Preservation of erniettomorph fossils in clay-rich siliciclastic deposits from the Ediacaran Wood Canyon Formation, NevadaJames Hall, Emmy Smith, Nobumichi Tamura, Sirine Fakra & Tanja Bosak
Three-dimensionally preserved Ediacaran fossils occur globally within sandstone beds. Sandy siliciclastic deposits of the Ediacaran Wood Canyon Formation (WCF) in the Montgomery Mountains, Nevada, contain two taphomorphs of erniettomorphs, soft-bodied organisms with uncertain taxonomic affinities. One taphomorph exhibits mm-scale ridges and a distinct lower boundary, the other is devoid of these diagnostic features but is similar in size and shape. We explore the cast-and-mould preservation of both taphomorphs by petrography, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence microprobe,...
WiDS (Women in Data Science) Datathon 2020: ICU Mortality Prediction focuses on patient health through data from MIT’s GOSSIS (Global Open Source Severity of Illness Score) initiative. Brought to you by the Global WiDS team, the West Big Data Innovation Hub, and the WiDS Datathon Committee, this year’s datathon is launching on Kaggle: bit.ly/WiDSdatathon2020kaggle.
Microbial dispersal often leads to the arrival of outsider organisms into ecosystems. When their arrival give rise to successful invasions, outsider species establish within the resident community, which can dramatically alter the ecosystem. Seemingly less influential, the potential impact of unsuccessful invaders that interact only transiently with the community has remained largely ignored. Here, we experimentally demonstrate that such transient invasions can perturb the stability of microbial ecosystems and induce a lasting transition to an...
Data from: Brain states govern the spatio-temporal dynamics of resting-state functional connectivityFelipe Aedo Jury, Miriam Schwalm, Lara Hamzehpour & Albrecht Stroh
Previously, using simultaneous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and photometry-based neuronal calcium recordings in the anesthetized rat, we identified blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) responses directly related to slow calcium waves, revealing a cortex-wide and spatially organized correlate of locally recorded neuronal activity (Schwalm et al., 2017). Here, using the same techniques, we investigate two distinct cortical activity states: persistent activity, in which compartmentalized network dynamics were observed; and slow wave activity, dominated by a...
Across-species differences in pitch perception are consistent with differences in cochlear filteringKerry M M Walker, Ray Gonzalez, Joe Z Kang, Josh H McDermott & Andrew J King
Pitch perception is critical for recognizing speech, music and animal vocalizations, but its neurobiological basis remains unsettled, in part because of divergent results across species. We investigated whether species-specific differences exist in the cues used to perceive pitch and whether these can be accounted for by differences in the auditory periphery. Ferrets accurately generalized pitch discriminations to untrained stimuli whenever temporal envelope cues were robust in the probe sounds, but not when resolved harmonics were...
Data from: Whole-organism behavioral profiling reveals a role for dopamine in state-dependent motor program coupling in C. elegans.Steven Flavell, Nathan Cermak, Stephanie Yu, Rebekah Clark, Yung-Chi Huang & Saba Baskoylu
Animal behaviors are commonly organized into long-lasting states that coordinately impact the generation of diverse motor outputs such as feeding, locomotion, and grooming. However, the neural mechanisms that coordinate these diverse motor programs remain poorly understood. Here, we examine how the distinct motor programs of the nematode C. elegans are coupled together across behavioral states. We describe a new imaging platform that permits automated, simultaneous quantification of each of the main C. elegans motor programs...
Data from: Laboratory culture of the California Sea Firefly Vargula tsujii (Ostracoda: Cypridinidae): developing a model system for the evolution of marine bioluminescenceJessica A. Goodheart, Geetanjali Minsky, Mira N. Brynjegard-Bialik, Michael S. Drummond, J. David Munoz, Timothy R. Fallon, Darrin T. Schultz, Jing-Ke Weng, Elizabeth Torres & Todd H. Oakley
Bioluminescence, or the production of light by living organisms via chemical reaction, is widespread across Metazoa. Laboratory culture of bioluminescent organisms from diverse taxonomic groups is important for determining the biosynthetic pathways of bioluminescent substrates, which may lead to new tools for biotechnology and biomedicine. Some bioluminescent groups may be cultured, including some cnidarians, ctenophores, and brittle stars, but those use luminescent substrates (luciferins) obtained from their diets, and therefore are not informative for determination...
The instrumental record reveals that tropical cyclone activity is sensitive to oceanic and atmospheric variability on inter-annual and decadal scales. However, our understanding of climate’s influence on tropical cyclone behavior is restricted by the short historical record and sparse prehistorical reconstructions, particularly in the western North Pacific where coastal communities suffer loss of life and livelihood from typhoons annually. Here we reconstruct three millennia of deep tropical North Pacific cyclogenesis and compare with other records...
The process by which visual information is incorporated into the brain’s spatial framework to represent landmarks is poorly understood. Studies in humans and rodents suggest that retrosplenial cortex (RSC) plays a key role in these computations. We developed an RSC-dependent behavioral task in which head-fixed mice learned the spatial relationship between visual landmark cues and hidden reward locations. Two-photon imaging revealed that these cues served as dominant reference points for most task-active neurons and anchored...
To adapt to their environments, animals must generate behaviors that are closely aligned to a rapidly changing sensory world. However, behavioral states such as foraging or courtship typically persist over long time scales. It remains unclear how neural circuits generate persistent behavioral states while maintaining flexibility to switch states when the context changes. Here, we elucidate the architecture of a circuit controlling the choice between roaming and dwelling foraging states in C. elegans. Through ensemble-level...
In this work, we present an easy synthesis of a alternative precursor for CVD of parylene AF-4 to the widely used standard, Octafluoro[2.2]paracyclophane. The standard precursor suffers from uncertainties in its supply chain and its synthesis is of low yield. A comparison between different reaction parameters and solvents are being discussed by means of thermal, laboratory scale and microwave assisted reactions and qNMR studies.
Under certain conditions, a fermion in a superconductor can separate in space into two parts known as Majorana zero modes, which are immune to decoherence from local noise sources and are attractive building blocks for quantum computers. Promising experimental progress has been made to demonstrate Majorana zero modes in materials with strong spin-orbit coupling proximity coupled to superconductors. Here we show direct evidence of the split Majorana pair in a new material platform utilizing the...
Low-cost smartphone-based sensing approaches have recently emerged as an alternative to the traditional and oftentimes expensive or laborious road surface monitoring technologies. We develop an approach, resting on a rigorously derived mechanistic and stochastic model in spectral domain, that relates the vertical acceleration signal measured by a smartphone positioned in a moving car to road surface roughness metrics. We illustrate that the inferred roughness metrics from the acceleration data sets, acquired with different smartphones and...
Massachusetts Institute of Technology13
University of Massachusetts Darmouth1
University of Massachusetts Dartmouth1
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology1
Johns Hopkins University1
Munich University of Applied Sciences1
Texas A&M University – Central Texas1
University of California, San Diego1