64 Works

Evolutionary implications of dental anomalies in bats

Diego A Esquivel, Renan Maestri & Sharlene E Santana
The gain or loss of anatomical features is an important mechanism of morphological evolution and ecological adaptation. Dental anomalies –the loss or gain of teeth– are widespread and a potential source of craniodental specialization among mammals, yet their macroevolutionary patterns have been rarely explored. We present the first phylogenetic comparative study of dental anomalies across the second largest mammal Order, Chiroptera (bats). We conducted an extensive literature review and surveyed a large sample of museum...

Data from: Eating down the food chain: generalism is not an evolutionary dead end for herbivores

Danny Rojas, Maria João Ramos Pereira, Carlos Fonseca & Liliana M. Dávalos
The role of trophic specialisation in taxonomic diversification remains unclear. Plant specialists diversify faster than omnivores and animalivores, but at shorter macroevolutionary scales this pattern sometimes reverses. Here, we estimate the effect of diet diversification on speciation rates in noctilionoid bats, controlling for tree shape, rate heterogeneity and macroevolutionary regimes. We hypothesise that niche subdivision among herbivores positively relates to speciation rates, differing between macroevolutionary regimes. We found the rate at which new herbivorous lineages...

Data from: The ecology of a continental evolutionary radiation: Is the radiation of sigmodontine rodents adaptive?

Renan Maestri, Leandro Rabello Monteiro, Rodrigo Fornel, Nathan S. Upham, Bruce D. Patterson & Thales Renato Ochotorena De Freitas
Evolutionary radiations on continents are less well-understood and appreciated than those occurring on islands. The extent of ecological influence on species divergence can be evaluated to determine whether a radiation was ultimately the outcome of divergent natural selection or else arose mainly by nonecological divergence. Here, we used phylogenetic comparative methods to test distinct hypotheses corresponding to adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary scenarios for the morphological evolution of sigmodontine rodents. Results showed that ecological variables (diet...

Data from: Population differentiation in the context of Holocene climate change for a migratory marine species, the southern elephant seal

Laura J. Corrigan, Anna Fabiani, Lucas F. Chauke, Clive R. McMahon, Mark De Bruyn, Marthan N. Bester, Amanda Bastos, Claudio Campagna, Monica M.C. Muelbert & A. Rus Hoelzel
Understanding observed patterns of connectivity requires an understanding of the evolutionary processes that determine genetic structure among populations, with the most common models being associated with isolation by distance, allopatry or vicariance. Pinnipeds are annual breeders with the capacity for extensive range overlap during seasonal migrations, establishing the potential for the evolution of isolation by distance. Here we assess the pattern of differentiation among six breeding colonies of the southern elephant seal, Mirounga leonina, based...

Data from: Molecular ecology of the Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis): non-invasive sampling yields insights into local population dynamics

Cristine Silveira Trinca, Camila Fernandes Jaeger & Eduardo Eizirik
Non-invasive genetic analysis has been frequently employed to estimate ecological and population parameters for many secretive and/or threatened species. However, Neotropical carnivores have so far been scarcely targeted by such studies. The Neotropical otter (Lontra longicaudis) is a poorly-known species for which local levels of genetic diversity and demographic parameters are virtually absent. We employed non-invasive sampling and amplification of microsatellite loci to investigate population size and density, spatial organization, and relatedness of a wild...

Data from: Tracing the diversification history of a Neogene rodent invasion into South America

Renan Maestri, Nathan S. Upham & Bruce D. Patterson
We investigated spatial patterns of evolutionary relatedness and diversification rates to test hypotheses about the historical biogeographic processes underlying the radiation of Neotropical rats and mice (Sigmodontinae, ~400 species). A negative correlation between mean phylogenetic distance and diversification rates of rodent assemblages reveals a pattern of species co-occurrence in which assemblages of closely related species are also the fastest diversifying ones. Subregions of the Neotropics occupied by distantly related species that are on average more...

Data from: Impact of a pre-feeding oral stimulation program on first feed attempt in preterm infants: Double-blind controlled clinical trial

Karine Da Rosa Pereira, Deborah Salle Levy, Renato S Procianoy & Rita C Silveira
Objective: To evaluate the effect of an oral stimulation program in preterm on the performance in the first oral feeding, oral feeding skills and transition time from tube to total oral intake. Study Designer: Double-blind randomized clinical trial including very preterm newborns. Congenital malformations, intracranial hemorrhage grade III or IV, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, and necrotizing enterocolitis were excluded. Intervention group (GI) received an oral stimulation program of tactile extra-, peri-, and intraoral tactile manipulation once a...

Not a melting pot: plant species aggregate in their non-native range

Gisela C. Stotz, James F. Cahill, Jonathan A. Bennett, Cameron N. Carlyle, Edward W. Bork, Diana Askarizadeh, Sandor Bartha, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Bazartseren Boldgiv, Leslie Brown, Marcelo Cabido, Giandiego Campetella, Stefano Chelli, Ofer Cohen, Sandra Díaz, Lucas Enrico, David Ensing, Batdelger Erdenetsetseg, Alessandra Fidelis, Heath W. Garris, Hugh A.L. Henry, Anke Jentsch, Mohammad Hassan Jouri, Kadri Koorem, Peter Manning … & Lauchlan H. Fraser
Aim: Plant species continue to be moved outside of their native range by human activities. Here, we aim at determining whether, once introduced, plants assimilate into native communities, or whether they aggregate, thus forming mosaics of native- and alien-rich communities. Alien species may aggregate in their non-native range due to shared habitat preferences, such as their tendency to establish in high-biomass, species-poor areas. Location: 22 herbaceous grasslands in 14 countries, mainly in the temperate zone....

Data from: A new cynodont from the Santa Maria Formation, south Brazil, improves Late Triassic probainognathian diversity

Agustín G. Martinelli, Estevam Eltink, Átila A. S. Da-Rosa & Max C. Langer
The fossil record of non-mammaliaform probainognathian cynodonts is outstanding in the Late Triassic rocks of Brazil and Argentina. Approximately 15 genera are known, providing unique insights in the study of the major skeletal transformations prior to the mammalian condition. Globally, the diversity of probainognathians is possibly under-represented, as the discovery of small- to very small-sized taxa based on relatively well-preserved specimens is rare. Several species, for example much of the Laurasian record, are based on...

Data from: Shifts and linkages of functional diversity between above- and below-ground compartments along a flooding gradient

Corentin Abgrall, Matthieu Chauvat, Estelle Langlois, Mickaël Hedde, David Mouillot, Sandrine Salmon, Bruna Winck & Estelle Forey
Trait-based approaches have the potential to reveal general and predictive relationships between organisms and ecosystem functioning. However, the mechanisms underlying the functional structure of communities are still unclear. Within terrestrial ecosystems, several studies have shown that many ecological processes are controlled by the interacting above- and below-ground compartments. However, few studies have used traits to reveal the functional relationships between plants and soil fauna. Mostly, research combining plants and soil fauna solely used the traits...

Data from: DNA metabarcoding diet analysis for species with parapatric versus sympatric distribution: a case study on subterranean rodents

Carla M. Lopes, Marta De Barba, Frédéric Boyer, Céline Mercier, Pedro J. S. Da Silva Filho, Laura M. Heidtmann, Daniel Galiano, Bruno B. Kubiak, Patrícia Langone, Felipe M. Garcias, Ludovic Gielly, Eric Coissac, Thales R. O. De Freitas & Pierre Taberlet
Closely related sympatric species commonly develop different ecological strategies to avoid competition. Ctenomys minutus and C. flamarioni are subterranean rodents parapatrically distributed in the southern Brazilian coastal plain, showing a narrow sympatric zone. To gain understanding on food preferences and possible competition for food resources, we evaluated their diet composition performing DNA metabarcoding analyzes of 67 C. minutus and 100 C. flamarioni scat samples, collected along the species geographical ranges. Thirteen plant families, mainly represented...

Data from: Multiple continental radiations and correlates of diversification in Lupinus (Leguminosae): testing for key innovation with incomplete taxon sampling

Christopher S. Drummond, Ruth J. Eastwood, Silvia T. S. Miotto & Colin E. Hughes
Replicate radiations provide powerful comparative systems to address questions about the interplay between opportunity and innovation in driving episodes of diversification and the factors limiting their subsequent progression. However, such systems have been rarely documented at intercontinental scales. Here, we evaluate the hypothesis of multiple radiations in the genus Lupinus (Leguminosae), which exhibits some of the highest known rates of net diversification in plants. Given that incomplete taxon sampling, background extinction, and lineage-specific variation in...

Effect of Drought Stress on the Genetic Architecture of Photosynthate Allocation and Remobilization in Pods of Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), a Key Species for Food Security

Paul Gepts, Jorge Carlos Berny Mier Y Teran, Enéas R. Konzen, Antonia Palkovic, Siu M. Tsai, Idupulapati M. Rao & Stephen Beebe
Background: Common bean is the most important staple grain legume for direct human consumption and nutrition. It complements major sources of carbohydrates, including cereals, root crop, or plantain, as a source of dietary proteins. It is also a significant source of vitamins and minerals like iron and zinc. To fully play its nutritional role, however, its robustness against stresses needs to be strengthened. Foremost among these is drought, which commonly affects its productivity and seed...

Functional biogeography of Neotropical moist forests: trait-climate relationships and assembly patterns of tree communities

Bruno Pinho, Marcelo Tabarelli, Cajo Ter Braak, S. J. Wright, Victor Arroyo-Rodriguez, Maíra Benchimol, Bettina Engelbrecht, Simon Pierce, Peter Hietz, Bráulio Santos, Carlos Peres, Sandra Müller, Ian Wright, Frans Bongers, Madelon Lohbeck, Ülo Niinemets, Martijn Slot, Steven Jansen, Davi Jamelli, Renato Augusto Ferreira De Lima, Nathan Swenson, Richard Condit, Jos Barlow, Ferry Slik, Manuel Hernández-Ruedas … & Felipe Melo
Aim: Here we examine the functional profile of regional tree species pools across the latitudinal distribution of Neotropical moist forests, and test trait-climate relationships among local communities. We expected opportunistic strategies (acquisitive traits, small seeds) to be overrepresented in species pools further from the equator due to long-term instability, but also in terms of abundance in local communities in currently wetter, warmer and more seasonal climates. Location: Neotropics. Time period: Recent. Major taxa studied: Trees....

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