Cooperative secretion of virulence factors by pathogens can lead to social conflict when cheating mutants exploit collective secretion, but do not contribute to it. If cheats outcompete cooperators within hosts, this can cause loss of virulence. Insect parasitic nematodes are important biocontrol tools that secrete a range of significant virulence factors. Critically, effective nematodes are hard to maintain without live passage, which can lead to virulence attenuation. Using experimental evolution we tested whether social cheating...
The lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is increasingly regarded as a “smart-gating” operator for processing visual information. Therefore, characterizing the response properties of LGN neurons will enable us to better understand how neurons encode and transfer visual signals. Efforts have been devoted to study its anatomical and functional features, and recent advances have highlighted the existence in rodents of complex features such as direction/orientation selectivity. However, unlike well-researched higher-order mammals such as primates, the full array...
Species interactions can play a major role in shaping evolution in new environments. In theory, species interactions can either stimulate evolution by promoting coevolution or inhibit evolution by constraining ecological opportunity. The relative strength of these effects should vary as species richness increases, and yet there has been little evidence for evolution of component species in communities. We evolved bacterial microcosms containing between 1 and 12 species in three different environments. Growth rates and yields...
Data from: Seasonal influenza vaccination delivery through community pharmacists in England: evaluation of the London pilotKatherine Atkins, Albert Jan Van Hoek, Conall Watson, Marc Baguelin, Lethiwe Choga, Anika Patel, Thara Raj, Mark Jit & Ulla Griffiths
Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and cost of the pan-London pharmacy initiative, a programme that allows administration of seasonal influenza vaccination to eligible patients at pharmacies. Design: We analysed 2013–15 data on vaccination uptake in pharmacies via the Sonar reporting system, and the total vaccination uptake via 2011–15 ImmForm GP reporting system data. We conducted an online survey of London pharmacists who participate in the programme to assess time use data, vaccine choice, investment costs,...
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Data from: Bacterial adaptation to sublethal antibiotic gradients can change the ecological properties of multitrophic microbial communitiesVille-Petri Friman, Laura Melissa Guzman, Daniel C. Reuman, Thomas Bell & V.-P. Friman
Antibiotics leak constantly into environments due to widespread use in agriculture and human therapy. Although sublethal concentrations are well known to select for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, little is known about how bacterial evolution cascades through food webs, having indirect effect on species not directly affected by antibiotics (e.g. via population dynamics or pleiotropic effects). Here, we used an experimental evolution approach to test how temporal patterns of antibiotic stress, as well as migration within metapopulations, affect...
Data from: Body mass estimates of an exceptionally complete Stegosaurus (Ornithischia: Thyreophora): comparing volumetric and linear bivariate mass estimation methodsCharlotte A. Brassey, Susannah Maidment, Paul Barrett & P. M. Barrett
Body mass is a key biological variable, but difficult to assess from fossils. Various techniques exist for estimating body mass from skeletal parameters, but few studies have compared outputs from different methods. Here, we apply several mass estimation methods to an exceptionally complete skeleton of the dinosaur Stegosaurus. Applying a volumetric convex-hulling technique to a digital model of Stegosaurus, we estimate a mass of 1560 kg (95% prediction interval 1082–2256 kg) for this individual. By...
Data from: Development of the corticospinal and callosal tracts from extremely premature birth up to 2 years of ageRodrigo M. Braga, Elise Roze, Gareth Ball, Nazakat Merchant, Nora Tusor, Tomoki Arichi, David Edwards, Daniel Rueckert & Serena J. Counsell
White matter tracts mature asymmetrically during development, and this development can be studied using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. The aims of this study were i. to generate dynamic population-averaged white matter registration templates covering in detail the period from 25 weeks gestational age to term, and extending to 2 years of age based on DTI and fractional anisotropy, ii. to produce tract-specific probability maps of the corticospinal tracts, forceps major and forceps minor using probabilistic...
Data from: Disentangling the ‘brown world’ faecal-detritus interaction web: dung beetle effects on soil microbial propertiesEleanor M. Slade, Tomas Roslin, Minna Santalahti & Thomas Bell
Many ecosystem services are sustained by the combined action of microscopic and macroscopic organisms, and shaped by interactions between the two. However, studies tend to focus on only one of these two components. We combined the two by investigating the impact of macrofauna on microbial community composition and functioning in the context of a major ecosystem process: the decomposition of dung. We compared bacterial communities of pasture soil and experimental dung pats inhabited by one...
The Corvides (previously referred to as the core Corvoidea) are a morphologically diverse clade of passerine birds comprising nearly 800 species. The group originated some 30 million years ago in the proto-Papuan archipelago, to the north of Australia, from where lineages have dispersed and colonized all of the world’s major continental and insular landmasses (except Antarctica). During the last decade multiple species-level phylogenies have been generated for individual corvoid families and more recently the inter-familial...
Data from: Population genomic datasets describing the post-vaccine evolutionary epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniaeNicholas J. Croucher, Jonathan A. Finkelstein, Steven I. Pelton, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D. Bentley, William P. Hanage & Marc Lipsitch
Streptococcus pneumoniae is common nasopharyngeal commensal bacterium and important human pathogen. Vaccines against a subset of pneumococcal antigenic diversity have reduced rates of disease, without changing the frequency of asymptomatic carriage, through altering the bacterial population structure. These changes can be studied in detail through using genome sequencing to characterise systematically-sampled collections of carried S. pneumoniae. This dataset consists of 616 annotated draft genomes of isolates collected from children during routine visits to primary care...
The stress-gradient hypothesis (SGH) posits that the relative importance of facilitative interactions versus negative interactions increases as levels of abiotic stress increase. Originally formulated in empirical studies of plant populations, in recent years the SGH has been found to describe how interactions change in response to stress in a wide range of species including algae, mussels and moths. However, there has been little theory attempting to predict patterns from first principles in relation to different...
Extant aplacophorans, a group of shell-less vermiform molluscs, respire through appendages within or projecting from a posterior cavity. Respiratory structures differ between the subclasses Caudofoveata (ctenidia within the cavity) and Solenogastres (folds of the mantle itself). Acaenoplax hayae, a Silurian vermiform mollusc from the Herefordshire Lagerstätte, England, exhibits characteristics of both these groups. While recent work places it within the crown group Aplacophora, near the caudofoveates, initial observations suggested that its respiratory structures were closer...
(S)-Streptorubin dimer, calculated optical rotation
Imperial College London70
University of Oxford6
Natural History Museum3
University of Birmingham2
Institut National de Recherche en Santé Publique1
VU University Amsterdam1
London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine1
University of Sussex1
The University of Texas at Austin1
National Museums Scotland1