162 Works

Data from: Parasites favor intermediate nestling masses and brood sizes in cliff swallows

Charles R. Brown & Mary Bomberger Brown
A challenge of life-history theory is to explain why animal body size does not continue to increase, given various advantages of larger size. In birds, body size of nestlings and the number of nestlings produced (brood size) have occasionally been shown to be constrained by higher predation on larger nestlings and those from larger broods. Parasites also are known to have strong effects on life-history traits in birds, but whether parasitism can be a driver...

Data from: Mitochondrial dysfunction and infection generate immunity-fecundity tradeoffs in Drosophila

Justin L. Buchanan, Colin D. Meiklejohn & Kristi L. Montooth
Physiological responses to short-term environmental stressors, such as infection, can have long-term consequences for fitness, particularly if the responses are inappropriate or nutrient resources are limited. Genetic variation affecting energy acquisition, storage, and usage can limit cellular energy availability and may influence resource-allocation tradeoffs even when environmental nutrients are plentiful. Here, we utilized Drosophila mitochondrial-nuclear genotypes to test whether disrupted mitochondrial function interferes with nutrient-sensing pathways, and whether this disruption has consequences for tradeoffs between...

Data from: Evolutionary history of chemosensory-related gene families across the Arthropoda

Seong-Il Eyun, Ho Young Soh, Marijan Posavi, James B. Munro, Daniel S. T. Hughes, Shwetha C. Murali, Jiaxin Qu, Shannon Dugan, Sandra L. Lee, Hsu Chao, Huyen Dinh, Yi Han, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Kim C. Worley, Donna M. Muzny, Eun-Ok Park, Joana C. Silva, Richard A. Gibbs, Stephen Richards & Carol Eunmi Lee
Chemosensory-related gene (CRG) families have been studied extensively in insects, but their evolutionary history across the Arthropoda had remained relatively unexplored. Here, we address current hypotheses and prior conclusions on CRG family evolution using a more comprehensive data set. In particular, odorant receptors were hypothesized to have proliferated during terrestrial colonization by insects (hexapods), but their association with other pancrustacean clades and with independent terrestrial colonizations in other arthropod subphyla have been unclear. We also...

Data from: Punctuated changes in the morphology of an endemic diatom from Lake Titicaca

Trisha L. Spanbauer, Sherilyn C. Fritz & Paul A. Baker
High levels of biodiversity and endemism in ancient lakes have motivated research on evolutionary processes in these systems. Drill core records from Lake Titicaca (Bolivia, Peru), an ancient lake in the high-elevation Altiplano, record the history of climate, landscape dynamics, and diatom evolution. That record was used to examine the patterns and drivers of morphological evolution of an endemic species complex of diatoms in the lake, the Cyclostephanos andinus complex. In an attempt to delineate...

Data from: Males mate with multiple females to increase offspring numbers in a nursery web spider

Alissa G. Anderson, Eileen A. Hebets, Bridget M. Bickner & J. Colton Watts
Males are often expected to benefit from mating with multiple females; however, in species where females are highly cannibalistic, achieving multiple matings may be a difficult task. When males employ strategies to avoid sexual cannibalism, it is presumed that there are benefits associated with survival – e.g. increased fitness associated with more mating opportunities. In the nursery web spider (Pisaurina mira), all males attempt to avoid sexual cannibalism by wrapping female’s legs in silk prior...

Data from: Rapid evolution rescues hosts from competition and disease but—despite a dilution effect—increases the density of infected hosts

Alexander T. Strauss, Jessica L. Hite, Marta S. Shocket, Carla E. Cáceres, Meghan A. Duffy & Spencer R. Hall
Virulent parasites can depress the densities of their hosts. Taxa that reduce disease via dilution effects might alleviate this burden. However, ‘diluter’ taxa can also depress host densities through competition for shared resources. The combination of disease and interspecific competition could even drive hosts extinct. Then again, genetically variable host populations can evolve in response to both competitors and parasites. Can rapid evolution rescue host density from the harm caused by these ecological enemies? How...

Data from: Context-dependent seed dispersal by a scatter-hoarding corvid

Mario B. Pesendorfer, T. Scott Sillett, Scott A. Morrison & Alan C. Kamil
1. Corvids (crows, jays, magpies and nutcrackers) are important dispersers of large-seeded plants. Studies on captive or supplemented birds suggest that they flexibly adjust their scatter-hoarding behaviour to the context of social dynamics and relative seed availability. Because many corvid-dispersed trees show high annual variation in seed production, context-dependent foraging can have strong effects on natural corvid scatter-hoarding behaviour. 2. We investigated how seed availability and social dynamics affected scatter-hoarding in the island scrub jays...

Data from: We'll meet again: revealing distributional and temporal patterns of social contact

Thorsten Pachur, Lael J. Schooler & Jeffrey R. Stevens
What are the dynamics and regularities underlying social contact, and how can contact with the people in one's social network be predicted? In order to characterize distributional and temporal patterns underlying contact probability, we asked 40 participants to keep a diary of their social contacts for 100 consecutive days. Using a memory framework previously used to study environmental regularities, we predicted that the probability of future contact would follow in systematic ways from the frequency,...

Data from: Social contact patterns can buffer costs of forgetting in the evolution of cooperation

Jeffrey R. Stevens, Jan K. Woike, Lael J. Schooler, Stefan Lindner & Thorsten Pachur
Analyses of the evolution of cooperation often rely on two simplifying assumptions: (i) individuals interact equally frequently with all social network members and (ii) they accurately remember each partner's past cooperation or defection. Here, we examine how more realistic, skewed patterns of contact---in which individuals interact primarily with only a subset of their network's members---influence cooperation. In addition, we test whether skewed contact patterns can counteract the decrease in cooperation caused by memory errors (i.e.,...

Light environment interacts with visual displays in a species-specific manner in multimodal signaling wolf spiders

Rowan McGinley, James Starrett, Jason Bond & Eileen Hebets
Light availability is highly variable, yet predictable, over various timescales and the light environment is expected to play an important role in the evolution of visual signals. Courtship displays within the wolf spider genus Schizocosa always involve the use of substrate borne vibrations, however, there is substantial variation between species in the use of visual displays. We assessed the impact of light intensity on the courtship of four species of Schizocosa that vary in their...

Genome-wide association mapping to identify genetic loci for cold tolerance and cold recovery during germination in rice

Michael Thomson, Ranjita Thapa & Endang Septiningsih
To investigate the genetic architecture underlying cold tolerance during germination in rice (Oryza sativa), we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a novel diversity panel of 257 rice accessions from around the world and 5,185 SNP markers from a 7K SNP marker array. Genotyping was performed using a 7K Illumina iSelect custom-designed array by following the Infinium HD Array Ultra Protocol. The 7K array, called the C7AIR, was designed by Dr. Susan McCouch’s Lab...

Extreme offspring ornamentation in American coots is favored by selection within families, not benefits to conspecific brood parasites

Daizaburo Shizuka & Bruce E. Lyon
Offspring ornamentation typically occurs in taxa with parental care, suggesting that selection arising from social interactions between parents and offspring may underlie signal evolution. American coot babies are among the most ornamented offspring found in nature, sporting vividly orange-red natal plumage, a bright red beak, and other red parts around the face and pate. Previous plumage manipulation experiments showed that ornamented plumage is favored by strong parental choice for chicks with more extreme ornamentation but...

A migratory sparrow has personality in winter that is independent of other traits

Theadora Block, Rachel Star, Alexis Chaine, Daizaburo Shizuka & Bruce Lyon
Small birds in winter face trade-offs between predation risk and foraging, and alternate life-history strategies may arise from these trade-offs. Animal personality shows similarities with alternative life-history strategies, and using a life-history context to understand personality can provide valuable insights. Golden-crowned sparrows, Zonotrichia atricapilla, a small migratory bird, have a complex winter social system with high site-fidelity, long-term social associations between individuals and competition mediated by badges of status. We asked whether golden-crowned sparrows show...

Data from: Genomic analysis and prediction within a US public collaborative winter wheat regional testing nursery

Trevor W. Rife, Robert A. Graybosch & Jesse A. Poland
The development of inexpensive, whole-genome profiling enables a transition to allele-based breeding using genomic prediction models. These models consider alleles shared between lines to predict phenotypes and select new lines based on estimated breeding values. This approach can leverage highly-unbalanced datasets common to breeding programs. The Southern Regional Performance Nursery (SRPN) is a public nursery established by the USDA-ARS in 1931 to characterize performance and quality of near-release wheat varieties from breeding programs in the...

Data from: Gene flow mediates the role of sex chromosome meiotic drive during complex speciation

Colin D. Meiklejohn, Emily L. Landeen, Kathleen E. Gordon, Thomas Rzatkiewicz, Sarah B. Kingan, Anthony J. Geneva, Jeffrey P. Vedanayagam, Christina A. Muirhead, Daniel Garrigan, David L. Stern & Daven C. Presgraves
During speciation, sex chromosomes often accumulate interspecific genetic incompatibilities faster than the rest of the genome. The drive theory posits that sex chromosomes are susceptible to recurrent bouts of meiotic drive and suppression, causing the evolutionary build-up of divergent cryptic sex-linked drive systems and, incidentally, genetic incompatibilities. To assess the role of drive during speciation, we combine high-resolution genetic mapping of X-linked hybrid male sterility with population genomics analyses of divergence and recent gene flow...

Data from: Hybridization and reproductive isolation between diploid Erythronium mesochoreum and its tetraploid congener E. albidum (Liliaceae)

Kathy Roccaforte, Sabrina E. Russo & Diana Pilson
Polyploidy has played an important role in angiosperm diversification, but how polyploidy contributes to reproductive isolation remains poorly understood. Most work has focused on postzygotic reproductive barriers, and the influence of ploidy differences on prezygotic barriers is understudied. To address these gaps, we quantified hybrid occurrence, interspecific self-compatibility differences, and the contributions of multiple pre- and postzygotic barriers to reproductive isolation between diploid Erythronium mesochoreum (Liliaceae) and its tetraploid congener E. albidum. Reproductive isolation between...

Data from: Climate modifies response of non-native and native species richness to nutrient enrichment

Habacuc Flores-Moreno, Peter B. Reich, Eric M. Lind, Lauren L. Sullivan, Eric W. Seabloom, Laura Yahdjian, Andrew S. MacDougall, Lara G. Reichmann, Juan Alberti, Selene Báez, Jonathan D. Bakker, Marc W. Cadotte, Maria C. Caldeira, Enrique J. Chaneton, Carla M. D'Antonio, Philip A. Fay, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Oscar Iribarne, Kevin P. Kirkman, Johannes M. H. Knops, Kimberly J. La Pierre, Ramesh Laungani, Andrew D. B. Leakey … & Elizabeth T. Borer
Ecosystem eutrophication often increases domination by non-natives and causes displacement of native taxa. However, variation in environmental conditions may affect the outcome of interactions between native and non-native taxa in environments where nutrient supply is elevated. We examined the interactive effects of eutrophication, climate variability and climate average conditions on the success of native and non-native plant species using experimental nutrient manipulations replicated at 32 grassland sites on four continents. We hypothesized that effects of...

Data from: Predators modify the thermal dependence of life-history trade-offs.

Thomas M. Luhring, Janna M. Vavra, Clay E. Cressler, John P. DeLong & Clayton E. Cressler
Although life histories are shaped by temperature and predation, their joint influence on the interdependence of life-history traits is poorly understood. Shifts in one life history trait often necessitates shifts in another – structured in some cases by trade-offs – leading to differing life history strategies among environments. The offspring size-number trade-off connects three traits whereby a constant reproductive allocation (R) constrains how the number (O) and size (S) of offspring change. Increasing temperature and...

Data from: Binary-state speciation and extinction method is conditionally robust to realistic violations of its assumptions

Andrew G. Simpson, Peter J. Wagner, Scott L. Wing & Charles B. Fenster
Background: Phylogenetic comparative methods allow us to test evolutionary hypotheses without the benefit of an extensive fossil record. These methods, however, make simplifying assumptions, among them that clades are always increasing or stable in diversity, an assumption we know to be false. This study simulates hypothetical clades to test whether the Binary State Speciation and Extinction (BiSSE) method can be used to correctly detect relative differences in diversification rate between ancestral and derived character states...

Data from: Morphological and molecular evolution and their consequences for conservation and taxonomy in the Le Conte's Thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei)

Hernán Vázquez-Miranda, Josie A. Griffin, Jay M. Sheppard, Jordan M. Herman, Octavio Rojas-Soto & Robert M. Zink
We evaluated geographic variation and subspecific taxonomy in the Le Conte's Thrasher (Toxostoma lecontei) by analyzing DNA sequences from 16 nuclear loci, one mitochondrial DNA locus, and four study skin characters, and compared these data sets with previously published data on plumage coloration and different mtDNA genes. Morphological support for the southernmost taxon, T. l. arenicola, is relatively weak: multivariate analyses of morphometrics or back coloration do not provide diagnostic support, although one color character...

Data from: Ectoparasitism shortens the breeding season in a colonial bird

Charles R. Brown & Mary Bomberger Brown
When blood-feeding parasites increase seasonally, their deleterious effects may prevent some host species, especially those living in large groups where parasites are numerous, from reproducing later in the summer. Yet the role of parasites in regulating the length of a host's breeding season—and thus the host's opportunity for multiple brooding—has not been systematically investigated. The highly colonial cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), a temperate-latitude migratory songbird in the western Great Plains, USA, typically has a relatively...

Data from: Multiple factors, including arena size, influence the functional responses of ladybird beetles

Stella F. Uiterwaal & John P. DeLong
1. Functional response studies are often used to determine the suitability of predators as biocontrol agents. Ladybird beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) often are used for the control of crop pests such as aphids. However, most functional response studies on coccinellids compare a limited number of species at different life stages, temperatures, or sexes. A large-scale comparison of ladybird beetle functional responses is needed to evaluate the utility of these species as potential biocontrol predators and to...

Data from: Life history traits and functional processes generate multiple pathways to ecological stability

John P. DeLong, Torrance C. Hanley, Jean P. Gibert, Linda M. Puth & David M. Post
Stability contributes to the persistence of ecological communities, yet the interactions among different stabilizing forces are poorly understood. We assembled mesocosms with an algal resource and 1-8 different clones of the consumer Daphnia ambigua and tracked algal and Daphnia abundances through time. We then fitted coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) to the consumer-resource time series. We show that variation in different components of stability (local stability and the magnitude of population fluctuations) across mesocosms arises...

Data from: The importance of terrestrial subsidies in stream food webs varies along a stream size gradient

Sarah M. Collins, Tyler J. Kohler, Steven A. Thomas, William W. Fetzer & Alexander S. Flecker
Cross system subsidies of energy and materials can be a substantial fraction of food web fluxes in ecosystems, especially when autochthonous production is strongly limited by light or nutrients. We explored whether assimilation of terrestrial energy varied in specific consumer taxa collected from streams of different sizes and resource availabilities. Since headwater streams are often unproductive, we expected that inputs from surrounding terrestrial systems (i.e. leaf litter, terrestrial invertebrates) would be a more important food...

Data from: Evolutionary pressures on primate intertemporal choice

Jeffrey R. Stevens
From finding food to choosing mates, animals must make intertemporal choices that involve fitness benefits available at different times. Species vary dramatically in their willingness to wait for delayed rewards. Why does this variation across species exist? An adaptive approach to intertemporal choice suggests that time preferences should reflect the temporal problems faced in a species's environment. Here, I use phylogenetic regression to test whether allometric factors relating to body size, relative brain size and...

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