14 Works

Chimeric inheritance and crown-group acquisitions of Carbon fixation genes within Chlorobiales

Madeline Paoletti & Gregory Fournier
The geological record of microbial metabolisms and ecologies primarily consists of stable isotope fractionations and the diagenetic products of biogenic lipids. Carotenoid lipid biomarkers are particularly useful proxies for reconstructing this record, providing information on microbial phototroph primary productivity, redox couples, and oxygenation. The biomarkers okenane, chlorobactane, and isorenieratene are generally considered to be evidence of anoxygenic phototrophs, and provide a record that extends to ~1.64 Ga. The utility of the carotenoid biomarker record may...

Building consensus for ambitious climate action through the World Climate Simulation

Juliette Rooney-Varga, Margaret Hensel, Carolyn McCarthy, Karen McNeal, Nicole Norfles, Kenneth Rath, Audrey Schnell, John Sterman, Juliette N. Rooney‐Varga, Audrey H. Schnell & John D. Sterman
Sociopolitical values are an important driver of climate change beliefs, attitudes, and policy preferences. People with 'individualist-hierarchical' values favor individual freedom, competition, and clearly defined social hierarchies, while communitarian-egalitarians value interdependence and equality across gender, age, heritage, and ethnicity. In the US, individualist-hierarchs generally perceive less risk from climate change and express lower support for actions to mitigate it than communitarian-egalitarians. Exposure to scientific information does little to change these views. Here, we ask if...

Regridded subset of MODIS chlorophyll, OC-CCI chlorophyll, MODIS sea surface temperature; basin bathymetric depth

Gregory Britten
The North Atlantic phytoplankton bloom depends on a confluence of environmental factors that drive transient periods of exponential phytoplankton growth and interannual variability in bloom magnitude. I analyze interannual bloom variability in the North Atlantic via extreme value theory where the Generalized Extreme Value Distribution (GEVD) is fitted spatially to annual maxima of satellite-measured surface chlorophyll. I find excellent agreement between the observed distribution of interannual bloom maxima and those predicted from the GEVD. The...

Biomimetic robotic skin implemented with hydrogel-elastomer hybrids and tomographic imaging methods

Kyungseo Park, Jung Kim, MinJin Yang, Junhwi Cho, Hyunwoo Yuk & Hyosang Lee
Human skin perceives physical stimuli applied to the body and mitigates the risk of physical interaction through its soft and resilient mechanical properties. Social robots would benefit from whole-body robotic skin (or tactile sensors) resembling human skin in realizing a safe, intuitive, and contact-rich interaction with humans. However, existing soft tactile sensors show several drawbacks (complex structure, poor scalability, and fragility), which limit their application in whole-body robotic skin. Here, we introduce biomimetic robotic skin...

Atmospheric observational datasets: Ozone vertical profiles in the polar middle atmosphere north of Ny Ålesund, Spitsbergen

David Newnham
The data are from a study investigating ozone (O3) variability in the polar mesosphere and lower thermosphere and uncertainties / biases in satellite ozone profile measurements. The datasets include 1) processed atmospheric datasets derived from O3 observations by the ground-based Ny Ålesund Ozone in the Mesosphere Instrument (NAOMI), an 11.072 GHz ozone radiometer making atmospheric observations from Ny Ålesund, Spitsbergen since 4 July 2017, 2) processed atmospheric datasets derived from selected O3 observations by the...

Tidal dispersion in short estuaries

Adrian Mikhail P. Garcia & W. Rockwell Geyer
The salinity distribution of an estuary depends on the balance between the river outflow, which is seaward, and a dispersive salt flux, which is landward. The dispersive salt flux at a fixed cross-section can be divided into shear dispersion, which is caused by spatial correlations of the cross-sectionally varying velocity and salinity, and the tidal oscillatory salt flux, which results from the tidal correlation between the cross-section averaged, tidally varying components of velocity and salinity....

Tracking the ancestry of known and ‘ghost’ homeologous subgenomes in model grass Brachypodium polyploids

Rubén Sancho, Luis Ángel Inda, Antonio Díaz-Pérez, David L Des Marais, Sean Gordon, John Vogel, Joanna Lusinska, Robert Hasterok, Bruno Contreras-Moreira & Pilar Catalán
Unraveling the evolution of plant polyploids is a challenge when their diploid progenitor species are extinct or unknown or when genome sequences of known progenitors are unavailable. Existing subgenome identification methods cannot adequately infer the homeologous genomes that are present in the allopolyploids if they do not take into account the potential existence of unknown progenitors. We addressed this challenge in the widely distributed dysploid grass genus Brachypodium, which is a model genus for temperate...

Telerobotic neurovascular interventions with magnetic manipulation

Yoonho Kim, Emily Genevriere, Pablo Harker, Jaehun Choe, Marcin Balicki, Robert W. Regenhardt, Justin E. Vranic, Adam A. Dmytriw, Aman B. Patel & Xuanhe Zhao
Advances in robotic technology have been adopted in various subspecialties of both open and minimally invasive surgery, offering benefits such as enhanced surgical precision and accuracy with reduced fatigue of the surgeon. Despite the advantages, robotic applications to endovascular neurosurgery have remained largely unexplored because of technical challenges such as the miniaturization of robotic devices that can reach the complex and tortuous vasculature of the brain. Although some commercial systems enable robotic manipulation of conventional...

Data from: A new lineage of Galapagos giant tortoises identified from museum samples

Evelyn L. Jensen, Maud C. Quinzin, Joshua M. Miller, Michael A. Russello, Ryan Garrick, Danielle L. Edwards, Scott Glaberman, Ylenia Chiari, Nikos Poulakakis, Washington Tapia, James P. Gibbs & Adalgisa Caccone
The Galapagos Archipelago is recognized as a natural laboratory for studying evolutionary processes. San Cristóbal was one of the first islands colonized by tortoises, which radiated from there across the archipelago to inhabit 10 islands. Here, we sequenced the mitochondrial control region from six historical giant tortoises from San Cristóbal (five long deceased individuals found in a cave and one found alive during an expedition in 1906) and discovered that the five from the cave...

Label-free three-photon imaging of intact human cerebral organoids: Tracking early events in brain development and deficits in Rett Syndrome

Murat Yildirim, Chloe Delepine, Danielle Feldman, Vincent Pham, Stephanie Chou, Jacque Ip, Alexi Nott, Li-Huei Tsai, Guo-Li Ming, Peter So & Mriganka Sur
Human cerebral organoids are unique in their development of progenitor-rich zones akin to ventricular zones from which neuronal progenitors differentiate and migrate radially. Analyses of cerebral organoids thus far have been performed in sectioned tissue or in superficial layers due to their high scattering properties. Here, we demonstrate label-free three-photon imaging of whole, uncleared intact organoids (~2 mm depth) to assess early events of early human brain development. Optimizing a custom-made three-photon microscope to image...

Synergistic phase separation of two pathways promotes integrin clustering and nascent adhesion formation

Lindsay Case & Michael Rosen
Integrin adhesion complexes (IACs) are integrin-based plasma membrane-associated compartments where cells sense environmental cues. The physical mechanisms and molecular interactions that mediate initial IAC formation are unclear. We found that both p130Cas (“Cas”) and Focal adhesion kinase (“FAK”) undergo liquid-liquid phase separation in vitrounder physiologic conditions. Cas- and FAK- driven phase separation is sufficient to reconstitute kindlin-dependent integrin clustering in vitro with recombinant mammalian proteins. In vitro condensates and IACs in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs)...

Data from: Evolution of functional antibodies following acute Epstein-Barr Virus infection

Christina Karsten, Yannic Bartsch, Sally Shin, Matthew Slein, Howard Heller, Kumaran Kolandaivelu, Jaap Middeldorp, Galit Alter & Boris Julg
While Epstein-Barr virus causes mostly asymptomatic infection, associated malignancies, and autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases occur. To dissect the evolution of humoral immune responses over the course of EBV infection and to gain a better understanding of the potential contribution of antibody (Ab) function to viral control, we comprehensively profiled Ab specificities and Fc-functionalities using systems serology and VirScan. Ab functions against two early (p18 and p47/54) and two latent (gp350/220 and EBNA-1) EBV proteins were...

Phylogenomic analysis of chitinase

Giovanna Capovilla, Rogier Braakman, Gregory Fournier, Thomas Hackl, Julia A. Schwartzman, Xinda Lu, Alexis Yelton, Krista Longnecker, Melissa K. Soule, Elaina Thomas, Gretchen Swarr, Alessandro Mongera, Jack Payette, Jacob Waldbauer, Elizabeth B. Kujawinski, Otto X. Cordero & Sallie W. Chisholm
Supplemental Information: Phylogenomic analysis of chitinase Picocyanobacterial sequences for genes involved in chitin degradation and peptidoglycan recycling pathways were found nested within branches of cyanobacterial genes, indicating vertical inheritance of peptidoglycan recycling. Picocyanobacterial sequences for chitinase (ChiA and ChiA-like) and N-acetylglucosamine kinase (NagK) were nested within non-cyanobacterial taxa, indicating Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) to picocyanobacteria after their divergence from other cyanobacteria. To contextualize the HGT of chitinase genes into ancestors of marine SynPro, we examined...

Nitrogen and water availability control plant carbon storage with warming

Guiyao Zhou, Cesar Terrer, An Huang, Bruce A. Hungate, Natasja Van Gestel, Xuhui Zhou & Kees Jan Van Groenigen
Plants may slow global warming through enhanced growth, because increased levels of photosynthesis stimulate the land carbon (C) sink. However, how climate warming affects plant C storage globally and key drivers that determining the response of plant C storage to climate warming remains unclear, causing uncertainty in climate projections. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis, compiling 393 observations from 99 warming studies to examine the global patterns of plant C storage responses to climate warming and...

Registration Year

  • 2022
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Affiliations

  • Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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  • Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    2
  • Massachusetts General Hospital
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  • MacEwan University
    1
  • University of Pennsylvania
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  • University of California, Merced
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  • University of Crete
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  • Cambridge–MIT Institute
    1
  • Chinese University of Hong Kong
    1
  • University of Silesia
    1