121 Works

Data from: Cataract surgery visual outcomes and associated risk factors in secondary level eye care centers of L V Prasad Eye Institute, India

Rohit C. Khanna, Sumathi Matta, Gullapalli Rao, Jiwon Park, Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha & Gullapalli N. Rao
Purpose: To evaluate cataract surgery visual outcomes and associated risk factors in rural secondary level eye care centers of L V Prasad Eye Institute (LVPEI), India. Methods: The Eye Health pyramid of LVPEI has a network of rural secondary care centres (SCs) and attached vision centres (VCs) that provide high quality comprehensive eye care with permanent infrastructure to the most disadvantaged sections of society. The most common procedure performed at SCs is cataract surgery. We...

Data from: Changeable camouflage: how well can flounder resemble the colour and spatial scale of substrates in their natural habitats?

Derya Akkaynak, Liese Siemann, Alexandra Barbosa & Lydia M. Mäthger
Flounder change colour and pattern for camouflage. We used a spectrometer to measure reflectance spectra and a digital camera to capture body patterns of two flounder species camouflaged on four natural backgrounds of different spatial scale (sand, small gravel, large gravel and rocks). We quantified the degree of spectral match between flounder and background relative to the situation of perfect camouflage in which flounder and background were assumed to have identical spectral distribution. Computations were...

Data from: Ranking and characterization of established BMI and lipid associated loci as candidates for gene-environment interactions

Dmitry Shungin, Wei Q. Deng, Tibor V. Varga, Jian'an Luan, Evelin Mihailov, Andres Metspalu, Andrew P. Morris, Nita G. Forouhi, Cecilia Lindgren, Patrik K. E. Magnusson, Nancy L. Pedersen, Göran Hallmans, Audrey Y. Chu, Anne E. Justice, Mariaelisa Graff, Thomas W. Winkler, Lynda M. Rose, Claudia Langenberg, L. Adrienne Cupples, Paul M. Ridker, Nicholas J. Wareham, Ken K. Ong, Ruth J. F. Loos, Daniel I. Chasman, Erik Ingelsson … & Paul W. Franks
Phenotypic variance heterogeneity across genotypes at a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) may reflect underlying gene-environment (G·E) or gene-gene interactions. We modeled variance heterogeneity for blood lipids and BMI in up to 44,211 participants and investigated relationships between variance effects (Pv), G·E interaction effects (with smoking and physical activity), and marginal genetic effects (Pm). Correlations between Pv and Pm were stronger for SNPs with established marginal effects (Spearman's ρ=0.401 for triglycerides, and ρ=0.236 for BMI) compared...

Data from: Strength of species interactions determines biodiversity and stability in microbial communities

Christoph Ratzke, Julien Barrere & Jeff Gore
Organisms, especially microbes, tend to live in complex communities. While some of these ecosystems are very bio-diverse, others aren′t, and while some are very stable over time others undergo strong temporal fluctuations. Despite a long history of research and a plethora of data it is not fully understood what sets biodiversity and stability of ecosystems. Theory as well as experiments suggest a connection between species interaction, biodiversity, and stability of ecosystems, where an increase of...

Data from: Paleozoic diversification of terrestrial chitin-degrading bacterial lineages

Danielle S. Gruen, Joanna M. Wolfe & Gregory P. Fournier
Background: Establishing the divergence times of groups of organisms is a major goal of evolutionary biology. This is especially challenging for microbial lineages, due to the near-absence of preserved physical evidence (diagnostic body fossils or geochemical biomarkers). Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), can serve as a temporal scaffold between microbial groups and other fossil-calibrated clades, potentially improving these estimates. Specifically, HGT to or from organisms with fossil-calibrated age estimates can propagate these constraints to additional groups...

Data from: Combining role-play with interactive simulation to motivate informed climate action: evidence from the World Climate simulation

Juliette N. Rooney-Varga, John D. Sterman, Eduardo Fracassi, Travis Franck, Florian Kapmeier, Victoria Kurker, Ellie Johnston, Andrew P. Jones & Kenneth Rath
Climate change communication efforts grounded in the information deficit model have largely failed to close the gap between scientific and public understanding of the risks posed by climate change. In response, simulations have been proposed to enable people to learn for themselves about this complex and politically charged topic. Here we assess the impact of a widely-used simulation, World Climate, which combines a socially and emotionally engaging role-play with interactive exploration of climate change science...

WiDS (Women in Data Science) Datathon 2020: ICU Mortality Prediction

Meredith Lee, Jesse Raffa, Marzyeh Ghassemi, Tom Pollard, Sharada Kalanidhi, Omar Badawi, Karen Matthys & Leo Anthony Celi
WiDS (Women in Data Science) Datathon 2020: ICU Mortality Prediction focuses on patient health through data from MIT’s GOSSIS (Global Open Source Severity of Illness Score) initiative. Brought to you by the Global WiDS team, the West Big Data Innovation Hub, and the WiDS Datathon Committee, this year’s datathon is launching on Kaggle: bit.ly/WiDSdatathon2020kaggle.

Preservation of erniettomorph fossils in clay-rich siliciclastic deposits from the Ediacaran Wood Canyon Formation, Nevada

James Hall, Emmy Smith, Nobumichi Tamura, Sirine Fakra & Tanja Bosak
Three-dimensionally preserved Ediacaran fossils occur globally within sandstone beds. Sandy siliciclastic deposits of the Ediacaran Wood Canyon Formation (WCF) in the Montgomery Mountains, Nevada, contain two taphomorphs of erniettomorphs, soft-bodied organisms with uncertain taxonomic affinities. One taphomorph exhibits mm-scale ridges and a distinct lower boundary, the other is devoid of these diagnostic features but is similar in size and shape. We explore the cast-and-mould preservation of both taphomorphs by petrography, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence microprobe,...

Inferred ancestry of scytonemin biosynthesis proteins in cyanobacteria indicates a response to Paleoproterozoic oxygenation

Erik Tamre & Gregory P. Fournier
Protection from radiation damage is an important adaptation for phototrophic microbes. In the case of cyanobacteria, surface, shallow water, and peritidal environments are especially exposed to long- wavelength ultraviolet (UVA) radiation. Several groups of cyanobacteria within these environments are protected from UVA damage by the production of the pigment scytonemin. Paleontological evidence of cyanobacteria in UVA-exposed environments from the Proterozoic, and possibly as early as the Archaean, suggests a long evolutionary history of radiation protection...

RNA sequencing of nuclease dead PET127 conditions

Daniel Corbi & Angelika Amon
PET127, is thought to be a mitochondrial RNA exonuclease and loss of PET127 is thought to cause accumulation of untrimmed RNA in the mitochondria. Here we show RNA sequencing of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in four PET127 conditions: PET127 wild-type, pet127∆, pet127-nd (nuclease dead)/pet127∆, and pet127-nd/PET127. The resulting sequences show that regions of mitochondrial RNA accumulate in the pet127∆ background, and the RNA sequencing profile of PET127 containing disruptive mutations in the conserved exonuclease active site mimics...

Data from: Evolution of functional antibodies following acute Epstein-Barr Virus infection

Christina Karsten, Yannic Bartsch, Sally Shin, Matthew Slein, Howard Heller, Kumaran Kolandaivelu, Jaap Middeldorp, Galit Alter & Boris Julg
While Epstein-Barr virus causes mostly asymptomatic infection, associated malignancies, and autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases occur. To dissect the evolution of humoral immune responses over the course of EBV infection and to gain a better understanding of the potential contribution of antibody (Ab) function to viral control, we comprehensively profiled Ab specificities and Fc-functionalities using systems serology and VirScan. Ab functions against two early (p18 and p47/54) and two latent (gp350/220 and EBNA-1) EBV proteins were...

Label-free three-photon imaging of intact human cerebral organoids: Tracking early events in brain development and deficits in Rett Syndrome

Murat Yildirim, Chloe Delepine, Danielle Feldman, Vincent Pham, Stephanie Chou, Jacque Ip, Alexi Nott, Li-Huei Tsai, Guo-Li Ming, Peter So & Mriganka Sur
Human cerebral organoids are unique in their development of progenitor-rich zones akin to ventricular zones from which neuronal progenitors differentiate and migrate radially. Analyses of cerebral organoids thus far have been performed in sectioned tissue or in superficial layers due to their high scattering properties. Here, we demonstrate label-free three-photon imaging of whole, uncleared intact organoids (~2 mm depth) to assess early events of early human brain development. Optimizing a custom-made three-photon microscope to image...

Phylogenomic analysis of chitinase

Giovanna Capovilla, Rogier Braakman, Gregory Fournier, Thomas Hackl, Julia A. Schwartzman, Xinda Lu, Alexis Yelton, Krista Longnecker, Melissa K. Soule, Elaina Thomas, Gretchen Swarr, Alessandro Mongera, Jack Payette, Jacob Waldbauer, Elizabeth B. Kujawinski, Otto X. Cordero & Sallie W. Chisholm
Supplemental Information: Phylogenomic analysis of chitinase Picocyanobacterial sequences for genes involved in chitin degradation and peptidoglycan recycling pathways were found nested within branches of cyanobacterial genes, indicating vertical inheritance of peptidoglycan recycling. Picocyanobacterial sequences for chitinase (ChiA and ChiA-like) and N-acetylglucosamine kinase (NagK) were nested within non-cyanobacterial taxa, indicating Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) to picocyanobacteria after their divergence from other cyanobacteria. To contextualize the HGT of chitinase genes into ancestors of marine SynPro, we examined...

Nitrogen and water availability control plant carbon storage with warming

Guiyao Zhou, Cesar Terrer, An Huang, Bruce A. Hungate, Natasja Van Gestel, Xuhui Zhou & Kees Jan Van Groenigen
Plants may slow global warming through enhanced growth, because increased levels of photosynthesis stimulate the land carbon (C) sink. However, how climate warming affects plant C storage globally and key drivers that determining the response of plant C storage to climate warming remains unclear, causing uncertainty in climate projections. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis, compiling 393 observations from 99 warming studies to examine the global patterns of plant C storage responses to climate warming and...

Synergistic phase separation of two pathways promotes integrin clustering and nascent adhesion formation

Lindsay Case & Michael Rosen
Integrin adhesion complexes (IACs) are integrin-based plasma membrane-associated compartments where cells sense environmental cues. The physical mechanisms and molecular interactions that mediate initial IAC formation are unclear. We found that both p130Cas (“Cas”) and Focal adhesion kinase (“FAK”) undergo liquid-liquid phase separation in vitrounder physiologic conditions. Cas- and FAK- driven phase separation is sufficient to reconstitute kindlin-dependent integrin clustering in vitro with recombinant mammalian proteins. In vitro condensates and IACs in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)...

Data from: A new lineage of Galapagos giant tortoises identified from museum samples

Evelyn L. Jensen, Maud C. Quinzin, Joshua M. Miller, Michael A. Russello, Ryan Garrick, Danielle L. Edwards, Scott Glaberman, Ylenia Chiari, Nikos Poulakakis, Washington Tapia, James P. Gibbs & Adalgisa Caccone
The Galapagos Archipelago is recognized as a natural laboratory for studying evolutionary processes. San Cristóbal was one of the first islands colonized by tortoises, which radiated from there across the archipelago to inhabit 10 islands. Here, we sequenced the mitochondrial control region from six historical giant tortoises from San Cristóbal (five long deceased individuals found in a cave and one found alive during an expedition in 1906) and discovered that the five from the cave...

Additional file 3 of Population structure discovery in meta-analyzed microbial communities and inflammatory bowel disease using MMUPHin

Siyuan Ma, Dmitry Shungin, Himel Mallick, Melanie Schirmer, Long H. Nguyen, Raivo Kolde, Eric Franzosa, Hera Vlamakis, Ramnik Xavier & Curtis Huttenhower
Additional file 3: Supplemental Table 1. Additional demographic, clinical, and bioinformatics characteristics of included studies.

Additional file 9 of Population structure discovery in meta-analyzed microbial communities and inflammatory bowel disease using MMUPHin

Siyuan Ma, Dmitry Shungin, Himel Mallick, Melanie Schirmer, Long H. Nguyen, Raivo Kolde, Eric Franzosa, Hera Vlamakis, Ramnik Xavier & Curtis Huttenhower
Additional file 9: Supplemental Table 7. Consensus loadings for the two identified continuous scores characterizing the IBD gut microbiome population structure.

Additional file 4 of Population structure discovery in meta-analyzed microbial communities and inflammatory bowel disease using MMUPHin

Siyuan Ma, Dmitry Shungin, Himel Mallick, Melanie Schirmer, Long H. Nguyen, Raivo Kolde, Eric Franzosa, Hera Vlamakis, Ramnik Xavier & Curtis Huttenhower
Additional file 4: Supplemental Table 2. Full set of varying simulation parameters evaluated for MMUPHin validation.

Data from: Slowly switching between environments facilitates reverse evolution in small populations

Longzhi Tan & Jeff Gore
Natural populations must constantly adapt to ever-changing environmental conditions. A particularly interesting question is whether such adaptations can be reversed by returning the population to an ancestral environment. Such evolutionary reversals have been observed in both natural and laboratory populations. However, the factors that determine the reversibility of evolution are still under debate. The timescales of environmental change vary over a wide range, but little is known about how the rate of environmental change influences...

Data from: Reading the leaves: a comparison of leaf rank and automated areole measurement for quantifying aspects of leaf venation

Walton A. Green, Stefan A. Little, Charles A. Price, Scott L. Wing, Selena Y. Smith, Benjamin Kotrc & Gabriela Doria
The reticulate venation that is characteristic of a dicot leaf has excited interest from systematists for more than a century, and from physiological and developmental botanists for decades. The tools of digital image acquisition and computer image analysis, however, are only now approaching the sophistication needed to quantify aspects of the venation network found in real leaves quickly, easily, accurately, and reliably enough to produce biologically meaningful data. In this paper, we examine 120 leaves...

Data from: Specialty choice in times of economic crisis: a cross-sectional survey of Spanish medical students

Jeffrey E. Harris, Beatriz González López-Valcárcel, Vicente Ortún & Patricia Barber
Objective: To investigate the determinants of specialty choice among graduating medical students in Spain, a country that entered into a severe, ongoing economic crisis in 2008. Setting: Since 2008, the percentage of Spanish medical school graduates electing Family and Community Medicine (FCM) has experienced a reversal after more than a decade of decline. Design: A nationwide cross-sectional survey conducted online in April 2011. Participants: We invited all students in their final year before graduation from...

Data from: Charting the complete elastic properties of inorganic crystalline compounds

Maarten De Jong, Wei Chen, Thomas Angsten, Anubhav Jain, Randy Notestine, Anthony Gamst, Marcel Sluiter, Chaitanya Krishna Ande, Sybrand Van Der Zwaag, Jose J. Plata, Cormac Toher, Stefano Curtarolo, Gerbrand Ceder, Kristin A. Persson & Mark Asta
The elastic constant tensor of an inorganic compound provides a complete description of the response of the material to external stresses in the elastic limit. It thus provides fundamental insight into the nature of the bonding in the material, and it is known to correlate with many mechanical properties. Despite the importance of the elastic constant tensor, it has been measured for a very small fraction of all known inorganic compounds, a situation that limits...

Data from: Ecosystem interactions underlie the spread of avian influenza A viruses with pandemic potential

Justin Bahl, Truc T. Pham, Nichola J. Hill, Islam T. M. Hussein, Eric J. Ma, Bernard C. Easterday, Rebecca A. Halpin, Timothy B. Stockwell, David E. Wentworth, Ghazi Kayali, Scott Krauss, Stacey Schultz-Cherry, Robert G. Webster, Richard J. Webby, Michael D. Swartz, Gavin J. D. Smith & Jonathan A. Runstadler
Despite evidence for avian influenza A virus (AIV) transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems, the roles of bird migration and poultry trade in the spread of viruses remain enigmatic. In this study we integrate ecosystem interactions into a phylogeographic model to assess the contribution of wild and domestic hosts to AIV distribution and persistence. Analysis of globally sampled AIV datasets shows frequent two-way transmission between wild and domestic ecosystems. In general, viral flow from domestic...

Data from: Will a small randomly-assembled community be feasible and stable?

Chuliang Song & Serguei Saavedra
How likely is that few species can randomly assemble into a feasible and stable community? Some studies have answered that as long as the community is feasible, it will nearly always be stable. In contrast, other studies have answered that the likelihood is almost null. Here, we show that the origin of this debate has been the underestimation of the association of the parameter space of intrinsic growth rates with the feasibility and stability properties...

Registration Year

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    28
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Resource Types

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Affiliations

  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    120
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    21
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    17
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    14
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