29 Works

Data from: Low frequency sampling rates are effective to record bottlenose dolphins

Bianca Romeu, Alexandre M. S. Machado, Fábio G. Daura-Jorge, Marta J. Cremer, Ana K. M. Alves & Paulo Simões-Lopes
Acoustic monitoring in cetacean studies is an effective but expensive approach. This is partly because of the high sampling rate required by acoustic devices when recording high-frequency echolocation clicks. However, the proportion of recording echolocation clicks at different frequencies is unknown for many species, including bottlenose dolphins. Here, we investigated the echolocation clicks for two subspecies of bottlenose dolphins in the western South Atlantic Ocean. The possibility of record echolocation clicks at 24 and 48...

Data from: How do seasonality, substrate, and management history influence macrofungal fruiting assemblages in a central Amazonian Forest?

Dirce Leimi Komura, Jean-Marc Moncalvo, Cristian S. Dambros, Larissa S. Bento, Maria A. Neves & Charles E. Zartman
Worldwide, fungal richness peaks in tropical forest biomes where they are the primary drivers of decomposition. Understanding how environmental and anthropogenic factors influence tropical macrofungal fruiting patterns should provide insight as to how, for example, climate change and deforestation may impact their long-term demographic stability and evolutionary potential. However, in Amazonia no studies have yet to disentangle the effects of substrate, seasonality and forest history on phenology. Here, we quantitate spatial and temporal variation in...

Going against the flow: barriers to gene flow impact patterns of connectivity in cryptic coral reef gobies throughout the western Atlantic

Daniel Volk, John Konvalina, Eric Hoffman, Sergio Floeter & Carlos E. L. Ferreira
Aim: Complex oceanographic features have historically caused difficulty in understanding gene flow in marine taxa. Here, we evaluate the impact of potential phylogeographic barriers to gene flow and assess demography and evolutionary history of a coral reef goby species complex. Specifically, we test how the Amazon River outflow and ocean currents impact gene flow. Location: Western Atlantic. Taxon: The bridled goby (Coryphopterus glaucofraenum) and sand-canyon goby (C. venezuelae) species complex. Methods: We used mitochondrial DNA...

Why forest fails to recover after repeated wildfires in Amazonian floodplains? Experimental evidence on tree recruitment limitation

Bernardo Flores & Milena Holmgren
Amazonian floodplain forests are particularly vulnerable to wildfires that spread during extreme droughts, causing large scale forest dieback. After a second wildfire, these forests persist trapped with low tree cover and empty seed banks, yet the mechanisms that could explain this arrested succession remain unknown. Here we use a four-year field experiment to test whether tree recruitment failures in burnt floodplain forests are caused by environmental filtering, limiting early seedling emergence and establishment. We sowed...

Eighty-four per cent of all Amazonian arboreal plant individuals are useful to humans

Sara D. Coelho, Carolina Levis, Fabrício B. Baccaro, Fernando O. G. Figueiredo, André Pinassi Antunes, Hans Ter Steege, Marielos Peña-Claros, Juliana Schietti & Charles R. Clement
Plants have been used in Amazonian forests for millennia and some of these plants are disproportionally abundant (hyperdominant). At local scales, people generally use the most abundant plants, which may be abundant as the result of management of indigenous peoples and local communities. However, it is unknown whether plant use is also associated with abundance at larger scales. We used the population sizes of 4,454 arboreal species (trees and palms) estimated from 1946 forest plots...

Data from: Patterns of gene flow in Encholirium horridum L.B.Sm., a monocarpic species of Bromeliaceae from Brazil

Karina Vanessa Hmeljevski, Maurício Sedrez Dos Reis & Rafaela Campostrini Forzza
Encholirium horridum is a bromeliad that occurs exclusively on inselbergs in the Atlantic Forest biome of Brazil. These rock outcrops form natural islands that isolate populations from each other. We investigated gene flow by pollen through paternity analyses of a bromeliad population in an area of approximately 2 ha in Espírito Santo State, Brazil. To that end, seed rosettes and seedlings were genotyped using nuclear microsatellite loci. A plot was also established from the same...

Tropical riparian forests in danger from large savanna wildfires

Bernardo Flores, Michele Dechoum, Isabel Schmidt, Marina Hirota, Anna Abrahão, Larissa Verona, Luísa Pecoral, Márcio Cure, André Giles, Patrícia Costa, Matheus Pamplona, Guilherme Mazzochini, Peter Groenendijk, Géssica Minski, Gabriel Wolfsdorf, Alexandre Sampaio, Fernanda Piccolo, Lorena Melo, Renato Fiacador & Rafael Oliveira
1. Tropical savannas are known for the fire-prone ecosystems, yet, riparian evergreen forests are another important landscape feature. These forests usually remain safe from wildfires in the wet riparian zones. With global changes, large wildfires are now more frequent in savanna landscapes, exposing riparian forests to unprecedented impact. 2. In 2017, a large wildfire spread across the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park, an iconic UNESCO site in central Brazil, raising concerns about its impact on...

ESRC Newton Healthy Urban Mobility

Tim Jones, H Günther, Sue Brownill, Ramin Keivani, I Neto, E D'Orsi, Ben Spencer, J Vargas & G Butina-Watson
The Healthy Urban Mobility (HUM) project was a study to understand the impact of everyday (im)mobility on health and wellbeing with a variety of social groups living in different neighbourhoods in Brazil and the UK, and also to explore the potential for participatory mobilities planning with local communities to support and develop solutions for healthy urban mobility.

Phylogeny, biogeography, and morphological evolution among and within the Neotropical and Asian clades of Schefflera (Araliaceae)

Gregory Plunkett, Porter Lowry, Pedro Fiaschi, David Frodin & Antoine Nicolas
Schefflera is the largest and most complex genus of Araliaceae, with ~600 described species (and many additional species awaiting formal description), but recent studies indicate that it is polyphyletic, forming five geographically centered clades spread across the major lineages of the family. Significant progress has been made in revising the three smallest clades, but the two largest groups, centered in Asia and the Neotropics, remain poorly understood. To advance our knowledge of these groups, a...

FragSAD: A database of diversity and species abundance distributions from habitat fragments

Jonathan M. Chase, Mario Liebergesell, Alban Sagouis, Felix May, Shane A. Blowes, Åke Berg, Enrico Bernard, Berry J. Brosi, Marc W. Cadotte, Luis Cayuela, Adriano G. Chiarello, Jean-François Cosson, Will Cresswell, Filibus Danjuma Dami, Jens Dauber, Christopher R. Dickman, Raphael K. Didham, David P. Edwards, Fabio Z. Farneda, Yoni Gavish, Thiago Gonçalves-Souza, Demetrio Luis Guadagnin, Mickaël Henry, Adrià López-Baucells, Heike Kappes … & Yaron Ziv
Habitat destruction is the single greatest anthropogenic threat to biodiversity. Decades of research on this issue have led to the accumulation of hundreds of data sets comparing species assemblages in larger, intact, habitats to smaller, more fragmented, habitats. Despite this, little synthesis or consensus has been achieved, primarily because of non‐standardized sampling methodology and analyses of notoriously scale‐dependent response variables (i.e., species richness). To be able to compare and contrast the results of habitat fragmentation...

A blueprint for securing Brazil's marine biodiversity and supporting the achievement of global conservation goals

Rafael A. Magris, Micheli D. P. Costa, Carlos E. L. Ferreira, Ciro C. Vilar, Jean-Christophe Joyeux, Joel C. Creed, Margareth S. Copertino, Paulo Horta, Paulo Y. G. Sumida, Ronaldo Francini-Filho & Sergio R. Floeter
Aim: As a step towards providing support for an ecological approach to strengthening marine protected areas (MPAs) and meeting international commitments, this study combines cumulative impact assessment and conservation planning approach to undertake a large-scale spatial prioritisation. Location: Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) of Brazil, Southwest Atlantic Ocean Methods: We developed a prioritisation approach to protecting different habitat types, threatened species ranges, and ecological connectivity, while also mitigating the impacts of multiple threats on biodiversity. When...

Data from: Energetic and Ecological Constraints on Population Density of Reef Fishes

Diego R. Barneche, Michel Kulbicki, Sergio R. Floeter, Alan M. Friedlander & Andrew P. Allen
Population ecology has classically focused on pairwise species interactions, hindering the description of general patterns and processes of population abundance at large spatial scales. Here we use the Metabolic Theory of Ecology as a framework to formulate and test a model that yields predictions linking population density to the physiological constraints of body size and temperature on individual metabolism, and the ecological constraints of trophic structure and species richness on energy partitioning among species. Our...

Data from: Reproductive strategy of the polyploid species Varronia curassavica jacq. in restinga environment

Marcia Patricia Hoeltgebaum, Diana Marcela Morales Londoño, Ana Paula Lando & Maurício Sedrez Dos Reis
This study aimed to elucidate the breeding strategies of Varronia curassavica, an important medicinal species associated with Brazilian restinga. This was accomplished by combining phenological and genetic data. Every two weeks over a period of two years, we measured flowering and fruiting phenology to evaluate the activity and intensity of phenophases (n=60). We evaluated the mating system, pollen ovule ratio and genotypes from progeny and mother plants using eight nuclear microsatellite loci. We observed flowering...

Data from: Homophily around specialized foraging underlies dolphin social preferences

Alexandre Marcel S. Machado, Maurício Cantor, Ana Paula B. Costa, Barbara P. H. Righetti, Carolina Bezamat, João V. S. Valle-Pereira, Paulo C. Simões-Lopes, Pedro V. Castilho & Fábio G. Daura-Jorge
Individuals often associate socially with those who behave the same way. This principle, homophily, could structure populations into distinct social groups. We tested this hypothesis in a bottlenose dolphin population that appeared to be clustered around a specialized foraging tactic involving cooperation with net-casting fishermen, but in which other potential drivers of such social structure have never been assessed. We measured and controlled for the contribution of sex, age, genetic relatedness, home range, and foraging...

Data from: Unwrapping broken tails: Biological and environmental correlates of predation pressure in limbless reptiles

Mario R. Moura, Henrique C. Costa, Arthur D. Abegg, Esmeralda Alaminos, Teddy Angarita-Sierra, Weverton S. Azevedo, Hugo Cabral, Priscila Carvalho, Sonia Cechin, Nathalie Citeli, Ângelo C. M. Dourado, André F. V. Duarte, Frederico G. R. França, Eliza M. X Freire, Paulo C. A. Garcia, Rafael Mol, Ricardo Montero, Antônio Moraes-Da-Silva, Daniel C. Passos, Paulo Passos, Renata Perez, Juan M. Pleguezuelos, Pedro Prado, Ana Lúcia C. Prudente, Raul F. D. Sales … & Jhonny J. M. Guedes
Studying species interactions in nature often requires elaborate logistics and intense fieldwork. The difficulties in such task might hinder our ability to answer questions on how biotic interactions change with the environment. Fortunately, a workaround to this problem lies within scientific collections. For some animals, the inspection of preserved specimens can reveal the scars of past antagonistic encounters, such as predation attempts. A common defensive behaviour that leaves scars on animals is autotomy, the loss...

Effects of time since invasion and control actions on a coastal ecosystem invaded by non-native pine trees

Michele Dechoum, Leticia Mesacasa, Leonardo Macagnan & Pedro Fiaschi
Invasive non-native trees cause structural and functional changes in plant communities, which tend to increase over time since invasion. Native vegetation responses after control operations provide important information for restoration. We evaluated the effects of time since invasion and of pine control on plant community structure and on functional traits in a coastal open ecosystem in southern Brazil. We compared richness, diversity, abundance and cover of woody and non-woody native plant species, as well as...

Fast diversification through a mosaic of evolutionary histories characterizes the endemic flora of ancient Neotropical mountains

Thais Vasconcelos, Suzana Alcantara, Caroline Andrino, Félix Forest, Marcelo Reginato, Marcelo Simon & José Pirani
Mountains are among the most biodiverse areas on the globe. In young mountain ranges, exceptional plant species-richness is often associated to recent and rapid radiations linked to the mountain uplift itself. In ancient mountains, however, orogeny vastly precedes the evolution of vascular plants, so species-richness has been explained by species accumulation during long periods of low extinction rates. Here we evaluate these assumptions by analyzing plant diversification dynamicsin thecampo rupestre, an ecosystem associated to pre-Cambrian...

Negative effect of turbidity on prey capture for both visual and non-visual aquatic predators

Jean Ortega, Bruno Figueiredo, Weferson Da Graça, Angelo Agostinho & Luis Bini
1. Turbidity plays an important role in aquatic predator-prey interactions. Increases in turbidity are expected to reduce prey capture rates, especially for visually oriented predators. However, there is also evidence indicating that turbidity may have little or no effect on predation rates. 2. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the relationship between turbidity and capture rate. We explored possible sources of heterogeneity in the effect sizes (capture strategy, predator’s body size, relative...

A New Species of Monrosia (Polygalaceae) from Argentina, and Revision of this Genus Endemic to the Southern Andes

Agustina Martinez, Juan Manuel Acosta, Michelle Mota & Jose Floriano Barea Pastore
The recently resurrected monotypic genus Monrosia (Polygalaceae) is endemic to the Argentinian provinces of Catamarca to San Juan in the southern Andes. We here describe and illustrate Monrosia sanjuanensis, a new species endemic to the Province of San Juan and the second species of the genus, and revise the genus. Monrosia and its two species are described and analysed in a phylogenetic context, using nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences. A distribution map, illustration, photos of...

Host diversity outperforms climate as a global driver of symbiont diversity in the bird-feather mite system

Reginaldo Gusmão, Fabio Hernandes, Mauricio Vancine, Luciano Naka, Jorge Doña & Thiago Gonçalves-Souza
Aim: The simultaneous influence of abiotic and biotic factors as main drivers of global species distributions remains poorly understood, especially in host-dependent groups. In this study, we diverge from traditional macroecological approaches by considering both biotic (avian species diversity) and abiotic (climatic) factors in determining the global distribution pattern of feather mite species richness, one of the most abundant and diverse bird ectosymbionts. Location: Global. Methods: We used a global dataset of feather mite-bird interactions...

The macroecology of reef fish agonistic behaviour

Luisa Fontoura, Mauricio Cantor, Guilherme Longo, Mariana Bender, Roberta Bonaldo & Sergio Floeter
Understanding the interplay between processes operating at large and small spatiotemporal scales in shaping biotic interactions within biological communities remains challenging. Recent studies illustrate how phenotypic specialization, species life-history traits and/or resource partitioning recurrently underlie the structure of mutualistic interactions in terrestrial ecosystems along large latitudinal gradients of biodiversity. However, we know considerably less about how local processes interact with large-scale patterns of biodiversity in modulating biotic interactions in the marine realm. Considering agonistic behaviour...

Data from: Large-scale patterns of benthic marine communities in the Brazilian Province

Anaide Wrublevski Aued, Franz Smith, Juan Pablo Quimbayo, Davi V. Cândido, Guilherme O. Longo, Carlos E. L. Ferreira, Jon D. Witman, Sergio R. Floeter & Bárbara Segal
As marine ecosystems are influenced by global and regional processes, standardized information on community structure has become crucial for assessing broad-scale responses to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Extensive biogeographic provinces, such as the Brazilian Province in the southwest Atlantic, present numerous theoretical and methodological challenges for understanding community patterns on a macroecological scale. In particular, the Brazilian Province is composed of a complex system of heterogeneous reefs and a few offshore islands, with contrasting histories...

Data from: El Niño drives a widespread ulcerative skin disease outbreak in Galapagos marine fishes

Robert W. Lamb, Franz Smith, Anaide W. Aued, Pelayo Salinas-De-León, Jenifer Suarez, Marta Gomez-Chiarri, Roxanna Smolowitz, Cem Giray & Jon D. Witman
Climate change increases local climatic variation and unpredictability, which can alter ecological interactions and trigger wildlife disease outbreaks. Here we describe an unprecedented multi-species outbreak of wild fish disease driven by a climate perturbation. The 2015–16 El Niño generated a +2.5 °C sea surface temperature anomaly in the Galapagos Islands lasting six months. This coincided with a novel ulcerative skin disease affecting 18 teleost species from 13 different families. Disease signs included scale loss and...

Data from: A closer examination of the 'abundant center' hypothesis for reef fishes

Itai Granot, Hagar Yancovitch Shalom, Shane Blowes, Alan Friedlander, Camille Mellin, Carlos Ferreira, Arias-González Ernesto, Michel Kulbicki, Sergio Floeter, Pascal Chabanet, Valeriano Parravicini & Jonathan Belmaker
Aim: The ‘abundant center’ hypothesis states that species are more abundant at the center of their range. However, several recent large-scale studies have failed to find evidence for such a pattern. Here we use extensive global data of reef fishes to test the strength of the 'abundant center' pattern, and to examine variation in the patterns across species using life history and ecological traits. Location: Marine habitat at a global extent: from Indo-Pacific to Atlantic...

DNA matrix combined (nuclear and indels coded) datasets for Hyptidinae (Lamiaceae)

José Floriano Pastore
Hyptidinae, ca. 400 species, is an important component of Neotropical vegetation formations. Members of the subtribe possess flowers arranged in variously modified bracteolate cymes and nutlets with an expanded areole and all share a unique explosive mechanism of pollen release, except for Asterohyptis. In a recent phylogenetic study, the group had its generic delimitations rearranged with the recognition of 19 genera in the subtribe. Although the previous phylogenetic analysis covered almost all the higher taxa...

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