7,033 Works

Data from: Modeling effects of environmental change on wolf population dynamics, trait evolution, and life history

Tim Coulson, Daniel R. MacNulty, Daniel R. Stahler, Bridgett VonHoldt, Robert K. Wayne & Douglas W. Smith
Environmental change has been observed to generate simultaneous responses in population dynamics, life history, gene frequencies, and morphology in a number of species. But how common are such eco-evolutionary responses to environmental change likely to be? Are they inevitable, or do they require a specific type of change? Can we accurately predict eco-evolutionary responses? We address these questions using theory and data from the study of Yellowstone wolves. We show that environmental change is expected...

Data from: Different diversification rates between sexual and asexual organisms

Diego Fontaneto, Cuong Q. Tang, Ulrike Obertegger, Francesca Leasi & Timothy G. Barraclough
Patterns of diversity reflect the balance between speciation and extinction over time. Here we estimate net diversification rates for samples of sexual and asexual rotifers using phylogenetic reconstructions from sequence data of one mtDNA locus, cytochrome oxidase c subunit I. All four clades of bdelloid rotifers, obligate asexuals, had higher number of species per clade and significantly higher accumulation of diversification events towards the root of the trees than the four clades of their sexual...

Data from: Costs of crowding for the transmission potential in malaria parasites

Laura C. Pollitt, Thomas S. Churcher, Emma J. Dawes, Shahid M. Khan, Mohammed Sajid, Maria-Gloria Basáñez, Nick Colegrave & Sarah E. Reece
The utility of using evolutionary and ecological frameworks to understand the dynamics of infectious diseases is gaining increasing recognition. However, integrating evolutionary ecology and infectious disease epidemiology is challenging because within-host dynamics can have counterintuitive consequences for between-host transmission, especially for vector-borne parasites. A major obstacle to linking within- and between-host processes is that the drivers of the relationships between the density, virulence, and fitness of parasites are poorly understood. By experimentally manipulating the intensity...

Data from: Evolution of displays within the pair bond

Maria R. Servedio, Trevor D. Price & Russell Lande
Although sexual selection is an important cause of display evolution, in socially monogamous species (e.g. many birds), displays continue after formation of the pair bond. Here, we consider that these displays evolve because they stimulate the partner to increase investment in offspring. Our study is motivated by elaborate mutual displays in species that are largely monomorphic and have long-term pair bonds (e.g. the great crested grebe, Podiceps cristatus) and by many empirical results evidencing that...

Data from: Disentangling the ‘brown world’ faecal-detritus interaction web: dung beetle effects on soil microbial properties

Eleanor M. Slade, Tomas Roslin, Minna Santalahti & Thomas Bell
Many ecosystem services are sustained by the combined action of microscopic and macroscopic organisms, and shaped by interactions between the two. However, studies tend to focus on only one of these two components. We combined the two by investigating the impact of macrofauna on microbial community composition and functioning in the context of a major ecosystem process: the decomposition of dung. We compared bacterial communities of pasture soil and experimental dung pats inhabited by one...

Data from: A supermatrix phylogeny of corvoid passerine birds (Aves: Corvides)

Knud Andreas Jønsson, Pierre-Henri Fabre, Jonathan D. Kennedy, Ben G. Holt, Michael K. Borregaard, Carsten Rahbek & Jon Fjeldså
The Corvides (previously referred to as the core Corvoidea) are a morphologically diverse clade of passerine birds comprising nearly 800 species. The group originated some 30 million years ago in the proto-Papuan archipelago, to the north of Australia, from where lineages have dispersed and colonized all of the world’s major continental and insular landmasses (except Antarctica). During the last decade multiple species-level phylogenies have been generated for individual corvoid families and more recently the inter-familial...

Data from: Population genomic datasets describing the post-vaccine evolutionary epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae

Nicholas J. Croucher, Jonathan A. Finkelstein, Steven I. Pelton, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D. Bentley, William P. Hanage & Marc Lipsitch
Streptococcus pneumoniae is common nasopharyngeal commensal bacterium and important human pathogen. Vaccines against a subset of pneumococcal antigenic diversity have reduced rates of disease, without changing the frequency of asymptomatic carriage, through altering the bacterial population structure. These changes can be studied in detail through using genome sequencing to characterise systematically-sampled collections of carried S. pneumoniae. This dataset consists of 616 annotated draft genomes of isolates collected from children during routine visits to primary care...

Data from: Evolution of resource use along a gradient of stress leads to increased facilitation

Diane Lawrence & Timothy G. Barraclough
The stress-gradient hypothesis (SGH) posits that the relative importance of facilitative interactions versus negative interactions increases as levels of abiotic stress increase. Originally formulated in empirical studies of plant populations, in recent years the SGH has been found to describe how interactions change in response to stress in a wide range of species including algae, mussels and moths. However, there has been little theory attempting to predict patterns from first principles in relation to different...

Data from: Group elicitations yield more consistent, yet more uncertain experts in understanding risks to ecosystem services in New Zealand bays

Gerald G. Singh, Jim Sinner, Joanne Ellis, Milind Kandlikar, Benjamin S. Halpern, Terre Satterfield & Kai Chan
The elicitation of expert judgment is an important tool for assessment of risks and impacts in environmental management contexts, and especially important as decision-makers face novel challenges where prior empirical research is lacking or insufficient. Evidence-driven elicitation approaches typically involve techniques to derive more accurate probability distributions under fairly specific contexts. Experts are, however, prone to overconfidence in their judgements. Group elicitations with diverse experts can reduce expert overconfidence by allowing cross-examination and reassessment of...

Data from: Strong but taxon-specific responses of termites and wood-nesting ants to forest regeneration in Borneo

Annie Kimber & Paul Eggleton
Land use change is accelerating globally at the expense of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Invertebrates are numerically dominant and functionally important in old growth tropical rain forests but highly susceptible to the adverse effects of forest degradation and fragmentation. Ants (Formicidae) and termites (Blattodea: Termitoidae) perform crucial ecosystem services. Here, the potential effects of anthropogenic disturbance on ant and termite communities in dead wood are investigated. Community composition, generic richness, and occupancy rates of ants...

Data from: Hearables: feasibility of recording cardiac rhythms from head and in-ear locations

Wilhelm Christopher Von Rosenberg, Theerasak Chanwimalueang, Nicholas S. Peters, Christos Papavassiliou, Danilo P. Mandic, Valentin Goverdovsky & Wilhelm Von Rosenberg
Mobile technologies for the recording of vital signs and neural signals are envisaged to underpin the operation of future health services. For practical purposes, unobtrusive devices are favoured, such as those embedded in a helmet or incorporated onto an earplug. However, these locations have so far been underexplored, as the comparably narrow neck impedes the propagation of vital signals from the torso to the head surface. To establish the principles behind electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings from...

Data from: Towards open data blockchain analytics: a Bitcoin perspective

Dan McGinn, Douglas McIlwraith & Yike Guo
Bitcoin is the first implementation of a technology that has become known as a 'public permissionless' blockchain. Such systems allow public read/write access to an append-only blockchain database without the need for any mediating central authority. Instead they guarantee access, security and protocol conformity through an elegant combination of cryptographic assurances and game theoretic economic incentives. Not until the advent of the Bitcoin blockchain has such a trusted, transparent, comprehensive and granular data set of...

Data from: Inter-annual dynamics and persistence of small mammal communities in a selectively logged tropical forest in Borneo

Philip M. Chapman, Oliver R. Wearn, Terhi Riutta, Chris Carbone, J. Marcus Rowcliffe, Henry Bernard, Robert M Ewers & Robert. M. Ewers
Understanding temporal change and long-term persistence of species and communities is vital if we are to accurately assess the relative values of human-modified habitats for biodiversity. Despite a large literature and emerging consensus demonstrating a high conservation value of selectively logged tropical rainforests, few studies have taken a long-term perspective. We resampled small mammals (≤1kg) in a heavily logged landscape in Sabah, Borneo between 2011 and 2016 to investigate temporal patterns of species-level changes in...

Data from: Encoding of locomotion kinematics in the mouse cerebellum

Tomaso Muzzu, Susanna Mitolo, Giuseppe P. Gava & Simon R. Schultz
The cerebellum is involved in coordinating motor behaviour, but how the cerebellar network regulates locomotion is still not well understood. We characterised the activity of putative cerebellar Purkinje cells, Golgi cells and mossy fibres in awake mice engaged in an active locomotion task, using high-density silicon electrode arrays. Analysis of the activity of over 300 neurons in response to locomotion revealed that the majority of cells (53%) were significantly modulated by phase of the stepping...

Data from: Foraging bumblebees acquire a preference for neonicotinoid-treated food with prolonged exposure

Andres N. Arce, Ana Ramos Rodrigues, Jiajun Yu, Thomas J. Colgan, Yannick Wurm & Richard J. Gill
Social bees represent an important group of pollinating insects but can be exposed to potentially harmful pesticides when foraging on treated or contaminated flowering plants. To investigate if such exposure is detrimental to bees, many studies have exclusively fed individuals with pesticide spiked food, informing us about the hazard but not necessarily the risk of exposure. Whilst such studies are important to establish the physiological and behavioural effects on individuals they do not consider the...

Data from: Sex drives intra-cellular conflict in yeast

Ellie Harrison, R. Craig MacLean, Vassiliki Koufopanou & Austin Burt
Theory predicts that sex can drive the evolution of conflict within the cell. During asexual reproduction genetic material within the cell is inherited as a single unit, selecting for cooperation both within the genome as well as between the extra-genomic elements within the cell (e.g. plasmids and endosymbionts). Under sexual reproduction this unity is broken down as parental genomes are distributed between meiotic progeny. Genetic elements able to transmit to more than 50% of meiotic...

Data from: A novel respiratory architecture in the Silurian mollusc Acaenoplax

Christopher D. Dean, Mark D. Sutton, Derek J. Siveter & David J. Siveter
Extant aplacophorans, a group of shell-less vermiform molluscs, respire through appendages within or projecting from a posterior cavity. Respiratory structures differ between the subclasses Caudofoveata (ctenidia within the cavity) and Solenogastres (folds of the mantle itself). Acaenoplax hayae, a Silurian vermiform mollusc from the Herefordshire Lagerstätte, England, exhibits characteristics of both these groups. While recent work places it within the crown group Aplacophora, near the caudofoveates, initial observations suggested that its respiratory structures were closer...

Data from: Climate forcing of an emerging pathogenic fungus across a montane multi-host community

Frances C. Clare, Julia B. Halder, Olivia Daniel, Jon Bielby, Mikhail A. Semenov, Thibaut Jombart, Adeline Loyau, Dirk S. Schmeller, Andrew A. Cunningham, Marcus Rowcliffe, Trenton W.J. Garner, Jaime Bosch & Matthew C. Fisher
Changes in the timings of seasonality as a result of anthropogenic climate change are predicted to occur over the coming decades. While this is expected to have widespread impacts on the dynamics of infectious disease through environmental forcing, empirical data are lacking. Here, we investigated whether seasonality, specifically the timing of spring ice-thaw, affected susceptibility to infection by the emerging pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) across a montane community of amphibians that are suffering declines...

Data from: Preterm birth prevention post-conization: a model of cervical length screening with targeted cerclage

Lindsay M. Kindinger
Women with a history of excisional treatment (conization) for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) are at increased risk of preterm birth, perinatal morbidity and mortality in subsequent pregnancy. We aimed to develop a screening model to effectively differentiate pregnancies post-conization into low- and high-risk for preterm birth, and to evaluate the impact of suture material on the efficacy of ultrasound indicated cervical cerclage. We analysed longitudinal cervical length (CL) data from 725 pregnant women post-conization attending...

Data from: Ecological speciation in sympatric palms: 2. pre- and post-zygotic isolation

H. Hipperson, L.T. Dunning, W.J. Baker, R.K. Butlin, I. Hutton, A.S.T. Papadopulos, C.M. Smadja, T.C. Wilson, C. Devaux, Vincent Savolainen, R. K. Butlin, T. C. Wilson, W. J. Baker & A. S. T. Papadopulos
We evaluated reproductive isolation in two species of palms (Howea) that have evolved sympatrically on Lord Howe Island (LHI, Australia). We estimated the strength of some pre- and post-zygotic mechanisms in maintaining current species boundaries. We found that flowering time displacement between species is consistent across in and ex situ common gardens and is thus partly genetically determined. On LHI, pre-zygotic isolation due solely to flowering displacement was 97% for H. belmoreana and 80% for...

Biochemical health profile of workers occupationally exposed to printing press inks in KP, Pakistan

Saima Afaq
Background: Printing press workers are occupationally exposed to potentially hazardous chemicals and solvents. Present study was designed to determine the biochemical health profile of printing press workers. Methods: Cross sectional study was performed in 50 printing press (male) workers (Exposed) and 20 Unexposed (male), age matched, individuals, who were not exposed to printing press environment but lived all around the printing press area. Non-fasting blood samples were collected, from both Exposed and Unexposed, for determining...

A large-scale assessment of plant dispersal mode and seed traits across human-modified Amazonian forests

Joseph Hawes, Ima Vieira, Luiz Magnago, Erika Berenguer, Joice Ferreira, Luiz Aragão, Amanda Cardoso, Alexander Lees, Gareth Lennox, Joseph Tobias, Anthony Waldron & Jos Barlow
1. Quantifying the impact of habitat disturbance on ecosystem function is critical for understanding and predicting the future of tropical forests. Many studies have examined post-disturbance changes in animal traits related to mutualistic interactions with plants, but the effect of disturbance on plant traits in diverse forests has received much less attention. 2. Focusing on two study regions in the eastern Brazilian Amazon, we used a trait-based approach to examine how seed dispersal functionality within...

Data from: Sleep, major depressive disorder and Alzheimer’s disease: a Mendelian randomisation study

Jian Huang, Verena Zuber, Paul Matthews, Paul Elliott, Joanna Tzoulaki & Abbas Dehghan
Objective To explore the causal relationships between sleep, major depressive disorder (MDD), and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Methods We conducted bi-directional two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses. Genetic associations were obtained from the largest genome-wide association studies currently available in UK Biobank (N=446,118), the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (N=18,759), and the International Genomics of Alzheimer’s Project (N=63,926). We used the inverse variance weighted Mendelian randomisation method to estimate the causal effects, and the weighted median and MR-Egger for sensitivity...

Data from: Adaptive estimation for epidemic renewal and phylogenetic skyline models

Kris Varun Parag & Christl Ann Donnelly
Estimating temporal changes in a target population from phylogenetic or count data is an important problem in ecology and epidemiology. Reliable estimates can provide key insights into the climatic and biological drivers influencing the diversity or structure of that population and evidence hypotheses concerning its future growth or decline. In infectious disease applications, the individuals infected across an epidemic form the target population. The renewal model estimates the effective reproduction number, R, of the epidemic...

Data from: Barrier bednets target malaria vectors and expand the range of usable insecticides

Gregory P.D. Murray, Natalie Lissenden, Jeff Jones, Vitaly Voloshin, K. Hyacinthe Toé, Ellie Sherrard-Smith, Geraldine M. Foster, Thomas S. Churcher, Josephine E.A. Parker, Catherine E. Towers, Sagnon N’Falé, Wamdaogo M. Guelbeogo, Hilary Ranson, David Towers & Philip J. McCall
Transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites occurs when nocturnal Anopheles mosquito vectors feed on human blood. In Africa, where malaria burden is greatest, bednets treated with pyrethroid insecticide were highly effective in preventing mosquito bites and reducing transmission, and essential to achieving unprecedented reductions in malaria until 2015. Since then, progress has stalled and with insecticidal bednets losing efficacy against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles vectors, methods that restore performance are urgently needed to eliminate any risk of...

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