162 Works

Interactions with soil fungi alter density-dependence and neighborhood effects in a locally abundant dipterocarp species

Kabir Peay, Richard Segnitz & Sabrina Russo
Seedling recruitment can be strongly affected by the composition of nearby plant species. At the neighborhood scale (on the order of tens of meters), adult conspecifics can modify soil chemistry and presence of host microbes (pathogens and mutualists) across their combined canopy area or rooting zones. At local or small spatial scales (on the order of one to few meters), conspecific seed or seedling density can influence the strength of intraspecific light and resource competition...

Thermal adaptation in a holobiont accompanied by phenotypic changes in an endosymbiont

Miranda Salsbery & John DeLong
How and if organisms can adapt to changing temperatures has drastic consequences for the natural world. Thermal adaptation involves finding a match between temperatures permitting growth and the expected temperature distribution of the environment. However, if and how this match is achieved, and how tightly linked species change together, are poorly understood. Paramecium bursaria is a ciliate that has a tight physiological interaction with endosymbiotic green algae (zoochlorellae). We subjected a wild population of P....

Supplemental information for: An early burst in brachiopod evolution corresponding with significant climatic shifts during the great Ordovician biodiversification event

Curtis Congreve, Mark Patzkowsky & Peter Wagner
We employ modified tip-dating methods to date divergence times within the Strophomenoidea, one of the most abundant and species-rich brachiopod clades to radiate during the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE), to determine if significant environmental changes at this time correlate with the diversification of the clade. Models using origination, extinction and sampling rates to estimate prior probabilities of divergence times strongly support both high rates of anatomical change per million-years and rapid divergences shortly before...

A 130-year global inventory of methane emissions from livestock: trends, patterns, and drivers

Lei Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Hao Shi, Shufen Pan, Jinfeng Chang, Shree R.S. Dangal, Xiaoyu Qin, Siyuan Wang, Francesco N. Tubiello, Josep G. Canadell & Robert B. Jackson
Livestock contributes approximately one-third of global anthropogenic methane (CH4) emissions. Quantifying the spatial and temporal variations of these emissions is crucial for climate change mitigation. Although country-level information is reported regularly through national inventories and global databases, spatially-explicit quantification of century-long dynamics of CH4 emissions from livestock has been poorly investigated. Using the Tier 2 method adopted from the 2019 Refinement to 2006 IPCC guidelines, we estimated CH4 emissions from global livestock at a spatial...

Supplementary files for \"Creating a Universal Depth-To-Load Conversion Technique for the Conterminous United States using Random Forests\"

Jesse Wheeler, Brennan Bean & Marc Maguire
As part of an ongoing effort to update the ground snow load maps in the United States, this paper presents an investigation into snow densities for the purpose of predicting ground snow loads for structural engineering design with ASCE 7. Despite their importance, direct measurements of snow load are sparse when compared to measurements of snow depth. As a result, it is often necessary to estimate snow load using snow depth and other readily accessible...

Data from: Genomic variation across two barn swallow hybrid zones reveals traits associated with divergence in sympatry and allopatry

Elizabeth S.C. Scordato, Matthew R. Wilkins, Georgy Semenov, Alexander S. Rubtsov, Nolan C. Kane, Rebecca J. Safran & Elizabeth S. C. Scordato
Hybrid zones are geographic regions where isolating barriers between divergent populations are challenged by admixture. Identifying factors that facilitate or inhibit hybridization in sympatry can illuminate the processes that maintain those reproductive barriers. We analyzed patterns of hybridization and phenotypic variation across two newly-discovered hybrid zones between three subspecies of barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). These subspecies differ in ventral coloration and wing length, traits that are targets of sexual and natural selection, respectively, and are...

Data from: Diversification of R2R3-MYB transcription factors in the tomato family Solanaceae

Daniel J. Gates, Susan R. Strickler, Lukas A. Mueller, Bradley J. S. C. Olson & Stacey D. Smith
MYB transcription factors play an important role in regulating key plant developmental processes involving defense, cell shape, pigmentation, and root formation. Within this gene family, sequences containing an R2R3 MYB domain are the most abundant type and exhibit a wide diversity of functions. In this study, we identify 559 R2R3 MYB genes using whole genome data from four species of Solanaceae and reconstruct their evolutionary relationships. We compare the Solanaceae R2R3 MYBs to the well-characterized...

Data from: Cascading effects of changes in land use on the invasion of the walnut Juglans regia in forest ecosystems

Magdalena Lenda, Johannes H. Knops, Piotr Skórka, Dawid Moroń & Michał Woyciechowski
1. Plant invasions are affected by many factors that must be favourable in order for invasions to occur. Factors can be grouped into three major categories: propagule pressure, biotic factors and abiotic characteristics; all may be moderated by human activity. However, studies examining all factors simultaneously are rare, and most are limited to a single factor. This hampers our understanding of the mechanisms driving invasions. 2. In recent decades, an alien walnut (Juglans regia) has...

Data from: Sex-specific and individual preferences for hunting strategies in white sharks

Alison V. Towner, Vianey Leos-Barajas, Roland Langrock, Robert S. Schick, Malcolm J. Smale, Tami Kaschke, Oliver J.D. Jewell, Yannis P. Papastamatiou & Oliver J. D. Jewell
Fine-scale predator movements may be driven by many factors including sex, habitat, and distribution of resources. There may also be individual preferences for certain movement strategies within a population which can be hard to quantify. Within top predators, movements are also going to be directly related to the mode of hunting; for example sit-and-wait or actively searching for prey. Although there is mounting evidence that different hunting modes can cause opposing trophic cascades, there has...

Data from: Bean yield and economic response to fertilizer in eastern and southern Africa

K. C. Kaizzi, A. R. Cyamweshi, C. N. Kibunja, C. Senkoro, D. Nkonde, R. Maria, C. S. Wortmann, L Nabahungu & Charles Wortmann
Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is important in sub-Saharan Africa for human dietary protein. Low yields are attributed to biotic and abiotic constraints including inadequate nutrient availability. Research was conducted to determine nutrient response functions for bean production areas of Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. Mean trial yields ranged from 0.32 to 2.60 and 1.72 to 2.89 Mg ha-1 for bush and climbing bean, respectively. Response to N was common except in Kenya and Mozambique....

Data from: Best practices for justifying fossil calibrations

James F. Parham, Philip C. J. Donoghue, Christopher J. Bell, Tyler D. Calway, Jason J. Head, Patricia A. Holroyd, Jun G. Inoue, Randall B. Irmis, Walter G. Joyce, Daniel T. Ksepka, José S. L. Patané, Nathan D. Smith, James E. Tarver, Marcel Van Tuinen, Ziheng Yang, Kenneth D. Angielczyk, Jenny M. Greenwood, Christy A. Hipsley, Jacobs Louis, Peter J. Makovicky, Johannes Müller, Krister T. Smith, Jessica M. Theodor, Rachel C. M. Warnock, Michael J. Benton … & Louis Jacobs
Our ability to correlate biological evolution with climate change, geological evolution, and other historical patterns is essential to understanding the processes that shape biodiversity. Combining data from the fossil record with molecular phylogenetics represents an exciting synthetic approach to this challenge. The first molecular divergence dating analysis (Zuckerkandl and Pauling 1962) was based on a measure of the amino acid differences in the hemoglobin molecule; with replacement rates established (calibrated) using inaccurate paleontological age estimates...

Data from: The body size dependence of mutual interference

John P. DeLong
The parameters that drive population dynamics typically show a relationship with body size. By contrast, there is no theoretical or empirical support for a body-size dependence of mutual interference, which links foraging rates to consumer density. Here, I develop a model to predict that interference may be positively or negatively related to body size depending on how resource body size scales with consumer body size. Over a wide range of body sizes, however, the model...

Data from: Fertilizer application effects on grain and storage root nutrient concentration

Charles S. Wortmann, Mohammed K. Dicko, Nouri Maman, Catherine J. Senkoro & Bitrus Dawi Tarfa
Fertilizer application can affect nutrient concentrations of edible plant products. Data from 70 crop-nutrient response trials conducted in Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Tanzania were used to evaluate nutrient application effects on nutrient concentrations for grain of five pulse and five cereal crops and for storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta L.). Treatments per trial were ≥12 but this study was limited to: no fertilizer applied; macronutrients applied (NPK or PK); and the macronutrient treatment plus...

Data from: Trade-offs between morphology and thermal niches mediate adaptation in response to competing selective pressures

Stella Uiterwaal, Ian Lagerstrom, Thomas Luhring, Miranda Salsbery & John DeLong
The effects of climate change - such as increased temperature variability and novel predators – rarely happen in isolation, but it is unclear how organisms cope with multiple stressors simultaneously. To explore this, we grew replicate Paramecium caudatum populations in either constant or variable temperatures and exposed half to predation. We then fit thermal performance curves (TPCs) of intrinsic growth rate (rmax) for each replicate population (N = 12) across seven temperatures (10°C - 38°C)....

Data from: Are capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp.) sensitive to lost opportunities? The role of opportunity costs in intertemporal choice

Elsa Addessi, Valeria Tierno, Valentina Focaroli, Federica Rossi, Serena Gastaldi, Francesca De Petrillo, Fabio Paglieri & Jeffrey Stevens
Principles of economics predict that the costs associated with obtaining rewards can influence choice. When individuals face choices between a smaller, immediate option and a larger, later option, they often experience opportunity costs associated with waiting for delayed rewards because they must forego the opportunity to make other choices. We evaluated how reducing opportunity costs affects delay tolerance in capuchin monkeys. After choosing the larger option, in the High cost condition subjects had to wait...

Phenotypic divergence in two sibling species of shorebird: Common Snipe and Wilson's Snipe (Charadriiformes: Scolopacidae)

Tiago M Rodrigues, Edward Miller, Sergei V Drovetski, Robert M Zink, Jon Fjeldså & David Gonçalves
Natural selection and social selection are among the main shapers of biological diversity, but their relative importance in divergence remains understudied. Additionally, although neutral evolutionary processes may promote phenotypic divergence, their potential contribution in speciation is often overlooked in studies of comparative morphology. In this study, we investigated phenotypic differentiation in two allopatric shorebirds: the Palearctic Common Snipe Gallinago gallinago and the Nearctic Wilson’s Snipe G. delicata. Specimens of Common Snipe (n = 355 skins,...

Bird habitat preferences are related to habitat type and disturbance in the Owabi Wildlife Sanctuary, Ashanti Region (Ghana)

Collins Ayine Nsor, Nana Afua Dei Ankomah, John Mensah Nkrumah, Rockson Acolatse & Emmanuel Danquah
Context: Globally, an estimated 1.3% of the bird population has gone extinct over the last millennia largely due to loss of habitat preferences. Aims: This short-term study investigated disturbance-related drivers as predictors of bird habitat selection and assemblages in the Owabi Ramsar wetland. Methods: The study was carried out over a five-month period (May to September 2019), in four habitat types (farmlands, Built-up, forest reserve, and open water area). Data was collected in 84 plots...

Prey diversity constrains the adaptive potential of predator foraging traits

John DeLong & Kyle Coblentz
Predators are generally under selective pressure to get better at foraging, leading to steeper functional responses and stronger predator-prey interactions. Yet strong interactions can de-stabilize food webs, and most interactions across ecological communities are thought to be weak. This conflict between evolutionary and community expectations for the strength of predator-prey interactions represents a fundamental gap in our understanding of how the evolution of foraging plays out in food webs. Here we help to resolve the...

Phylogeny and secondary sexual trait evolution in Schizocosa wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae) shows evidence for multiple gains and losses of ornamentation and species delimitation uncertainty

James Starrett, Rowan McGinley, Eileen Hebets & Jason Bond
Members of the Nearctic spider genus Schizocosa Chamberlin, 1904 have garnered much attention in behavioral studies and over many decades, a number of species have developed as model systems for investigating patterns of sexual selection and multimodal communication. Many of these studies have employed a comparative approach using putative, but not rigorously tested, sister species pairs that have distinctive morphological traits and attendant behaviors. Despite past emphasis on the efficacy of these presumably comparative-based studies...

Mountain lions reduce movement, increase efficiency during the COVID-19 shutdown

John Benson, Heather Abernathy, Jeff Sikich & Seth Riley
Wildlife strongly alter behavior in response to human disturbance; however, fundamental questions remain regarding the influence of human infrastructure and activity on animal movement. The Covid-19 pandemic created a natural experiment providing an opportunity to evaluate wildlife movement during a period of greatly reduced human activity. Speculation in scientific reviews and the media suggested that wildlife might be increasing movement and colonizing urban landscapes during pandemic slowdowns. However, theory predicts that animals should move and...

Data from: Social contact patterns can buffer costs of forgetting in the evolution of cooperation

Jeffrey R. Stevens, Jan K. Woike, Lael J. Schooler, Stefan Lindner & Thorsten Pachur
Analyses of the evolution of cooperation often rely on two simplifying assumptions: (i) individuals interact equally frequently with all social network members and (ii) they accurately remember each partner's past cooperation or defection. Here, we examine how more realistic, skewed patterns of contact---in which individuals interact primarily with only a subset of their network's members---influence cooperation. In addition, we test whether skewed contact patterns can counteract the decrease in cooperation caused by memory errors (i.e.,...

Data from: Evolutionary history of chemosensory-related gene families across the Arthropoda

Seong-Il Eyun, Ho Young Soh, Marijan Posavi, James B. Munro, Daniel S. T. Hughes, Shwetha C. Murali, Jiaxin Qu, Shannon Dugan, Sandra L. Lee, Hsu Chao, Huyen Dinh, Yi Han, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Kim C. Worley, Donna M. Muzny, Eun-Ok Park, Joana C. Silva, Richard A. Gibbs, Stephen Richards & Carol Eunmi Lee
Chemosensory-related gene (CRG) families have been studied extensively in insects, but their evolutionary history across the Arthropoda had remained relatively unexplored. Here, we address current hypotheses and prior conclusions on CRG family evolution using a more comprehensive data set. In particular, odorant receptors were hypothesized to have proliferated during terrestrial colonization by insects (hexapods), but their association with other pancrustacean clades and with independent terrestrial colonizations in other arthropod subphyla have been unclear. We also...

Data from: Phylogeny and photosynthesis of the grass tribe Paniceae

Jacob D. Washburn, James C. Schnable, Gerrit Davidse & J. Chris Pires
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The grass tribe Paniceae includes important food, forage, and bioenergy crops such as switchgrass, napiergrass, various millet species, and economically important weeds. Paniceae are also valuable for answering scientific and evolutionary questions about C4 photosynthetic evolution, drought tolerance, and spikelet variation. However, the phylogeny of the tribe remains incompletely resolved. METHODS: Forty-five taxa were selected from across the tribe Paniceae and outgroups for genome survey sequencing (GSS). These data were used...

Data from: Migratory shorebird adheres to Bergmann’s Rule by responding to environmental conditions through the annual lifecycle

Daniel Gibson, Angela D. Hornsby, Mary B. Brown, Jonathan B. Cohen, Lauren R. Dinan, James D. Fraser, Meryl J. Friedrich, Cheri L. Gratto-Trevor, Kelsi L. Hunt, Matthew Jeffery, Joel G. Jorgensen, Peter W. C. Paton, Samantha G. Robinson, Jen Rock, Michelle L. Stantial, Chelsea E. Weithman & Daniel H. Catlin
The inverse relationship between body size and environmental temperature is a widespread ecogeographic pattern. However, the underlying forces that produce this pattern are unclear in many taxa. Expectations are particularly unclear for migratory species, as individuals may escape environmental extremes and reorient themselves along the environmental gradient. In addition, some aspects of body size are largely fixed while others are environmentally flexible and may vary seasonally. Here, we used a long‐term dataset that tracked multiple...

Data from: Punctuated changes in the morphology of an endemic diatom from Lake Titicaca

Trisha L. Spanbauer, Sherilyn C. Fritz & Paul A. Baker
High levels of biodiversity and endemism in ancient lakes have motivated research on evolutionary processes in these systems. Drill core records from Lake Titicaca (Bolivia, Peru), an ancient lake in the high-elevation Altiplano, record the history of climate, landscape dynamics, and diatom evolution. That record was used to examine the patterns and drivers of morphological evolution of an endemic species complex of diatoms in the lake, the Cyclostephanos andinus complex. In an attempt to delineate...

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