6,959 Works

Data from: Landscape simplification shapes pathogen prevalence in plant-pollinator networks

Laura Figueroa, Heather Grab, Wee Hao Ng, Christopher Myers, Peter Graystock, Quinn McFrederick & Scott McArt
Species interaction networks, which play an important role in determining pathogen transmission and spread in ecological communities, can shift in response to agricultural landscape simplification. However, we know surprisingly little about how landscape simplification-driven changes in network structure impact epidemiological patterns. Here, we combine mathematical modeling and data from eleven bipartite plant-pollinator networks observed along a landscape simplification gradient to elucidate how changes in network structure shape disease dynamics. Our empirical data show that landscape...

Identification of hidden population structure in time-scaled phylogenies

Erik Volz, Carsten Wiuf, Yonatan Grad, Simon Frost, Ann Dennis & Xavier Didelot
Population structure influences genealogical patterns, however data pertaining to how populations are structured are often unavailable or not directly observable. Inference of population structure is highly important in molecular epidemiology where pathogen phylogenetics is increasingly used to infer transmission patterns and detect outbreaks. Discrepancies between observed and idealised genealogies, such as those generated by the coalescent process, can be quantified, and where significant differences occur, may reveal the action of natural selection, host population structure,...

Data from: Reducing complexity and unidentifiability when modelling human atrial cells

Charles Houston, Benjamin Marchand, Lukas Engelbert & Chris Cantwell
Mathematical models of a cellular action potential in cardiac modelling have become increasingly complex, particularly in gating kinetics which control the opening and closing of individual ion channel currents. As cardiac models advance towards use in personalised medicine to inform clinical decision- making, it is critical to understand the uncertainty hidden in parameter estimates from their calibration to experimental data. This study applies approximate Bayesian computation to re-calibrate the gating kinetics of four ion channels...

Data from: Limiting opportunities for cheating stabilizes virulence in insect parasitic nematodes

Ben Raymond & David Shapiro-Ilan
Cooperative secretion of virulence factors by pathogens can lead to social conflict when cheating mutants exploit collective secretion, but do not contribute to it. If cheats outcompete cooperators within hosts, this can cause loss of virulence. Insect parasitic nematodes are important biocontrol tools that secrete a range of significant virulence factors. Critically, effective nematodes are hard to maintain without live passage, which can lead to virulence attenuation. Using experimental evolution we tested whether social cheating...

Data from: Visual receptive field properties of neurons in the mouse lateral geniculate nucleus

Jiaying Tang, Silvia C. Ardila Jimenez, Subhojit Chakraborty & Simon R. Schultz
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is increasingly regarded as a “smart-gating” operator for processing visual information. Therefore, characterizing the response properties of LGN neurons will enable us to better understand how neurons encode and transfer visual signals. Efforts have been devoted to study its anatomical and functional features, and recent advances have highlighted the existence in rodents of complex features such as direction/orientation selectivity. However, unlike well-researched higher-order mammals such as primates, the full array...

Data from: Saturating effects of species diversity on life-history evolution in bacteria

Francesca Fiegna, Thomas Scheuerl, Alejandra Moreno-Letelier, Thomas Bell & Timothy G. Barraclough
Species interactions can play a major role in shaping evolution in new environments. In theory, species interactions can either stimulate evolution by promoting coevolution or inhibit evolution by constraining ecological opportunity. The relative strength of these effects should vary as species richness increases, and yet there has been little evidence for evolution of component species in communities. We evolved bacterial microcosms containing between 1 and 12 species in three different environments. Growth rates and yields...

Data from: Seasonal influenza vaccination delivery through community pharmacists in England: evaluation of the London pilot

Katherine Atkins, Albert Jan Van Hoek, Conall Watson, Marc Baguelin, Lethiwe Choga, Anika Patel, Thara Raj, Mark Jit & Ulla Griffiths
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and cost of the pan-London pharmacy initiative, a programme that allows administration of seasonal influenza vaccination to eligible patients at pharmacies. Design: We analysed 2013–15 data on vaccination uptake in pharmacies via the Sonar reporting system, and the total vaccination uptake via 2011–15 ImmForm GP reporting system data. We conducted an online survey of London pharmacists who participate in the programme to assess time use data, vaccine choice, investment costs,...

Data from: The role of recombination, niche-specific gene pools and flexible genomes in the ecological speciation of bacteria

Timothy Giles Barraclough & Michael Schmutzer
Bacteria diversify into genetic clusters analogous to those observed in sexual eukaryotes, but the definition of bacterial species is an ongoing problem. Recent work has focused on adaptation to distinct ecological niches as the main driver of clustering, but there remains debate about the role of recombination in that process. One view is that homologous recombination occurs too rarely for gene flow to constrain divergent selection. Another view is that homologous recombination is frequent enough...

Data from: Long-term exposure to higher temperature increases the thermal sensitivity of grazer metabolism and movement

Carl S. Cloyed, Anthony I. Dell, Tracie Hayes, Rebecca L. Kordas & Eoin J. O'Gorman
1. Ecological studies of global warming impacts have many constraints. Organisms are often exposed to higher temperatures for short periods of time, probably underestimating their ability to acclimate or adapt relative to slower but real rates of warming. Many studies also focus on a limited number of traits and miss the multifaceted effects that warming may have on organisms, from physiology to behavior. Organisms exhibit different movement traits, some of which are primarily driven by...

Data from: Coupling of palaeontological and neontological reef coral data improves forecasts of biodiversity responses under global climatic change

Lewis A. Jones, Philip D. Mannion, Alexander Farnsworth, Paul J. Valdes, Sarah-Jane Kelland & Peter A. Allison
Reef corals are currently undergoing climatically-driven poleward range expansions, with some evidence for equatorial range retractions. Predicting their response to future climate scenarios is critical to their conservation, but ecological models are based only on short-term observations. The fossil record provides the only empirical evidence for the long-term response of organisms under perturbed climate states. The palaeontological record from the Last Interglacial (LIG; 125,000 years ago), a time of global warming, suggests that reef corals...

Teaching and learning in ecology: a horizon scan of emerging challenges and solutions

Zenobia Lewis, Julia Cooke, Yoseph Araya, Karen Bacon, Joanna Bagniewska, Lesley Batty, Tom Bishop, Moya Burns, Magda Charalambous, David Daversa, Liam Dougherty, Miranda Dyson, Adam Fisher, Dan Forman, Cristina Garcia, Ewan Harney, Thomas Hesselberg, Elizabeth John, Robert Knell, Kadmiel Maseyk, Alice Mauchline, Julie Peacock, Angelo Pernetto, Jeremy Pritchard, William Sutherland … & Nicholas Worsfold
We currently face significant, anthropogenic, global environmental challenges and therole of ecologists in mitigating these challenges is arguably more important than ever. Consequently there is an urgent need to recruit and train future generations of ecologists, both those whose main area is ecology, but also those involved in the geological, biological and environmental sciences. Here we present the results of a horizon scanning exercise that identified current and future challenges facing the teaching of ecology,...

Traits data of exotic species in four tropical botanic gardens and adjacent natural forests

Decky Junaedi, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Peter Vesk, Michael McCarthy, Mark Burgman & Jane Catford
The establishment of new botanic gardens in tropical regions highlights a need for weed risk assessment tools suitable for tropical ecosystems. The relevance of plant traits for invasion into tropical rainforests has not been well studied. Working in and around four botanic gardens in Indonesia where 600 exotic species have been planted, we estimated the effect of four plant traits and time since species were introduced on: a) naturalization probability of exotic species; b) the...

Data from: Progression of cognitive decline before and after incident stroke

Fanfan Zheng, Li Yan, Baoliang Zhong, Zhenchun Yang & Wuxiang Xie
Objective: To determine the trajectory of cognitive decline before and after incident stroke. Methods: By using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, we studied 9278 nondemented participants with no history of stroke who underwent cognitive assessment at baseline (wave 1), and at least one other timepoint (waves 2 to 7). We used linear mixed models to analyze repeated measures and longitudinal data. Results: Among the 9278 participants (56.8% women, mean age 63.1±10.3 years),...

Data from: Evaluating the ability of community‐protected forests in Cambodia to prevent deforestation and degradation using temporal remote sensing data

Minerva Singh, Damian Evans, Jean-Baptise Chevance, Boun Suy Tan, Nicholas Wiggins, Leaksmy Kong & Sakada Sakhoeun
Community forests are known to play an important role in preserving forests in Cambodia, a country that has seen rapid deforestation in recent decades. The detailed evaluation of the ability of community‐protected forests to retain forest cover and prevent degradation in Cambodia will help to guide future conservation management. In this study, a combination of remotely sensing data was used to compare the temporal variation in forest structure for six different community forests located in...

Tuning cell behavior with nanoparticle shape

Loris Rizzello, Alessandro Poma, Eva Liatsi-Douvitsa, Giuseppe Battaglia, Valeria De Matteis, Cesare De Pace, Adrian Joseph, Claudia Contini, Edoardo Scarpa, Josep Martí, Loris Rizzello & Senio De Souza
We investigated how the shape of polymeric vesicles, made by the exact same material, impacts the replication activity and metabolic state of both cancer and non-cancer cell types. First, we isolated discrete geometrical structures (spheres and tubes) from a heterogeneous sample using density-gradient centrifugation. Then, we characterized the cellular internalization and the kinetics of uptake of both types of polymersomes in different cell types (either cancer or non-cancer cells). We also investigated the cellular metabolic...

Data from: Almost a spider: a 305-million-year-old fossil arachnid and spider origins

Russell J. Garwood, Jason A. Dunlop, Paul A. Selden, Alan R. T. Spencer, Robert C. Atwood, Nghia T. Vo & Michael Drakopoulos
Spiders are an important animal group, with a long history. Details of their origins remain limited, with little knowledge of their stem group, and no insights into the sequence of character acquisition during spider evolution. We describe a new fossil arachnid, Idmonarachne brasieri gen. et sp. nov. from the late Carboniferous (Stephanian, ca. 305–299 Ma) of Montceau-les-Mines, France. It is three-dimensionally preserved within a siderite concretion, allowing both laboratory- and synchrotron-based phase-contrast computed tomography (CT)...

Data from: Variation in relapse frequency and the transmission potential of Plasmodium vivax malaria

Michael T. White, George Shirreff, Stephan Karl, Azra C. Ghani & Ivo Mueller
There is substantial variation in the relapse frequency of Plasmodium vivax malaria, with fast relapsing strains in tropical areas, and slow relapsing strains in temperate areas with seasonal transmission. We hypothesise that much of the phenotypic diversity in P. vivax relapses arises from selection of relapse frequency to optimise transmission potential in a given environment, in a process similar to the virulence trade-off hypothesis. We develop mathematical models of P. vivax transmission and calculate the...

Data from: Patterns of mammalian population decline inform conservation action

Martina M. I. Di Fonzo, Ben Collen, Alienor L. M. Chauvenet & Georgina M. Mace
1. Evaluations of wildlife population dynamics have the potential to convey valuable information on the type of pressure affecting a population and could help predict future changes in the population's trajectory. Greater understanding of different patterns of population declines could provide a useful mechanism for assessing decline severity in the wild and identifying those populations that are more likely to exhibit severe declines. 2. We identified 93 incidences of decline within 75 populations of mammalian...

Data from: Elasticity improves handgrip performance and user experience during visuomotor control

Michael Mace, Paul Rinne, Jean-Luc Liardon, Catherine Uhomoibhi, Paul Bentley & Etienne Burdet
Passive rehabilitation devices, providing motivation and feedback, potentially offer an automated and low-cost therapy method, and can be used as simple human–machine interfaces. Here, we ask whether there is any advantage for a hand-training device to be elastic, as opposed to rigid, in terms of performance and preference. To address this question, we have developed a highly sensitive and portable digital handgrip, promoting independent and repetitive rehabilitation of grasp function based around a novel elastic...

Data from: Lead acid battery recycling for the 21st century

Andrew D. Ballantyne, Jason P. Hallett, D. Jason Riley, Nilay Shah & David J. Payne
There is a growing need to develop novel processes to recover lead from end-of-life lead-acid batteries, due to increasing energy costs of pyrometallurgical lead recovery, the resulting CO2 emissions and the catastrophic health implications of lead exposure from lead-to-air emissions. To address these issues, we are developing an iono-metallurgical process, aiming to displace the pyrometallurgical process that has dominated lead production for millennia. The proposed process involves the dissolution of Pb salts into the DES...

Data from: Environment and host as large-scale controls of ectomycorrhizal fungi

Sietse Van Der Linde, Laura M. Suz, C. David L. Orme, Filipa Cox, Henning Andreae, Endla Asi, Bonnie Atkinson, Sue Benham, Christopher Carroll, Nathalie Cools, Bruno De Vos, Hans-Peter Dietrich, Johannes Eichhorn, Joachim Germann, Tine Grebenc, Hyun S. Gweon, Karin Hansen, Frank Jacob, Ferdinand Kristöfel, Pawel Lech, Miklos Manninger, Jan Martin, Henning Meesenburg, Päivi Merilä, Manuel Nicolas … & Martin I. Bidartondo
Explaining the large-scale diversity of soil organisms that drive biogeochemical processes—and their responses to environmental change—is critical. However, identifying consistent drivers of belowground diversity and abundance for some soil organisms at large spatial scales remains problematic. Here we investigate a major guild, the ectomycorrhizal fungi, across European forests at a spatial scale and resolution that is—to our knowledge—unprecedented, to explore key biotic and abiotic predictors of ectomycorrhizal diversity and to identify dominant responses and thresholds...

Data from: Modeling the growth and decline of pathogen effective population size provides insight into epidemic dynamics and drivers of antimicrobial resistance

Erik M. Volz & Xavier Didelot
Non-parametric population genetic modeling provides a simple and flexible approach for studying demographic history and epidemic dynamics using pathogen sequence data. Existing Bayesian approaches are premised on stochastic processes with stationary increments which may provide an unrealistic prior for epidemic histories which feature extended period of exponential growth or decline. We show that non-parametric models defined in terms of the growth rate of the effective population size can provide a more realistic prior for epidemic...

Data from: Lower bumblebee colony reproductive success in agricultural compared to urban environments

Ash E. Samuelson, Richard J. Gill, Mark J.F. Brown, Ellouise Leadbeater & Mark J. F. Brown
Urbanisation represents a rapidly growing driver of land-use change. While it is clear that urbanisation impacts species abundance and diversity, direct effects of urban land-use on animal reproductive success are rarely documented. Here we show that urban land-use is linked to long-term colony reproductive output in a key pollinator. We reared colonies from wild-caught bumblebee (Bombus terrestris) queens, placed them at sites characterised by varying degrees of urbanisation from inner city to rural farmland, and...

Oocyst counts from naturally infected mosquitoes collected in Burkina Faso

Anais Bompard, Dari F. Da, R. Serge Yerbanga, Isabelle Morlais, Parfait H. Awono-Ambéné, Roch K. Dabiré, Jean Bosco Ouédraogo, Thierry Lefèvre, Thomas S. Churcher & Anna Cohuet
The population dynamics of human to mosquito malaria transmission in the field has important implica- tions for the genetics, epidemiology and control of malaria. The number of oocysts in oocyst-positive mosquitoes developing from a single, naturally acquired infectious blood meal (herein referred to as a single-feed infection load) greatly influences the efficacy of transmission blocking interventions but still remains poorly documented. During a year-long analysis of malaria parasite transmission in Burkina Faso we caught and...

Soil biogeochemistry across Central and South American tropical dry forests

Bonnie Waring, Mark De Guzman, Dan Du, Juan Dupuy, Maga Gei, Jessica Gutknecht, Catherine Hulshof, Nicolas Jelinski, Andrew Margenot, David Medvigy, Camila Pizano, Beatriz Salgado-Negret, Naomi Schwartz, Annette Trierweiler, Skip Van Bloem, German Vargas G & Jennifer Powers
The availability of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) controls the flow of carbon (C) among plants, soils, and the atmosphere, thereby shaping terrestrial ecosystem responses to global change. Soil C, N, and P cycles are linked by drivers operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales: landscape-level variation in macroclimate, seasonality, and soil geochemistry; stand-scale heterogeneity in forest composition and structure; and microbial community dynamics at the soil pore scale. Yet in many biomes, we do...

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