67 Works

Data set for ice nucleation by viruses and their potential for cloud glaciation

Michael Adams, Nina Atanasova, Svetlana Sofieva, Janne Ravantti, Aino Heikkinen, Zoé Brasseur, Jonathan Duplissy, Dennis Bamford & Benjamin Murray
In order to effectively predict the formation of ice in clouds we need to know which subsets of aerosol particles are effective at nucleating ice, how they are distributed and where they are from. A large proportion of ice-nucleating particles (INPs) in many locations are likely of biological origin, and some INPs are extremely small being just tens of nanometers in size. The identity and sources of such INPs are not well characterized. Here, we...

The impact of life stage and pigment source on the evolution of novel warning signal traits

Carita Lindstedt, Robin Bagley, Sarah Calhim, Mackenzie Jones & Catherine Linnen
Our understanding of how novel warning color traits evolve in natural populations is largely based on studies of reproductive stages and organisms with endogenously produced pigmentation. In these systems, genetic drift is often required for novel alleles to overcome strong purifying selection stemming from frequency-dependent predation and positive assortative mating. Here, we integrate data from field surveys, predation experiments, population genomics, and phenotypic correlations to explain the origin and maintenance of geographic variation in a...

Large herbivores facilitate an insect herbivore by modifying plant community composition in a temperate grassland

Xiaofei Li, Shengnan Wang, Chelse Prather, Ho Yi Wan, Hui Zhu, Petri Nummi, Moshe Inbar, Qiang Gao, Deli Wang & Zhiwei Zhong
Large herbivores often co-occur and share plant resources with herbivorous insects in grassland ecosystems, yet how they interact with each other remains poorly understood. We conducted a series of field experiments to investigate whether and how large domestic herbivores (sheep; Ovis aries) may affect the abundance of a common herbivorous insect (aphid; Hyalopterus pruni) in a temperate grassland of northeast China. Our exclosure experiment showed that three years (2010-2012) of sheep grazing had led to...

Effects of grazing on C:N:P stoichiometry attenuate from soils to plants and insect herbivores in a semi-arid grassland

Nazim Hassan, Xiaofei Li, Jianyong Wang, Hui Zhu, Duofeng Pan, Iqra Naeen, Petri Nummi, Deli Wang, Deborah Finke & Zhiwei Zhong
Understanding the processing of limiting nutrients among organisms is an important goal of community ecology. Less known is how human disturbances may alter the stoichiometric patterns among organisms from different trophic levels within communities. Here, we investigated how livestock grazing affects the C:N:P ecological stoichiometry of soils, plants (Leymus chinensis), and insect herbivores (Euchorthippus spp.) in a semi-arid grassland in northeastern China. We found that 3 years of grazing significantly enhanced soil available N and...

Automated improvement of stickleback reference genome assemblies with Lep-Anchor software

Mikko Kivikoski, Pasi Rastas, Ari Löytynoja & Juha Merilä
We describe an integrative approach to improve contiguity and haploidy of a reference genome assembly and demonstrate its impact with practical examples. With two novel features of Lep-Anchor software and a combination of dense linkage maps, overlap detection and bridging long reads we generated an improved assembly of the nine-spined stickleback (Pungitius pungitius) reference genome. We were able to remove a significant number of haplotypic contigs, detect more genetic variation and improve the contiguity of...

Data related to: Open-system evolution of a crustal-scale magma column, Klamath Mountains, California

Calvin Barnes, Nolwenn Coint, Melanie Barnes, Ariel Strickland, John Cottle, O. Ramo, Kevin Chamberlain & John Valley
Granitic magmas commonly display evidence for some level of interaction with and/or origins from crustal rocks. There is fundamental debate in the community as to the processes that control the origins of these magmas and the potential for their contamination as they pass through the crust. One approach to addressing these issues involves a combination of detailed field mapping combined with geochemical analysis of bulk-rock samples and their constituent minerals. In particular, resolution of debates...

Strain diversity and spatial distribution are linked to epidemic dynamics in host populations

Jenalle Eck, Benoit Barrès, Samuel Soubeyrand, Jukka Siren, Elina Numminen & Anna-Liisa Laine
The inherently variable nature of epidemics renders predictions of when and where infection is expected to occur challenging. Differences in pathogen strain composition, diversity, fitness, and spatial distribution are generally ignored in epidemiological modeling and are rarely studied in natural populations, yet they may be important drivers of epidemic trajectories. To examine how these factors are linked to epidemics in natural host populations, we collected epidemiological and genetic data from fifteen populations of the powdery...

Heterogeneous genetic basis of age at maturity in salmonid fishes

Charles Waters, Anthony Clemento, Tutku Aykanat, John Garza, Kerry-Ann Naish, Shawn Narum & Craig Primmer
Understanding the genetic basis of repeated evolution of the same phenotype across taxa is a fundamental aim in evolutionary biology and has applications to conservation and management. However, the extent to which interspecific life-history trait polymorphisms share evolutionary pathways remains under-explored. We address this gap by studying the genetic basis of a key life-history trait, age at maturity, in four species of Pacific salmon (genus Oncorhynchus) that exhibit intra- and interspecific variation in this trait...

Data from: Strong interactive effects of warming and insect herbivory on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics at Subarctic tree line

Nele Meyer, Tarja Silfver, Kristiina Karhu, Kristiina Myller, Outi-Maaria Sietiö, Eero Myrsky, Elina Oksanen, Matti Rousi & Juha Mikola
Warming will likely stimulate Arctic primary production, but also soil C and N mineralization, and it remains uncertain whether the Arctic will become a sink or a source for CO2. Increasing insect herbivory may also dampen the positive response of plant production and soil C input to warming. We conducted an open-air warming experiment with Subarctic field layer vegetation in North Finland to explore the effects of warming (+3°C) and reduced insect herbivory (67% reduction...

Cuticular hydrocarbons of pupae in the ant Formica exsecta

Liselotte Sundström, Patrizia D’Ettorre, Unni Pulliainen & Nick Bos
Chemical communication is common across all organisms. Insects in particular use predominantly chemical stimuli in assessing their environment and recognizing their social counterparts. One of the chemical stimuli used for recognition in social insects, such as ants, are long-chain hydrocarbons. Next to providing waterproofing, these surface hydrocarbons serve as a signature mixture, which ants can perceive, and use to distinguish between strangers and colony mates, and to determine caste, sex, or reproductive status of another...

Data from: Genetic polymorphisms in COMT and BDNF influence synchronization dynamics of human neuronal oscillations

Felix Siebenhühner, Jaana Simola, Vladislav Myrov, Katri Kantojärvi, Tiina Paunio, J. Matias Palva, Elvira Brattico & Satu Palva
Neuronal oscillations, their inter-areal synchronization and scale-free dynamics constitute fundamental mechanisms for cognition by regulating neuronal communication. These oscillatory dynamics have large inter-individual variability that is partly heritable. However, the genetic underpinnings of oscillatory dynamics have remained poorly understood. We investigated whether local and global oscillation dynamics were influenced by polymorphisms in Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met genes that regulate brain catecholaminergic and serotonergic levels. Resting-state magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded from...

Data for: Warm night temperature alters paternal allocation strategy in a North temperate zone butterfly

Elena Rosa & Marjo Saastamoinen
Warming temperatures are greatly impacting wild organisms across the globe. Some of the negative impacts of climate change can be mitigated behaviorally, for example, by changes in habitat and oviposition site choice. Temperatures are reportedly warming faster at night than during the day, yet studies assessing the impacts of increasing night temperature are rare. We used the Finnish Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia) as study species and exposed adult butterflies of both sexes to warmer...

Data from: Traits mediate niches and co-occurrences of forest beetles in ways that differ among bioclimatic regions

Ryan C. Burner, Jörg G. Stephan, Lukas Drag, Tone Birkemoe, Jörg Muller, Tord Snäll, Otso Ovaskainen, Mária Potterf, Juha Siitonen, Olav Skarpaas, Inken Doerfler, Martin M. Gossner, Peter Schall, Wolfgang W. Weisser & Anne Sverdrup-Thygeson
Aim To investigate the role of traits in beetle community assembly and test for consistency in these effects among several bioclimatic regions. We asked (1) whether traits predicted species’ responses to environmental gradients (i.e., their niches), (2) whether these same traits could predict co-occurrence patterns, and (3) how consistent were niches and the role of traits among study regions. Location Boreal forests in Norway and Finland, temperate forests in Germany. Methods We complied capture records...

Data from: Parental care amplifies changes in offspring production in a disturbed environment

Ulrika Candolin, Sara Goncalves & Pankaj Pant
Recruitment is usually negatively density-dependent with fewer offspring surviving when more are produced. Parental care could alter the pattern as behaviours that maximize individual fitness are not necessarily adaptive at the population level. We manipulated the number of eggs spawned into the nests of male threespine stickleback, and found egg survival to be positively density-dependent. This reversed negative density-dependent survival observed in the absence of parental care. The reversal was caused my males investing more...

TNT file for phylogenetic analysis of the moss class Polytrichopsida composed of morphological and sequence level characters

Jaakko Hyvönen, Jorge Flores, Neil Bell, Alexander Bippus & Alexandru Tomescu
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: When fossils are sparse in morphologically divergent lineages, phylogenetic analyses based on morphology may support hypotheses of relationships incongruent with those supported by gene sequence data. Integration of morphological and sequence data from conservative gene regions may reconcile such situations by circumscribing the search space of combined analyses. METHODS: We revisited the phylogeny of Polytrichopsida, a highly divergent group of mosses, in parsimony analyses. We supplemented the existing morphological matrix with...

Data from: Genotypic traits and tradeoffs of fast growth in silver birch, a pioneer tree

Juha Mikola, Katariina Koikkalainen, Mira Rasehorn, Tarja Silfver, Ulla Paaso & Matti Rousi
Fast-growing and slow-growing plant species are suggested to show integrated economics spectrums and the tradeoffs of fast growth are predicted to emerge as susceptibility to herbivory and resource competition. We tested if these predictions also hold for fast-growing and slow-growing genotypes within a silver birch, Betula pendula population. We exposed cloned saplings of 17 genotypes with slow, medium or fast height growth to reduced insect herbivory, using an insecticide, and to increasing resource competition, using...

Data and code for Caves, Dixit, Colebrook-Robjent, Hamusikili, Stevens, Thorogood, and Spottiswoode: Hosts elevate either within-clutch consistency or between-clutch distinctiveness of egg phenotypes in defence against brood parasites

Eleanor Caves, Tanmay Dixit, Martin Stevens, Rose Thorogood & Claire Spottiswoode
In host-parasite arms races, hosts can evolve signatures of identity to enhance detection of parasite mimics. In theory, signatures are most effective when within-individual variation is low (“consistency”), and between-individual variation is high (“distinctiveness”). However, empirical support for positive covariation in signature consistency and distinctiveness across species is mixed. Here we attempt to resolve this puzzle by partitioning distinctiveness according to how it is achieved: (1) greater variation within each trait, contributing to elevated “absolute...

Understanding behavioural responses to human-induced rapid environmental change: A meta-analysis

Rachel Gunn, Sally Keith, Ian Hartley, Adam Algar, Petri Niemela & Sally Keith
Behavioural responses are often the first reaction of an organism to human induced rapid environmental change (HIREC), yet current empirical evidence provides no consensus about the main environmental features that animals respond to behaviourally or which behaviours are responsive to HIREC. To understand how changes in behaviour can be predicted by different forms of HIREC, we conducted a meta-analysis of the existing empirical literature focusing on behavioural responses to five axes of environmental change (climate...

Data for: Parasitoids indicate major climate-induced shifts in Arctic communities

Tuomas Kankaanpää, Eero Vesterinen, Bess Hardwick, Niels Martin Martin Schmidt, Tommi Andersson, Paul Eric Aspholm, Isabel Barrio, Niklas Beckers, Joël Bêty, Tone Birkemoe, Melissa DeSiervo, Katherine Drotos, Dorothee Ehrich, Olivier Gilg, Vladimir Gilg, Nils Hein, Toke Høye, Kristian Jakobsen, Camille Jodouin, Jesse Jorna, Mikhail Kozlov, Jean-Claude Kresse, Don-Jean Leandri-Breton, Nicolas Lecomte, Maia Olsen … & Tomas Roslin
Climatic impacts are especially pronounced in the Arctic, which as a region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the globe. Here, we investigate how mean climatic conditions and rates of climatic change impact parasitoid insect communities in 16 localities across the Arctic. We focus on parasitoids in a wide-spread habitat, Dryas heathlands, and describe parasitoid community composition in terms of larval host use (i.e. parasitoid use of herbivorous Lepidoptera versus pollinating Diptera)...

Data from: Social transmission in the wild reduces predation pressure on novel prey signals

Liisa Hämäläinen, William Hoppitt, Hannah Rowland, Johanna Mappes, Anthony Fulford, Sebastian Sosa & Rose Thorogood
Social transmission of information is taxonomically widespread and could have profound effects on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of animal communities. Demonstrating this in the wild, however, has been challenging. Here we show by field experiment that social transmission among predators can shape how selection acts on prey defences. Using artificial prey and a novel approach in statistical analyses of social networks, we find that blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) and great tit (Parus major) predators...

Data from: Living, dead, and absent trees - How do moth outbreaks shape small-scale patterns of soil organic matter stocks and dynamics at the Subarctic mountain birch treeline?

Nele Meyer, Yi Xu, Katri Karjalainen, Sylwia Adamczyk, Christina Biasi, Lona Van Delden, Angela Martin, Kevin Mganga, Kristiina Myller, Outi-Maaria Sietiö, Otso Suominen & Kristiina Karhu
Mountain birch forests (B. pubescens Ehrh. ssp. czerepanovii) at the subarctic treeline not only benefit from global warming, but are also increasingly affected by caterpillar outbreaks from foliage-feeding geometrid moths. Both of these factors have unknown consequences on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks and biogeochemical cycles. We measured SOC stocks down to the bedrock under living trees and under two stages of dead trees (12 and 55 years since moth outbreak) and treeless tundra in...

Controls of chlorophyll fluorescence spectra vary among leaves in a boreal forest and over a spring recovery of photosynthesis

Paulina Rajewicz, Chao Zhang, Jon Atherton, Shari Van Wittenberghe, Anu Riikonen, Troy Magney, Beatriz Fernandez-Marin, Jose Ignacio Garcia Plazaola & Albert Porcar-Castell
Chlorophyll fluorescence can be used to track to seasonal dynamics of photosynthesis in boreal forests. However, the relationship between chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis is affected by biochemical and morphological factors, which vary across time and space as a function of light environment, species, and environmental conditions. We investigated how various factors, and their spatio-temporal dynamics during spring recovery of photosynthesis in a boreal forest, affect spatio-temporal variation in chlorophyll fluorescence spectra. The factors under consideration...

Data from: Urbanization affects oak–pathogen interactions across spatial scales

Laura Van Dijk, Xoaquin Moreira, Anna Barr, Luis Abdala-Roberts, Bastien Castagneyrol, Maria Faticov, Bess Hardwick, Jan Ten Hoopen, Raul De La Mata, Ricardo Matheus Pires, Tomas Roslin, Dmitry Schigel, Bart Timmermans & Ayco Tack
The world is rapidly urbanizing, thereby transforming natural landscapes and changing the abundance and distribution of organisms. However, insights into the effects of urbanization on species interactions, and plant-pathogen interactions in particular, are lacking. We investigated the effects of urbanization on powdery mildew infection on Quercus robur at continental and within-city scales. At the continental scale, we compared infection levels between urban and rural areas of different-sized cities in Europe, and investigated whether plant traits,...

Data and code from: Accounting for species interactions is necessary for predicting how arctic arthropod communities respond to climate change

Nerea Abrego, Tomas Roslin, Tea Huotari, Yinqiu Ji, Niels Martin Schmid, Jiaxin Wang, Douglas W. Yu & Otso Ovaskainen
Species interactions are known to structure ecological communities. Still, the influence of climate change on biodiversity has primarily been evaluated by correlating individual species distributions with local climatic descriptors, then extrapolating into future climate scenarios. We ask whether predictions on arctic arthropod response to climate change can be improved by accounting for species interactions. For this, we use a 14-year-long, weekly time series from Greenland, resolved to the species level by mitogenome mapping. During the...

Registration Year

  • 2021

Resource Types

  • Dataset


  • University of Helsinki
  • Natural Resources Institute Finland
  • Aarhus University
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • University of Jyväskylä
  • University of Turku
  • University of Cambridge
  • Finnish Environment Institute
  • University of Oslo
  • University of the Basque Country