162 Works

Data from: Nutrient regulation strategies differ between cricket morphs that trade-off dispersal and reproduction

Rebecca M. Clark, Ashley McConnell, Anthony J. Zera & Spencer T. Behmer
1. Nutrient regulation should covary with life history, but actual demonstrations of this connection are rare. 2. Here we use a wing-polymorphic cricket, Gryllus firmus, that trades-off dispersal and reproduction; the long-winged morph with functional flight muscles (LW(f)) is adapted for dispersal at the expense of egg production, while the short-winged (SW) morph is adapted for egg production at the expense of flight. We explore the extent to which these two morphs differentially regulate macronutrient...

Data from: Females can solve the problem of low signal reliability by assessing multiple male traits

Abigail K. Wegehaupt, & William E. Wagner
Male signals that provide information to females about mating benefits are often of low reliability. It is thus not clear why females often express strong signal preferences. We tested the hypothesis that females can distinguish between males with preferred signals that provide lower and higher quality direct benefits. In the field cricket, Gryllus lineaticeps, females usually prefer higher male chirp rates, but chirp rate is positively correlated with the fecundity benefits females will receive from...

Data from: Social-ecological landscape patterns predict woody encroachment from native tree plantings in a temperate grassland

Victoria M. Donovan, Jessica L. Burnett, Christine H. Bielski, Hannah E. Birge, Rebecca Bevans, Dirac Twidwell & Craig R. Allen
Afforestation is often viewed as the purposeful planting of trees in historically non-forested grasslands, but an unintended consequence is woody encroachment, which should be considered part of the afforestation process. In North America’s temperate grassland biome, Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is a native species used in tree plantings that aggressively invades in the absence of controlling processes. Cedar is a well-studied woody encroacher, but little is known about the degree to which cedar windbreaks,...

Data from: Prediction of genetic values of quantitative traits with epistatic effects in plant breeding populations

Dong Wang, Ibrahim El-Basyoni, P. S. Baenziger, Jose Crossa, Kent Eskridge & I. Dweikat
Though epistasis has long been postulated to play a critical role in genetic regulation of important pathways as well as provide a major source of variation in the process of speciation, the importance of epistasis for genomic selection in the context of plant breeding is still being debated. In this paper, we report the results on the prediction of genetic values with epistatic effects for 280 accessions in the Nebraska Wheat Breeding Program using adaptive...

Data from: The effects of microhabitat specialization on mating communication in a wolf spider

Malcolm F. Rosenthal, Eileen A. Hebets, Benji Kessler, Rowan McGinley & Damian O. Elias
Animal signals experience selection for detectability, which is determined in large part by the signal transmission properties of the habitat. Understanding the ecological context in which communication takes place is therefore critical to understanding selection on the form of communication signals. In order to determine the influence of environmental heterogeneity on signal transmission, we focus on a wolf spider species native to central Florida, Schizocosa floridana, in which males court females using a substrate-borne vibratory...

Data from: Pyric herbivory, scales of heterogeneity, and drought

Christine H. Bielski, Dirac Twidwell, Samuel D. Fuhlendorf, Carissa L. Wonkka, Brady W. Allred, Tyson E. Ochsner, Erik S. Krueger, J. D. Carlson & David M. Engle
1. Understanding how extreme drought alters spatial patterns and temporal stability in grassland biomass will become increasingly important by the end of the century when climate model forecasts suggest drought events will occur more frequently. In grassland landscapes where grazing is driven by fire (termed pyric herbivory), temporal stability in aboveground plant biomass at landscape scales typically coincides with greater spatial variability across local communities (time-since fire patches), whereas variability within local communities is associated...

Data from: Correction of location errors for presence-only species distribution models

Trevor J. Hefley, David M. Baasch, Andrew J. Tyre & Erin E. Blankenship
1. Species distribution models (SDMs) for presence-only data depend on accurate and precise measurements of geographic and environmental covariates that influence presence and abundance of the species. Some data sets, however, may contain both systematic and random errors in the recorded location of the species. Environmental covariates at the recorded location may differ from those at the true location and result in biased parameter estimates and predictions from SDMs. 2. Regression calibration is a well-developed...

Data from: Best practices for justifying fossil calibrations

James F. Parham, Philip C. J. Donoghue, Christopher J. Bell, Tyler D. Calway, Jason J. Head, Patricia A. Holroyd, Jun G. Inoue, Randall B. Irmis, Walter G. Joyce, Daniel T. Ksepka, José S. L. Patané, Nathan D. Smith, James E. Tarver, Marcel Van Tuinen, Ziheng Yang, Kenneth D. Angielczyk, Jenny M. Greenwood, Christy A. Hipsley, Jacobs Louis, Peter J. Makovicky, Johannes Müller, Krister T. Smith, Jessica M. Theodor, Rachel C. M. Warnock, Michael J. Benton … & Louis Jacobs
Our ability to correlate biological evolution with climate change, geological evolution, and other historical patterns is essential to understanding the processes that shape biodiversity. Combining data from the fossil record with molecular phylogenetics represents an exciting synthetic approach to this challenge. The first molecular divergence dating analysis (Zuckerkandl and Pauling 1962) was based on a measure of the amino acid differences in the hemoglobin molecule; with replacement rates established (calibrated) using inaccurate paleontological age estimates...

Data from: Copy number polymorphism in the α-globin gene cluster of European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

Rita Campos, Jay F. Storz, N. Ferrand & J F Storz
Comparative genomic studies have revealed that mammals typically possess two or more tandemly duplicated copies of the α-globin (HBA) gene. The domestic rabbit represents an exception to this general rule, as this species was found to possess a single HBA gene. Previous electrophoretic surveys of HBA polymorphism in natural populations of the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) revealed extensive geographic variation in the frequencies of three main electromorphs. The variation in frequency of two electromorphs is...

Data from: Extensive sex-specific nonadditivity of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster

Greg Gibson, Rebecca Riley-Berger, Larry Harshman, Artyom Kopp, Scott Vacha, Sergey Nuzhdin & Marta Wayne
Assessment of the degree to which gene expression is additive and heritable has important implications for understanding the maintenance of variation, adaptation, phenotypic divergence, and the mapping of genotype onto phenotype. We used whole-genome transcript profiling using Agilent long-oligonucleotide microarrays representing 12,017 genes to demonstrate that gene transcription is pervasively nonadditive in Drosophila melanogaster. Comparison of adults of two isogenic lines and their reciprocal F1 hybrids revealed 5820 genes as significantly different between at least...

Data from: Intertemporal choice in lemurs

Jeffrey R. Stevens & Nelly Mühlhoff
Different species vary in their ability to wait for delayed rewards in intertemporal choice tasks. Models of rate maximization account for part of this variation, but other factors such as social structure and feeding ecology seem to underly some species differences. Though studies have evaluated intertemporal choice in several primate species, including Old World monkeys, New World monkeys, and apes, prosimians have not been tested. This study investigated intertemporal choices in three species of lemur...

Data from: Tropical nematode diversity: vertical stratification of nematode communities in a Costa Rican humid lowland rainforest

Thomas O. Powers, Deborah A. Neher, Peter Mullin, Alejandro Esquivel, Robin M. Giblin-Davis, Natsumi Kanzaki, Patricia P. Stock, Morielos M. Mora & Lorena Uribe-Lorio
Comparisons of nematode communities among ecosystems have indicated that, unlike many organisms, nematode communities have less diversity in the tropics than in temperate ecosystems. There are, however, few studies of tropical nematode diversity on which to base conclusions of global patterns of diversity. This study reports an attempt to estimate nematode diversity in the lowland tropical rainforest of La Selva Biological Research Station in Costa Rica. We suggest that one reason previous estimates of tropical...

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