my dfirst dep
this is my long description what i wrote in a text file hello
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is increasingly regarded as a “smart-gating” operator for processing visual information. Therefore, characterizing the response properties of LGN neurons will enable us to better understand how neurons encode and transfer visual signals. Efforts have been devoted to study its anatomical and functional features, and recent advances have highlighted the existence in rodents of complex features such as direction/orientation selectivity. However, unlike well-researched higher-order mammals such as primates, the full array...
Data from: Seasonal influenza vaccination delivery through community pharmacists in England: evaluation of the London pilotKatherine Atkins, Albert Jan Van Hoek, Conall Watson, Marc Baguelin, Lethiwe Choga, Anika Patel, Thara Raj, Mark Jit & Ulla Griffiths
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and cost of the pan-London pharmacy initiative, a programme that allows administration of seasonal influenza vaccination to eligible patients at pharmacies. Design: We analysed 2013–15 data on vaccination uptake in pharmacies via the Sonar reporting system, and the total vaccination uptake via 2011–15 ImmForm GP reporting system data. We conducted an online survey of London pharmacists who participate in the programme to assess time use data, vaccine choice, investment costs,...
Species interactions can play a major role in shaping evolution in new environments. In theory, species interactions can either stimulate evolution by promoting coevolution or inhibit evolution by constraining ecological opportunity. The relative strength of these effects should vary as species richness increases, and yet there has been little evidence for evolution of component species in communities. We evolved bacterial microcosms containing between 1 and 12 species in three different environments. Growth rates and yields...
Cooperative secretion of virulence factors by pathogens can lead to social conflict when cheating mutants exploit collective secretion, but do not contribute to it. If cheats outcompete cooperators within hosts, this can cause loss of virulence. Insect parasitic nematodes are important biocontrol tools that secrete a range of significant virulence factors. Critically, effective nematodes are hard to maintain without live passage, which can lead to virulence attenuation. Using experimental evolution we tested whether social cheating...
Data from: Body mass estimates of an exceptionally complete Stegosaurus (Ornithischia: Thyreophora): comparing volumetric and linear bivariate mass estimation methodsCharlotte A. Brassey, Susannah Maidment, Paul Barrett & P. M. Barrett
Body mass is a key biological variable, but difficult to assess from fossils. Various techniques exist for estimating body mass from skeletal parameters, but few studies have compared outputs from different methods. Here, we apply several mass estimation methods to an exceptionally complete skeleton of the dinosaur Stegosaurus. Applying a volumetric convex-hulling technique to a digital model of Stegosaurus, we estimate a mass of 1560 kg (95% prediction interval 1082–2256 kg) for this individual. By...
Data from: Bacterial adaptation to sublethal antibiotic gradients can change the ecological properties of multitrophic microbial communitiesVille-Petri Friman, Laura Melissa Guzman, Daniel C. Reuman, Thomas Bell & V.-P. Friman
Antibiotics leak constantly into environments due to widespread use in agriculture and human therapy. Although sublethal concentrations are well known to select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, little is known about how bacterial evolution cascades through food webs, having indirect effect on species not directly affected by antibiotics (e.g. via population dynamics or pleiotropic effects). Here, we used an experimental evolution approach to test how temporal patterns of antibiotic stress, as well as migration within metapopulations, affect...
Data from: Development of the corticospinal and callosal tracts from extremely premature birth up to 2 years of ageRodrigo M. Braga, Elise Roze, Gareth Ball, Nazakat Merchant, Nora Tusor, Tomoki Arichi, David Edwards, Daniel Rueckert & Serena J. Counsell
White matter tracts mature asymmetrically during development, and this development can be studied using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The aims of this study were i. to generate dynamic population-averaged white matter registration templates covering in detail the period from 25 weeks gestational age to term, and extending to 2 years of age based on DTI and fractional anisotropy, ii. to produce tract-specific probability maps of the corticospinal tracts, forceps major and forceps minor using probabilistic...
entry 1 in a test collection
Test entry # 2
Atropisomerism in Taxol intermediates
a dummy foo
a dummy bar
Data from: Epidemiological interactions between urogenital and intestinal human schistosomiasis in the context of praziquantel treatment across three West African countriesSarah C. L. Knowles, Bonnie L. Webster, Amadou Garba, Moussa Sacko, Oumar T. Diaw, Alan Fenwick, David Rollinson & Joanne P. Webster
Background: In many parts of sub-Saharan Africa, urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis co-occur, and mixed species infections containing both Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni can be common. During co-infection, interactions between these two species are possible, yet the extent to which such interactions influence disease dynamics or the outcome of control efforts remains poorly understood. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we analyse epidemiological data from three West African countries co-endemic for urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis (Senegal, Niger and...
Data from: Bacterial cooperation causes systematic errors in pathogen risk assessment due to the failure of the independent action hypothesisDaniel M. Cornforth, Andrew Matthews, Sam P. Brown & Ben Raymond
The Independent Action Hypothesis (IAH) states that pathogenic individuals (cells, spores, virus particles etc.) behave independently of each other, so that each has an independent probability of causing systemic infection or death. The IAH is not just of basic scientific interest; it forms the basis of our current estimates of infectious disease risk in humans. Despite the important role of the IAH in managing disease interventions for food and water-borne pathogens, experimental support for the...
How did evolution generate the extraordinary diversity of vertebrates on land? Zero species are known prior to ~380 million years ago, and more than 30,000 are present today. An expansionist model suggests this was achieved by large and unbounded increases, leading to substantially greater diversity in the present than at any time in the geological past. This model contrasts starkly with empirical support for constrained diversification in marine animals, suggesting different macroevolutionary processes on land...
Data from: Parasites in bloom: flowers aid dispersal and transmission of pollinator parasites within and between bee speciesPeter Graystock, Dave Goulson & William O. H. Hughes
The dispersal of parasites is critical for epidemiology, and the interspecific vectoring of parasites when species share resources may play an underappreciated role in parasite dispersal. One of the best examples of such a situation is the shared use of flowers by pollinators, but the importance of flowers and interspecific vectoring in the dispersal of pollinator parasites is poorly understood and frequently overlooked. Here, we use an experimental approach to show that during even short...
Imperial College London70
University of Oxford6
Natural History Museum3
University of Birmingham2
Institut National de Recherche en Santé Publique1
VU University Amsterdam1
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine1
University of Sussex1
The University of Texas at Austin1
National Museums Scotland1