28 Works

Reproductive success of mountain pine beetle infesting cut bolts of Great Basin bristlecone pine, limber pine, and lodgepole pine

Barbara Bentz, Karen E. Mock & Erika Eidson
The preference-performance hypothesis states that ovipositing phytophagous insects will select host plants that are well-suited for their offspring and avoid host plants that do not support offspring performance (survival, development and fitness). The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), a native insect herbivore in western North America, can successfully attack and reproduce in most species of Pinus throughout its native range. However, mountain pine beetles avoid attacking Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva), despite recent climate-driven...

Data for: Differential landscape use by forest owls two years after a mixed-severity wildfire

Leila Duchac
Owls are important avian predators in forested systems, but little is known about landscape use by most forest-adapted owl species in environments impacted by mixed-severity wildfire. To better understand species-specific patterns of post-wildfire landscape use within an owl guild we used passive acoustic monitoring using autonomous recording units. The technology is effective for multi-species surveys, especially if some species are rare, nocturnal, or difficult to detect by traditional means. In 2017 we surveyed the interior...

Data from: Evaluating the use of lidar to discern snag characteristics important for wildlife

Jessica M. Stitt, Andrew T. Hudak, Carlos A. Silva, Lee A. Vierling & Kerri T. Vierling
Standing dead trees (known as snags) are historically difficult to map and model using airborne laser scanning (ALS), or lidar. Specific snag characteristics are important for wildlife; for instance, a larger snag with a broken top can serve as a nesting platform for raptors. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether characteristics such as top intactness could be inferred from discrete-return ALS data. We collected structural information for 198 snags in closed-canopy conifer...

Seeds of success: a conservation and restoration investment in the future of US lands

Sarah Barga, Elizabeth Leger, Peggy Olwell, Fred Edwards & Leah Prescott
Seeds of Success (SOS) is a national seed collection program led by the Bureau of Land Management. SOS represents the most comprehensive native seed repository in the US, supporting native plant restoration, management, and research. Since inception in 2000, SOS has collected seeds from over 24,400 native plant populations from ~5,600 taxa from 43 states. Collections include species important to wildlife, pollinators, and indigenous people, and over 10,000 collections have been shared for restoration and...

Combining biogeographic approaches to advance invasion ecology and methodology

Yvette Ortega, Dean Pearson, Ozkan Eren, Yvette Ortega, Jose Hierro, Birsen Karakuş, Sascha Kala, Lorinda Bullington & Ylva Lekberg
1) Understanding the causes of plant invasions requires that parallel field studies are conducted in the native and introduced ranges to elucidate how biogeographic shifts alter the individual performance, population success, and community-level impacts of invading plants. Three primary methods deployed in in situ biogeographic studies are directed surveys, where researchers seek out populations of target species, randomized surveys, and field experiments. Despite the importance of these approaches for advancing biogeographic research, their relative merits...

Data from: Strong patterns of intraspecific variation and local adaptation in Great Basin plants revealed through a review of 75 years of experiments

Owen W. Baughman, Alison C. Agneray, Matthew L. Forister, Francis F. Kilkenny, Erin K. Espeland, Rob Fiegener, Matthew E. Horning, Richard C. Johnson, Thomas N. Kaye, Jeffery Ott, John Bradley St. Clair & Elizabeth A. Leger
Variation in natural selection across heterogeneous landscapes often produces 1) among-population differences in phenotypic traits, 2) trait-by-environment associations, and 3) higher fitness of local populations. Using a broad literature review of common garden studies published between 1941 and 2017, we documented the commonness of these three signatures in plants native to North America’s Great Basin, an area of extensive restoration and revegetation efforts, and asked which traits and environmental variables were involved. We also asked,...

Data from: Response of mountain Picea abies forests to stand-replacing bark beetle outbreaks: neighbourhood effects lead to self-replacement

Thorsten Zeppenfeld, Miroslav Svoboda, Robert Justin DeRose, Marco Heurich, Jörg Müller, Pavla Čížková, Martin Starý, Radek Bače & Daniel C. Donato
1. Large, severe disturbances drive many forest ecosystems over the long term, but pose management uncertainties when human experience with them is limited. Recent continent-scale outbreaks of bark beetles across the temperate Northern Hemisphere have raised major concerns as to whether coniferous forests will regenerate back towards pre-outbreak condition and meet possible reforestation objectives. To date, however, analyses of post-outbreak regeneration across broad spatial and temporal scales have been rare, and entirely lacking for many...

Data from: Fire evolution in the radioactive forests of Ukraine and Belarus: future risks for the population and the environment

Nikolaos Evangeliou, Yves Balkanski, Anne Cozic, Wei Min Hao, Florent Mouillot, Kirsten Thonicke, Ronan Paugam, Sergey Zibtsev, Timothy A. Mousseau, Rong Wang, Benjamin Poulter, Alex Petkov, Chao Yue, Patricia Cadule, Brigitte Koffi, Johannes W. Kaiser & Anders Pape Møller
This paper analyzes the current and future status of forests in Ukraine and Belarus that were contaminated after the nuclear disaster in 1986. Using several models, together with remote sensing data and observations, we studied how climate change in these forests may affect fire regimes. We investigated the possibility of 137Cs displacement over Europe by studying previous fire events, and examined three fire scenarios that depended on different emission altitudes of 137Cs, assuming that 10%...

Data from: Modeling multilocus selection in an individual-based, spatially-explicit landscape genetics framework

Erin Landguth, Brenna R. Forester, Andrew J. Eckert, Andrew J. Shirk, Mitra Menon, Amy Whipple, Casey C. Day & Samuel A. Cushman
We implemented multilocus selection in a spatially-explicit, individual-based framework that enables multivariate environmental gradients to drive selection in many loci as a new module for the landscape genetics programs, CDPOP and CDMetaPOP. Our module simulates multilocus selection using a linear additive model, providing a flexible platform to evaluate a wide range of genotype-environment associations. Importantly, the module allows simulation of selection in any number of loci under the influence of any number of environmental variables....

Data from: Intraspecific variation mediates density dependence in a genetically diverse plant species

Andrii Zaiats, Matthew J. Germino, Marcelo D. Serpe, Bryce A. Richardson & Trevor Caughlin
Interactions between neighboring plants are critical for biodiversity maintenance in plant populations and communities. Intraspecific trait variation and genome duplication are common in plant species and can drive eco-evolutionary dynamics through genotype-mediated plant-plant interactions. However, few studies have examined how species-wide intraspecific variation may alter interactions between neighboring plants. We investigate how subspecies and ploidy variation in a genetically diverse species, big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), can alter the demographic outcomes of plant interactions. Using a...

Data from: Seed predator effects on plants: moving beyond time-corrected proxies

Yvette Ortega, Łukasz Dylewski, Michał Bogdziewicz & Dean Pearson
Small mammals impact plant recruitment globally via size-dependent seed predation, generating a unimodal pattern across ecosystems. Chen et al. (2021) critiqued our seed removal analysis, advocating corrections for exposure time. We show in our rebuttal that such manipulations are unwarranted and argue for increased emphasis on plant recruitment metrics. This archive holds the updated seed removal dataset used for our rebuttal.

Assessment of biogeographic variation in traits of Lewis flax (Linum lewisii) for use in restoration and agriculture

Peter Innes, André Gossweiler, Scott Jensen, Derek Tilley, Loren St. John, Thomas Jones, Stanley Kitchen & Brent S. Hulke
Lewis flax (Linum lewisii) is widely distributed across western North America and is currently used in native ecosystem restoration. There is also growing interest in de novo domestication of Lewis flax as a perennial oilseed crop. To better understand this species and facilitate both restoration and domestication, we used common gardens to assess bio-geographical variation in a variety of seed and growth traits from 37 flax accessions, consisting of 35 wild populations from the Intermountain...

Data from: Seed size predicts global effects of small mammal seed predation on plant recruitment

Yvette Ortega, Łukasz Dylewski, Michał Bogdziewicz & Dean Pearson
We conducted a global literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether seed size could predict post-dispersal seed predator effects on seed removal and plant recruitment, respectively. Datasets were built using data extracted from published studies focusing on seed predation by small mammals (see Methods for criteria and data extraction protocol). We found that seed size predicted small mammal seed removal rates and their impacts on plant recruitment consistent with optimal foraging theory, with intermediate seed...

Long evolutionary history of an emerging fungal pathogen of diverse tree species in eastern Asia, Australia, and the Pacific Islands

Olga Kozhar, Mee-Sook Kim, Jorge Ibarra Caballero, Ned B. Klopfenstein, Phil Cannon & Jane Stewart
Emerging plant pathogens have been increasing exponentially over the last century. To address this issue, it is critical to determine whether these pathogens are native to ecosystems or have been recently introduced. Understanding the ecological and evolutionary processes fostering emergence can help to manage their spread and predict epidemics/epiphytotics. Using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing data, we studied genetic relationships, pathways of spread, and evolutionary history of Phellinus noxius, an emerging root-rotting fungus of unknown origin,...

Data from: Wildfire catalyzes upward range expansion of trembling aspen in southern Rocky Mountain beetle-killed forests

Katherine Nigro, Monique Rocca, Mike Battaglia, Jonathan Coop & Miranda Redmond
In this study, we assessed whether recent wildfires and spruce beetle outbreaks promoted upward range expansion of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) in the San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado. We assessed aerial imagery for presence/absence of aspen in the study area and ground truthed a subset of these points to compare the aerial imagery analysis with field records of aspen. From these data we determined the upper elevational limit of aspen in the study area...

Data from:Identification of landscape features influencing gene flow: how useful are habitat selection models?

Gretchen H. Roffler, Michael K. Schwartz, Kristine L. Pilgrim, Sandra L. Talbot, George K. Sage, Layne G. Adams, Gordon Luikart & Kristy L. Pilgrim
Understanding how dispersal patterns are influenced by landscape heterogeneity is critical for modelling species connectivity. Resource selection function (RSF) models are increasingly used in landscape genetics approaches. However, because the ecological factors that drive habitat selection may be different from those influencing dispersal and gene flow, it is important to consider their explicit assumptions. We calculated pairwise genetic distances among 301 Alaskan Dall’s sheep (Ovis dalli dalli) using an intensive sampling effort and 15 microsatellite...

Data from: Rust disease of eucalypts, caused by Puccinia psidii, did not originate via host jump from guava in Brazil

Rodrigo N. Graça, Amy L. Ross-Davis, Ned B. Klopfenstein, Mee-Sook Kim, Tobin L. Peever, Philip G. Cannon, Cristina P. Aun, Eduardo S. G. Mizubuti & Acelino C. Alfenas
The rust fungus, Puccinia psidii, is a devastating pathogen of introduced eucalypts (Eucalyptus spp.) in Brazil where it was first observed in 1912. This pathogen is hypothesized to be endemic to South and Central America and to have first infected eucalypts via a host jump from native guava (Psidium guajava). Ten microsatellite markers were used to genotype 148 P. psidii samples from eucalypts and guava plus five additional myrtaceous hosts across a wide geographic range...

Data from: Density-dependent vulnerability of forest ecosystems to drought

Alessandra Bottero, Anthony W. D'Amato, Brian J. Palik, John B. Bradford, Shawn Fraver, Michael A. Battaglia, Lance A. Asherin & Mike A. Battaglia
Climate models predict increasing drought intensity and frequency for many regions, which may have negative consequences for tree recruitment, growth, and mortality, as well as forest ecosystem services. Furthermore, practical strategies for minimizing vulnerability to drought are limited. Tree population density, a metric of tree abundance in a given area, is a primary driver of competitive intensity among trees, which influences tree growth and mortality. Manipulating tree population density may be a mechanism for moderating...

Data from: Population history provides foundational knowledge for utilizing and developing native plant restoration materials

Rob Massatti, Holly R. Prendeville, Steve Larson, Bryce A. Richardson, Blair Waldron & Francis F. Kilkenny
A species’ population structure and history are critical pieces of information that can help guide the use of available native plant materials in restoration treatments and decide what new native plant materials should be developed to meet future restoration needs. In the western United States, Pseudoroegneria spicata (bluebunch wheatgrass; Poaceae) is an important component of grassland and shrubland plant communities and commonly used for restoration due to its drought resistance and competitiveness with exotic weeds....

Data from: Tracing the footprints of a moving hybrid zone under a demographic history of speciation with gene flow

Mitra Menon, Erin Landguth, Alejandro Leal-Saenz, Justin Bagley, Anna Schoettle, Christian Wehenkel, Lluvia Flores-Renteria, Sam Cushman, Kristen Waring & Andrew Eckert
A lack of optimal gene combinations, as well as low levels of genetic diversity are often associated with the formation of species range margins. Conservation efforts rely on predictive modelling using abiotic variables and assessments of genetic diversity to determine target species and populations for controlled breeding, germplasm conservation and assisted migration. Biotic factors such as interspecific competition and hybridization, however, are largely ignored, despite their prevalence across diverse taxa and their role as key...

Data from: Patterns of hybridization among cutthroat trout and rainbow trout in northern Rocky Mountain streams

Kevin S. McKelvey, Michael K. Young, Taylor M. Wilcox, Daniel M. Bingham, Kristine L. Pilgrim & Michael K. Schwartz
Introgressive hybridization between native and introduced species is a growing conservation concern. For native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout in western North America, this process is thought to lead to the formation of hybrid swarms and the loss of monophyletic evolutionary lineages. Previous studies of this phenomenon, however, indicated that hybrid swarms were rare except when native and introduced forms of cutthroat trout co-occurred. We used a panel of 86 diagnostic, single nucleotide polymorphisms...

Data from: Scale-dependent genetic structure of the Idaho giant salamander (Dicamptodon aterrimus) in stream networks

Lindy Mullen, H. Woods, Michael Schwartz, Adam Sepulveda & Winsor Lowe
The network architecture of streams and rivers constrains evolutionary, demographic, and ecological processes of freshwater organisms. This consistent architecture also makes stream networks useful for testing general models of population genetic structure and the scaling of gene flow. We examined genetic structure and gene flow in the facultatively paedomorphic Idaho giant salamander, Dicamptodon aterrimus, in stream networks of Idaho and Montana, USA. We used microsatellite data to test population structure models by (1) examining hierarchical...

Data for: Characterizing individual tree-level snags using airborne lidar-derived forest canopy gaps within closed-canopy conifer forests

Jessica M. Stitt, Andrew T. Hudak, Carlos Alberto Silva, Lee A. Vierling & Kerri T. Vierling
1. Airborne lidar is often used to calculate forest metrics about trees but it may also provide a wealth of information about the space between trees. Forest canopy gaps are defined by the absence of vegetative structure and serve important roles for wildlife, such as facilitating animal movement. Forest canopy gaps also occur around snags, keystone structures that provide important substrates to wildlife species for breeding, roosting, and foraging. 2. We wanted to test a...

Life history strategy and extinction risk in the warm desert perennial spring ephemeral Astragalus holmgreniorum (Fabaceae)

Susan Meyer, Renee Van Buren & Alyson Searle
This study of Astragalus holmgreniorum examines its adaptations to the warm desert environment and whether these adaptations will enable it to persist. Its spring ephemeral hemicryptophyte life history strategy is unusual in warm deserts. We used data from a 22-year demographic study supplemented with reproductive output, seed bank and germinant survival studies to examine the population dynamics of this species using discrete-time stochastic matrix modeling. The model showed that A. holmgreniorum is likely to persist...

Social status, forest disturbance, and Barred Owls shape long-term trends in breeding dispersal distance of Northern Spotted Owls

Julianna Jenkins, Damon Lesmeister, Eric Forsman, Katie Dugger, Steven Ackers, L. Steven Andrews, Chris McCafferty, M. Shane Pruett, Janice Reid, Stan Sovern, Rob Horn, Scott Gremel, J. David Wiens & Zhiqiang Yang
Dispersal among breeding sites in territorial animals (i.e. breeding dispersal) is driven by numerous selection pressures, including competition and spatiotemporal variation in habitat quality. The scale and trend of dispersal movements over time may signal changing conditions within the population or on the landscape. We examined 2,158 breeding dispersal events from 694 male and 608 female individually-marked Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) monitored over 28 years on seven study areas to assess the relative...

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