An important component of pathogen evolution at the population level is evolution within hosts. Unless evolution within hosts is very slow compared to the duration of infection, the composition of pathogen genotypes within a host is likely to change during the course of an infection, thus altering the composition of genotypes available for transmission as infection progresses. We develop a nested modeling approach that allows us to follow the evolution of pathogens at the epidemiological...
On Lord Howe Island, speciation is thought to have taken place in situ in a diverse array of distantly related plant taxa (Metrosideros, Howea and Coprosma; Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 108, 2011, 13188). We now investigate whether the speciation processes were driven by divergent natural selection in each genus by examining the extent of ecological and genetic divergence. We present new and extensive, ecological and genetic data for all three genera. Consistent with ecologically...
The utility of using evolutionary and ecological frameworks to understand the dynamics of infectious diseases is gaining increasing recognition. However, integrating evolutionary ecology and infectious disease epidemiology is challenging because within-host dynamics can have counterintuitive consequences for between-host transmission, especially for vector-borne parasites. A major obstacle to linking within- and between-host processes is that the drivers of the relationships between the density, virulence, and fitness of parasites are poorly understood. By experimentally manipulating the intensity...
Although sexual selection is an important cause of display evolution, in socially monogamous species (e.g. many birds), displays continue after formation of the pair bond. Here, we consider that these displays evolve because they stimulate the partner to increase investment in offspring. Our study is motivated by elaborate mutual displays in species that are largely monomorphic and have long-term pair bonds (e.g. the great crested grebe, Podiceps cristatus) and by many empirical results evidencing that...
Data from: Genome-wide association study identifies vitamin B5 biosynthesis as a host specificity factor in CampylobacterSamuel K. Sheppard, Xavier Didelot, Guillaume Meric, Alicia Torralbo, Keith A. Jolley, David J. Kelly, Stephen D. Bentley, Martin C. J. Maiden, Julian Parkhill & Daniel Falush
Genome-wide association studies have the potential to identify causal genetic factors underlying important phenotypes but have rarely been performed in bacteria. We present an association mapping method that takes into account the clonal population structure of bacteria and is applicable to both core and accessory genome variation. Campylobacter is a common cause of human gastroenteritis as a consequence of its proliferation in multiple farm animal species and its transmission via contaminated meat and poultry. We...
Data from: ‘Manipulation’ without the parasite: altered feeding behaviour of mosquitoes is not dependent on infection with malaria parasitesLauren J. Cator, Justin George, Simon Blanford, Courtney C. Murdock, Thomas C. Baker, Andrew F. Read & Matthew B. Thomas
Previous studies have suggested that Plasmodium parasites can manipulate mosquito feeding behaviours such as probing, persistence and engorgement rate in order to enhance transmission success. Here, we broaden analysis of this ‘manipulation phenotype’ to consider proximate foraging behaviours, including responsiveness to host odours and host location. Using Anopheles stephensi and Plasmodium yoelii as a model system, we demonstrate that mosquitoes with early stage infections (i.e. non-infectious oocysts) exhibit reduced attraction to a human host, whereas...
A new arthropod, Kootenichela deppi n. gen. n. sp., is described from the Stanley Glacier exposure of the middle Cambrian (Series 3, Stage 5) Stephen Formation in Kootenay National Park (British Columbia, Canada). This taxon possesses a number of primitive arthropod features such as an elongate, homonomous trunk (consisting of at least 29 segments), poorly sclerotised trunk appendages, and large pedunculate eyes associated with an anterior (ocular) sclerite. The cephalon encompasses a possible antenna-like appendage...
Data from: Delimiting species using single-locus data and the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent approach: a revised method and evaluation on simulated data setsTomochika Fujisawa & Timothy G. Barraclough
DNA barcoding-type studies assemble single-locus data from large samples of individuals and species, and have provided new kinds of data for evolutionary surveys of diversity. An important goal of many such studies is to delimit evolutionarily significant species units, especially in biodiversity surveys from environmental DNA samples. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) method is a likelihood method for delimiting species by fitting within- and between-species branching models to reconstructed gene trees. Although the method...
Data from: Comparison of historical bottleneck effects and genetic consequences of reintroduction in a critically-endangered island passerineRachel M. Bristol, Rachel Tucker, Deborah A. Dawson, Gavin Horsburgh, Robert P. Prys-Jones, Alain C. Frantz, Andy Krupa, Nirmal J. Shah, Terry Burke & Jim J. Groombridge
Re-introduction is an important tool for recovering endangered species; however, the magnitude of genetic consequences for re-introduced populations remains largely unknown, in particular the relative impacts of historical population bottlenecks compared to those induced by conservation management. We characterize 14 microsatellite loci developed for the Seychelles paradise flycatcher and use them to quantify temporal and spatial measures of genetic variation across a 134-year time frame encompassing a historical bottleneck that reduced the species to ~28...
George Gaylord Simpson famously postulated that much of life's diversity originated as adaptive radiations—more or less simultaneous divergences of numerous lines from a single ancestral adaptive type. However, identifying adaptive radiations has proven difficult due to a lack of broad-scale comparative datasets. Here, we use phylogenetic comparative data on body size and shape in a diversity of animal clades to test a key model of adaptive radiation, in which initially rapid morphological evolution is followed...
Although microevolution has been shown to play an important role in pairwise antagonistic species interactions, its importance in more complex communities has received little attention. Here, we used two Pseudomonas fluorescens prey bacterial strains (SBW25 and F113) and Tetrahymena thermophila protist predator to study how rapid evolution affects the structuring of predator–prey communities. Both bacterial strains coexisted in the absence of predation, and F113 was competitively excluded in the presence of both SBW25 and predator...
Imperial College London11
University of Sheffield3
National Evolutionary Synthesis Center1
University of Georgia1
University of Kent1
Royal Botanic Gardens1
University of North Carolina1
National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis1
University of Minnesota1
University of California, Berkeley1