58 Works

Changes in selection pressure can facilitate hybridization during biological invasion in a Cuban lizard

Dan Bock, Simon Baeckens, Jessica Pita-Aquino, Zachary Chejanovski, Sozos Michaelides, Pavitra Muralidhar, Oriol Lapiedra, Sungdae Park, Douglas Menke, Anthony Geneva, Jonathan Losos & Jason Kolbe
Hybridization is among the evolutionary mechanisms most frequently hypothesized to drive the success of invasive species, in part because hybrids are common in invasive populations. One explanation for this pattern is that biological invasions coincide with a change in selection pressures that limit hybridization in the native range. To investigate this possibility, we studied the introduction of the brown anole (Anolis sagrei) in the southeastern United States. We find that native populations are highly genetically...

Predation risk shapes the use of conflicting personal risk and social safety information in guppies

Laurence E. A. Feyten, Adam L. Crane, Indar W. Ramnarine & Grant E. Brown
When faced with uncertainty, animals can benefit from using multiple sources of information in order to make an optimal decision. However, information sources (e.g., social and personal cues) may conflict, while also varying in acquisition cost and reliability. Here, we assessed behavioral decisions of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), in situ, when presented with conflicting social and personal information about predation risk. We positioned foraging arenas within high- and low-predation streams, where guppies were exposed to...

Life-history traits modulate the influence of environmental stressors on biodiversity: the case of fireflies, climate, and artificial light at night

Gabriel Khattar, Stephanie Vaz, Pedro Henrique Pereira Braga, Margarete Macedo & Luiz Silveira
Aim Artificial light at night (ALAN) is an unprecedented stressor recently introduced in the abiotic milieu of natural landscapes. As such, understanding how ALAN and other natural stressors act in concert to shape the spatial distribution of biodiversity is a core goal in conservation ecology. Here, we aim at understanding how ALAN and climate interact with life-history traits and courtship signalling systems to dictate the composition of firefly communities in a global biodiversity hotspot. Location...

Data from: A quantitative review of density-dependent growth and survival in salmonids: biological mechanisms, methodological biases, and management implications

Jean-Michel Matte, Fraser Dylan & Grant James
Understanding the complex variation in patterns of density-dependent individual growth and survival across populations is critical to adaptive fisheries management, but the extent to which this variation is caused by biological or methodological differences is unclear. Consequently, we conducted a correlational meta-analysis of published literature to investigate the relative importance of methodological and biological predictors on the shape and strength of density-dependent individual growth and survival in salmonids. We obtained 160 effect sizes from 75...

Data from: The interaction between the spatial distribution of resource patches and population density: consequences for intra-specific growth and morphology

Bailey Jacobson, James W.A. Grant, Pedro R. Peres-Neto & James W. A. Grant
1. How individuals within a population distribute themselves across resource patches of varying quality has been an important focus of ecological theory. The ideal free distribution predicts equal fitness amongst individuals in a 1 : 1 ratio with resources, whereas resource defence theory predicts different degrees of monopolization (fitness variance) as a function of temporal and spatial resource clumping and population density. 2. One overlooked landscape characteristic is the spatial distribution of resource patches, altering...

Data from: Does source population size affect performance in new environments?

Matthew C. Yates & Dylan J. Fraser
Small populations are predicted to perform poorly relative to large populations when experiencing environmental change. To explore this prediction in nature, data from reciprocal transplant, common garden, and translocation studies were compared meta-analytically. We contrasted changes in performance resulting from transplantation to new environments among individuals originating from different sized source populations from plants and salmonids. We then evaluated the effect of source population size on performance in natural common garden environments and the relationship...

Data from: Despite introgressive hybridization, North American birches (Betula spp.) maintain strong differentiation at nuclear microsatellite loci

Ashley M. Thomson, Christopher W. Dick, Ana L. Pascoini & Selvadurai Dayanandan
Extensive chloroplast introgression has been documented in polyploid Betula species of eastern North America. However, the extent to which the nuclear genomes of these species are differentiated is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated genetic differentiation among largely sympatric Betula papyrifera, B. alleghaniensis, and B. lenta using nuclear microsatellite markers. Principal components analysis (PCA) and analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) were used to evaluate genetic differentiation. Bayesian model-based clustering was used to identify putatively admixed individuals. Despite...

Data from: Are heritability and selection related to population size in nature? Meta-analysis and conservation implications

Jacquelyn L.A. Wood, Matthew C. Yates, Dylan J. Fraser & Jacquelyn L. A. Wood
It is widely thought that small populations should have less additive genetic variance and respond less efficiently to natural selection than large populations. Across taxa, we meta-analytically quantified the relationship between adult census population size (N) and additive genetic variance (proxy: h2) and found no reduction in h2 with decreasing N; surveyed populations ranged from four to one million individuals (1735 h2estimates, 146 populations, 83 species). In terms of adaptation, ecological conditions may systematically differ...

Data from: Spatiotemporal relationship between adult census size and genetic population size across a wide population size gradient

Thaïs A. Bernos & Dylan J. Fraser
Adult census population size (N) and effective number of breeders (Nb) are highly relevant for designing effective conservation strategies. Both parameters are often challenging to quantify, however, making it of interest to determine whether one parameter can be generalized from the other. Yet, the spatiotemporal relationship between N and Nb has not been well characterized empirically in many taxa. We analysed this relationship for 5–7 consecutive years in twelve brook trout populations varying greatly in...

Data from: Novel, continuous monitoring of fine-scale movement using fixed-position radiotelemetry arrays and random forest location fingerprinting

Andrew B. Harbicht, Theodore Castro-Santos, William R. Ardren, Dimitry Gorsky & Dylan J. Fraser
1. Radio-tag signals from fixed-position antennas are most often used to indicate presence/absence of individuals, or to estimate individual activity levels from signal strength variation within an antenna’s detection zone. The potential of such systems to provide more precise information on tag location and movement has not been explored in great detail in an ecological setting. 2. By reversing the roles that transmitters and receivers play in localization methods common to the telecommunications industry, we...

Data from: The socially mediated recovery of a fearful fish paired with periodically replaced calm models

Adam L. Crane, Kevin R. Bairos-Novak, Laurel H. Sacco, Maud C.O. Ferrari & Maud C. O. Ferrari
Social learning is an important mechanism for acquiring knowledge about environmental risk. However, little work has explored the learning of safety and how such learning outcomes are shaped by the social environment. Here, we exposed minnows, Pimephales promelas, to a high-risk environment to induce behavioral responses associated with fear (e.g., neophobia). We then used the presence of calm conspecific models (low-risk individuals) to weaken these responses. When observers (individuals from the high-risk environment) and models...

Data from: The phylogenetics of succession can guide restoration: an example from abandoned mine sites in the subarctic

Stephanie Shooner, Chelsea Chisholm & Thomas Jonathan Davies
1. Phylogenetic tools have increasingly been used in community ecology to describe evolutionary relationships among co-occurring species. In studies of succession, such tools may allow us to identify evolutionary lineages most suited for particular stages of succession and habitat rehabilitation. However, to date these two applications have been largely separate. Here, we suggest that information on phylogenetic community structure might help inform community restoration strategies following major disturbance. 2. Our study examined phylogenetic patterns of...

Data from: Social learning in a high-risk environment: incomplete disregard for the ‘minnow that cried pike’ results in culturally transmitted neophobia

Adam L. Crane, Anthony G. E. Mathiron & Maud C. O. Ferrari
Many prey species rely on conspecifics to gather information about unknown predation threats, but little is known about the role of varying environmental conditions on the efficacy of social learning. We examined predator-naive minnows that had the opportunity to learn about predators from experienced models that were raised in either a low- or high-risk environment. There were striking differences in behaviour among models; high-risk models showed a weaker response to the predator cue and became...

Varying genetic imprints of roads and human density in North American mammal populations

Andrew Habrich, Elizabeth Lawrence & Dylan Fraser
Road networks and human density are major factors contributing to habitat fragmentation and loss, isolation of wildlife populations and reduced genetic diversity. Terrestrial mammals are particularly sensitive to road networks and encroachment by human populations. However, there are limited assessments of the impacts of road networks and human density on population-specific nuclear genetic diversity, and it remains unclear how these impacts are modulated by life history traits. Using generalized linear mixed models and microsatellite data...

The flooded habitat adaptation, niche differentiation and evolution of Myristicaceae trees in the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot in India

Shivaprakash K N, Jagadish M. Rajanna, Srikanth V Gunaga, Ravikanth Gudasalamani, Vasudeva Ramesh, Uma Shaanker6 Ramanan & Dayanandan Selvadurai
Environmental heterogeneity is considered as one of the main drivers of habitat specialization and niche evolution among tropical plant lineages, and local scale habitat specialization promotes niche differentiation among sister taxa. In this study, we examined the degree to which habitat specialization lead to niche differentiation across the distribution range of a given species using five species of the family Myristicaceae native to Western Ghats, India as an example. In the Western Ghats, Myristicaceae species...

Source pool diversity and proximity shape the compositional uniqueness of insular mammal assemblages worldwide

Katherine Hébert, Virginie Millien & Jean-Philippe Lessard
Islands have been the test bed of several theories in community ecology, biogeography, and evolutionary biology. Progress within these disciplines has given a more comprehensive and mechanistic understanding of the processes governing variation in species richness among islands. However, it remains unclear whether these same processes also explain variation in species and phylogenetic composition among islands. Integrating theory from ecology and biogeography, we infer the roles of dispersal, selection, and stochasticity on the composition of...

Data from: eDNA concentration, population size structure, and mark-recapture data

Matthew Yates, Dylan Glaser, John Post, Melania Cristescu, Dylan Fraser & Alison Derry
Organism abundance is a critical parameter in ecology, but its estimation is often challenging. Approaches utilizing eDNA to indirectly estimate abundance have recently generated substantial interest. However, preliminary correlations observed between eDNA concentration and abundance in nature are typically moderate in strength with significant unexplained variation. Here we apply a novel approach to integrate allometric scaling coefficients into models of eDNA concentration and organism abundance. We hypothesize that eDNA particle production scales non-linearly with mass,...

Données sur les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans les sédiments de l'estuaire et du golfe du Saint-Laurent (est du Canada)

Anne Corminboeuf
The St. Lawrence Estuarine System is a major seaway connecting eastern Canada with the Atlantic Ocean. Approximately 4000 vessels travel along this seaway every year that contribute, in addition to industrial activities, to anthropogenic stress in regard to many pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, the concentrations of 23 PAHs (16 parent PAHs and 7 alkyl-PAHs), total organic carbon (TOC) as well as grain-size distributions were determined in 45 surface sediment and...

Data from: Disentangling woodland caribou movements in response to clearcuts and roads across temporal scales

David Beauchesne, Jochen A. G. Jaeger, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent & Jochen AG. Jaeger
Although prey species typically respond to the most limiting factors at coarse spatiotemporal scales while addressing biological requirements at finer scales, such behaviour may become challenging for species inhabiting human altered landscapes. We investigated how woodland caribou, a threatened species inhabiting North-American boreal forests, modified their fine-scale movements when confronted with forest management features (i.e. clearcuts and roads). We used GPS telemetry data collected between 2004 and 2010 on 49 female caribou in a managed...

Data from: Soil microbial communities alter leaf chemistry and influence allelopathic potential among coexisting plant species

Scott J. Meiners, Kelsey K. Phipps, , Thomas Canam, Walter P. Carson & Thomas H. Pendergast
While both plant–soil feedbacks and allelochemical interactions are key drivers of plant community dynamics, the potential for these two drivers to interact with each other remains largely unexplored. If soil microbes influence allelochemical production, this would represent a novel dimension of heterogeneity in plant–soil feedbacks. To explore the linkage between soil microbial communities and plant chemistry, we experimentally generated soil microbial communities and evaluated their impact on leaf chemical composition and allelopathic potential. Four native...

Data from: Lesser snow goose helminths show recurring and positive parasite infection-diversity relations

Felipe Dargent, André Morrill, Ray T. Alisauskas, J. Daniel McLaughlin, Dave Shutler & Mark R. Forbes
The patterns and mechanisms by which biological diversity is associated with parasite infection risk are important to study because of their potential implications for wildlife population's conservation and management. Almost all research in this area has focused on host species diversity and has neglected parasite diversity, despite evidence that parasites are important drivers of community structure and ecosystem processes. Here, we assessed whether presence or abundance of each of nine helminth species parasitizing lesser snow...

Data from: Environmental variation is a major predictor of global trait turnover in mammals

Ben G. Holt, Gabriel C. Costa, Caterina Penone, Jean-Philippe Lessard, Thomas M. Brooks, Ana D. Davidson, S. Blair Hedges, Volker C. Radeloff, Carsten Rahbek, Carlo Rondinini & Catherine H. Graham
Aim: To evaluate how environment and evolutionary history interact to influence global patterns of mammal trait diversity (a combination of 14 morphological and life-history traits). Location: The global terrestrial environment. Taxon: Terrestrial mammals. Methods: We calculated patterns of spatial turnover for mammalian traits and phylogenetic lineages using the mean nearest taxon distance. We then used a variance partitioning approach to establish the relative contribution of trait conservatism, ecological adaptation and clade specific ecological preferences on...

Data from: Multigenerational hybridisation and its consequences for maternal effects in Atlantic salmon

Paul V. Debes, Meghan C. McBride, Dylan J. Fraser & Jeffrey A. Hutchings
Outbreeding between segregating populations can be important from an evolutionary, conservation, and economical- agricultural perspective. Whether and how outbreeding influences maternal effects in wild populations has rarely been studied, despite both the prominent maternal influence on early offspring survival and the known presence of fitness effects resulting from outbreeding in many taxa. We studied several traits during the yolk-feeding stage in multigenerational crosses between a wild and a domesticated Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) population up...

Data from: Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structure

Heloise Gibb, Nathan J. Sanders, Robert R. Dunn, Simon Watson, Manoli Photakis, Silvia Abril, Alan N. Andersen, Elena Angulo, Inge Armbrecht, Xavier Arnan, Fabricio B. Baccaro, Tom R. Bishop, Raphael Boulay, Cristina Castracani, Israel Del Toro, Thibaut Delsinne, Mireia Diaz, David A. Donoso, Martha L. Enríquez, Tom M. Fayle, Donald H. Feener, Matthew C. Fitzpatrick, Crisanto Gómez, Donato A. Grasso, Sarah Groc … & C. Gomez
Many studies have focused on the impacts of climate change on biological assemblages, yet little is known about how climate interacts with other major anthropogenic influences on biodiversity, such as habitat disturbance. Using a unique global database of 1128 local ant assemblages, we examined whether climate mediates the effects of habitat disturbance on assemblage structure at a global scale. Species richness and evenness were associated positively with temperature, and negatively with disturbance. However, the interaction...

Data from: The evolution of morphological diversity in continental assemblages of Passerine birds

Knud Andreas Jønsson, Jean Philippe Lessard, Robert E. Ricklefs & Jean-Philippe Lessard
Understanding geographic variation in the species richness and lineage composition of regional biotas is a long standing goal in ecology. Why do some evolutionary lineages proliferate while others do not, and how do new colonists fit into an established fauna? Here, we analyse the morphological structure of assemblages of passerine birds in four biogeographic regions to examine the relative influence of colonization history and niche-based processes on regional communities of passerine birds. Using morphological traits...

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  • Concordia University
  • McGill University
  • University of Quebec at Montreal
  • University of Saskatchewan
  • Dalhousie University
  • Fisheries and Oceans Canada
  • University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
  • Université de Sherbrooke
  • University of Georgia
  • Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment