1. Many populations need to adapt to changing environmental conditions, such as warming climate. Changing conditions generate directional selection for traits critical for fitness. For evolutionary responses to occur, these traits need to be heritable. However, changes in environmental conditions can alter the amount of heritable variation a population expresses, making predictions about expected responses difficult. 2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ambient temperatures on evolutionary potential and strength...

Clustering of loci controlling species differences in male chemical bouquets of sympatric Heliconius butterflies

Kelsey Byers, Kathy Darragh, Sylvia Fernanda Garza, Diana Abondano Almeida, Ian Warren, Pasi Rastas, Richard Merrill, Stefan Schulz, W. Owen McMillan & Chris Jiggins
The degree to which loci promoting reproductive isolation cluster in the genome – i.e. the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation - can influence the tempo and mode of speciation. Tight linkage between these loci can facilitate speciation in the face of gene flow. Pheromones play a role in reproductive isolation in many Lepidoptera species, and the role of endogenously-produced compounds as secondary metabolites decreases the likelihood of pleiotropy associated with many barrier loci. Heliconius butterflies...

Data from: An analysis of travel reports of the Finnish botanical expeditions to Russian Lapland (Murmansk Region and Northern Karelia) in 1861 and 1863

Alexander Sennikov & Mikhail Kozhin
Finnish botanical expeditions, which were made to Russian Lapland (present-day Murmansk Region and northern Karelia, Russia) in 1861 and 1863, published travel reports with preliminary information, which contained numerous floristic novelties and phytogeographical observations but have been overlooked in present-day studies. Two reports appeared in print, by Gustav Selin on the expedition made in 1861, and by Nils Isak Fellman on the expedition made in 1863. We analysed mentions of vascular plant species published in...

Data from: Thermal tolerance in two wood ant species and their hybrids

Elisa Nygård, Pierre Nouhaud, Raphael Martin-Roy & Jonna Kulmuni
Local populations can cope with rising temperatures, if they have adaptive potential to face the new thermal regime. Hybridization with a closely related lineage is one potential source of adaptive genetic variability and an outstanding question is whether hybridization could help contemporary populations to adapt in the face of current environmental change. We investigate thermal adaptation by testing for differences in cold and heat tolerances between Finnish populations of two mound-building wood ants, Formica polyctena...

Genomic signatures of domestication in Old World camels

Robert Fitak, Elmira Mohandesan, Jukka Corander, Adiya Yadamsuren, Battsetseg Chuluunbat, Omer Abdelhadi, Abdul Raziq, Peter Nagy, Chris Walzer, Bernard Faye & Pamela Burger
Domestication begins with the selection of animals showing less fear of humans. In most domesticates, selection signals for tameness have been superimposed by intensive breeding for economical or other desirable traits. Old World camels, conversely, have maintained high genetic variation and lack these secondary bottlenecks associated with breed development. By re-sequencing multiple genomes from dromedaries, Bactrian camels, and their endangered wild relatives, we show that positive selection for candidate genes underlying traits collectively referred to...

Data from: Seasonality determines patterns of growth and age structure over a geographic gradient in an ectothermic vertebrate

Juha Merilä, Mårten B. Hjernquist, Fredrik Söderman, K. Ingemar Jönsson, Gábor Herczeg & Anssi Laurila
Environmental variation connected with sea- sonality is likely to affect the evolution of life-history strategies in ectotherms, but there is no consensus as to how important life-history traits like body size are influ- enced by environmental variation along seasonal gradients. We compared adult body size, skeletal growth, mean age, age at first reproduction and longevity among 11 common frog (Rana temporaria) populations sampled along a 1,600-km-long latitudinal gradient across Scandinavia. Mean age, age at first...

Using genomic information for management planning of an endangered perennial, Viola uliginosa

Kyung Min Lee, Pertti Ranta, Jarmo Saarikivi, Lado Kutnar, Branko Vreš, Maxim Dzhus, Marko Mutanen & Laura Kvist
Species occupying habitats subjected to frequent natural and/or anthropogenic changes are a challenge for conservation management. We studied one such species, Viola uliginosa, an endangered perennial wetland species typically inhabiting sporadically flooded meadows alongside rivers/lakes. In order to estimate genomic diversity, population structure and history, we sampled five sites in Finland, three in Estonia, and one each in Slovenia, Belarus, and Poland using genomic SNP data with double-digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq). We...

Unexpectedly diverse forest dung beetle communities in degraded rainforest landscapes in Madagascar

Kaisa Torppa, Helena Wirta & Ilkka Hanski
Tropical forests, which harbor high levels of biodiversity, are being lost at an alarming speed. Madagascar, a biodiversity hotspot, has lost more than half of its original forest cover. Most of the remaining forests are small fragments of primary and secondary forest with differing degrees of human impact. These forests, as well as coffee and fruit plantations, may be important in supporting the forest dependent biodiversity in Madagascar but this has been little studied. In...

Registration Year

  • 2020

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Helsinki
  • University of Oulu
  • University of Turku
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • University of Cambridge
  • The Arctic University of Norway
  • Finnish Environment Institute
  • Kristianstad University
  • Technische Universität Braunschweig