139 Works

A neural circuit for flexible control of persistent behavioral states

Ni Ji, Gurrein K. Madan, Guadalupe Fabre, Alyssa Dayan, Casey Baker, Ijeoma Nwabudike & Steven W. Flavell
To adapt to their environments, animals must generate behaviors that are closely aligned to a rapidly changing sensory world. However, behavioral states such as foraging or courtship typically persist over long time scales. It remains unclear how neural circuits generate persistent behavioral states while maintaining flexibility to switch states when the context changes. Here, we elucidate the architecture of a circuit controlling the choice between roaming and dwelling foraging states in C. elegans. Through ensemble-level...

Data from: Pioneer cells established by the [SWI+] prion can promote dispersal and out-crossing in yeast

Gregory A. Newby & Susan Lindquist
To thrive in an ever-changing environment, microbes must widely distribute their progeny to colonize new territory. Simultaneously, they must evolve and adapt to the stresses of unpredictable surroundings. In both of these regards, diversity is key—if an entire population moved together or responded to the environment in the same way, it could easily go extinct. Here, we show that the epigenetic prion switch [SWI+] establishes a specialized subpopulation with a “pioneer” phenotypic program in Saccharomyces...

Data from: Horizontal gene transfer constrains the timing of methanogen evolution

Joanna M. Wolfe & Gregory P. Fournier
Microbial methanogenesis may have been a major component of Earth’s carbon cycle during the Archaean eon, generating a methane greenhouse that increased global temperatures enough for a liquid hydrosphere, despite the Sun’s lower luminosity at the time. Evaluation of potential solutions to the ‘faint young Sun’ hypothesis by determining the age of microbial methanogenesis has been limited by ambiguous geochemical evidence and the absence of a diagnostic fossil record. To overcome these challenges, we use...

Improved route to a diphenoxide-based precursor for CVD of parylene AF-4

Daniel Kast, Gerhard Franz & Jay J. Senkevich
In this work, we present an easy synthesis of a alternative precursor for CVD of parylene AF-4 to the widely used standard, Octafluoro[2.2]paracyclophane. The standard precursor suffers from uncertainties in its supply chain and its synthesis is of low yield. A comparison between different reaction parameters and solvents are being discussed by means of thermal, laboratory scale and microwave assisted reactions and qNMR studies.

Data from: Effects of diet on cranial morphology and biting ability in musteloid mammals

Chris J. Law, Emma Duran, Nancy Hung, Ekai Richards, Isaac Santillan & Rita S. Mehta
Size and shape are often considered important variables that lead to variation in performance. In studies of feeding, size‐corrected metrics of the skull are often used as proxies of biting performance; however, few studies have examined the relationship between cranial shape in its entirety and estimated bite force across species and how dietary ecologies may affect these variables differently. Here, we used geometric morphometric and phylogenetic comparative approaches to examine relationships between cranial morphology and...

Supplementary data, code, and information for ‘Atlantic Hurricane Trends linked to Climate Change’ (Mann et al. 2006)

M.E. Mann & K. Emanuel
Increases in key measures of Atlantic hurricane activity over recent decades are believed to reflect, in large part, contemporaneous increases in tropical Atlantic warmth [e.g., Emanuel, 2005]. Some recent studies [e.g., Goldenberg et al., 2001] have attributed these increases to a natural climate cycle termed the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO), while other studies suggest that climate change may instead be playing the dominant role [Emanuel, 2005; Webster et al., 2005]. Using a formal statistical analysis...

Colonization of Piriformospora indica enhances insect herbivore resistance of rice plants through jasmonic acid- and antioxidant-mediated defense mechanisms

Chih-Yun Chen, Po-Hsun Huang, Kai-Wun Yeh & Shu-Jen Wang
Piriformospora indica (P. indica) is a mutualistic endophyte that colonizes plant roots. In this study, effects of P. indica on rice resistance against rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenée) were investigated. Growth inhibition and leaf injury caused by leaffolder larvae infestation in P. indica-colonized rice was significantly alleviated. Moreover, growth retardation was observed in larvae which fed on P. indica-colonized plants. JA-Ile levels and trypsin inhibitor activities in leaf tissues of P. indica-colonized plants were higher...

SMRT sequencing data on four hypersuppressive Saccharomyces cereviciae mitochondrial DNAs

Daniel Corbi & Angelika Amon
Hypersuppressive mitochondrial DNAs are thought to be linear tandem repeats of the base unit of specific ORI regions on the mitochondrial genome. Here we confirm the linear tandem repeats using SMRT sequencing technology on four hypersuppressive clones. Mitochondrial DNA from four Saccharomyces cervisiae hypersuppressive mutants and a wild-type control was enriched and sequenced using SMRT sequencing technology.

Atmospheric observational datasets: Ozone vertical profiles in the polar middle atmosphere north of Ny Ålesund, Spitsbergen

David Newnham
The data are from a study investigating ozone (O3) variability in the polar mesosphere and lower thermosphere and uncertainties / biases in satellite ozone profile measurements. The datasets include 1) processed atmospheric datasets derived from O3 observations by the ground-based Ny Ålesund Ozone in the Mesosphere Instrument (NAOMI), an 11.072 GHz ozone radiometer making atmospheric observations from Ny Ålesund, Spitsbergen since 4 July 2017, 2) processed atmospheric datasets derived from selected O3 observations by the...

Source Data for Crowdsourcing Bridge Dynamic Monitoring with Smartphone Vehicle Trips

Thomas Matarazzo, Daniel Kondor, Sebastiano Milardo, Soheil Eshkevari, Paolo Santi, Shamim Pakzad, Markus Buehler & Carlo Ratti
This data accompanies the study "Crowdsourcing Bridge Dynamic Monitoring with Smartphone Vehicle Trips" published in (Nature) Communications Engineering. This paper focuses on using large and inexpsensive datasets for obtaining information on the dynamics of bridges. In this study, data is collected by smartphones in moving vehicles as the cross over a bridge, in three distinct applications. Smartphone data was collected in controlled field experiments and uncontrolled Uber rides on a long-span suspension bridge in the...

Supplemental Material for Bruna et al., 2022

Tomáš Brůna, Rishi Aryal, Olga Dudchenko, Daniel James Sargent, Daniel Mead, Matteo Buti, Andrea Cavallini, Timo Hytönen, Javier Andrés, Melanie Pham, David Weisz, Flavia Mascagni, Gabriele Usai, Lucia Natali, Nahla Bassil, Gina E. Fernandez, Alexandre Lomsadze, Mitchell Armour, Bode Olukolu, Thomas Poorten, Caitlin Britton, Jahn Davik, Hamid Ashrafi, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Mark Borodovsky … & Margaret Worthington
Supplemental Material

Supplemental Material for Bruna et al., 2022

Tomáš Brůna, Rishi Aryal, Olga Dudchenko, Daniel James Sargent, Daniel Mead, Matteo Buti, Andrea Cavallini, Timo Hytönen, Javier Andrés, Melanie Pham, David Weisz, Flavia Mascagni, Gabriele Usai, Lucia Natali, Nahla Bassil, Gina E. Fernandez, Alexandre Lomsadze, Mitchell Armour, Bode Olukolu, Thomas Poorten, Caitlin Britton, Jahn Davik, Hamid Ashrafi, Erez Lieberman Aiden, Mark Borodovsky … & Margaret Worthington
Supplemental Material

FasL microgels induce immune acceptance of islet allografts in nonhuman primates

Andres Garcia, Ji Lei, María M. Coronel, Esma S. Yolcu, Hongping Deng, Orlando Grimany-Nuno, Michael D. Hunckler, Vahap Ulker, Zhihong Yang, Kang M. Lee, Alexander Zhang, Hao Luo, Cole W. Peters, Zhongliang Zou, Tao Chen, Zhenjuan Wang, Colleen S. McCoy, Ivy A. Rosales, James F. Markmann, Haval Shirwan & Andrés J. García
Islet transplantation to treat insulin-dependent diabetes is greatly limited by the need for maintenance immunosuppression. We report a strategy through which cotransplantation of allogeneic islets and streptavidin (SA)–FasL–presenting microgels to the omentum under transient rapamycin monotherapy resulted in robust glycemic control, sustained C-peptide levels, and graft survival in diabetic nonhuman primates for >6 months. Surgical extraction of the graft resulted in prompt hyperglycemia. In contrast, animals receiving microgels without SA-FasL under the same rapamycin regimen...

Morphogenetic forces planar polarize LGN/Pins in the embryonic head during Drosophila gastrulation

Adam Martin, Jaclyn Camuglia & Soline Chanet
Spindle orientation is often achieved by a complex of Partner of Inscuteable (Pins)/LGN, Mud/NuMa, Gai, and Dynein, which interacts with astral microtubules to rotate the spindle. Cortical Pins/LGN recruitment serves as a critical step in this process. Here, we identify Pins-mediated planar cell polarized divisions in several of the mitotic domains of the early Drosophila embryo. We found that neither planar cell polarity pathways nor planar polarized myosin localization determined division orientation; instead, our findings...

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