43 Works

Data from: Does perceived predation risk affect patterns of extra-pair paternity? A field experiment in a passerine bird

Robin N. Abbey-Lee, Yimen Gerardo Araya-Ajoy, Alexia Mouchet, Maria Moiron, Erica F. Stuber, Bart Kempenaers & Niels J. Dingemanse
1. Non-consumptive predator effects have been shown to influence a wide range of behavioural, life history, and morphological traits. Extra-pair reproduction is widespread among socially monogamous birds and may incur predation costs. Consequently, altered rates of extra-pair reproduction are expected in circumstances characterized by increased adult perceived predation risk. 2. Additionally, extra-pair reproduction is expected to be most affected for birds with phenotypes that generally increase predation risk (such as more active individuals). 3. In...

Data from: Geo-climatic factors drive diatom community distribution in tropical South American freshwaters

Xavier Benito, Sherilyn Fritz, Miriam Steinitz-Kannan, Pedro M. Tapia, Meredith A. Kelly, Thomas V. Lowell & Sherilyn C. Fritz
1.Patterns that maintain and generate biodiversity of macro-organisms in the Neotropics are widely discussed in the scientific literature, yet the spatial ecology of microorganisms is largely unknown. The unique character of the tropical Andes and adjacent Amazon lowlands generates a wide gradient of environmental conditions to advance our understanding of what drives community assembly and diversity processes. 2.We analyzed the distribution patterns of benthic diatoms (unicellular siliceous algae) as a model group of microbial passive...

Data from: Species limits and phylogenomic relationships of Darwin’s finches remain unresolved: potential consequences of a volatile ecological setting

Robert M. Zink & Hernán Vázquez-Miranda
Island biotas have become paradigms for illustrating many evolutionary processes. The fauna of the Galapagos Islands includes several taxa that have been focal points for evolutionary studies. Perhaps their most famous inhabitants, Darwin’s finches, represent a go-to icon when thinking about how species originate and adapt to the environment. However, unlike other adaptive radiations, past morphological and molecular studies of Darwin’s finches have yielded inconsistent hypotheses of species limits and phylogenetic relationships. Expecting that idiosyncrasies...

Data from: Fire, grazing, and climate shape plant-grasshopper interactions in a tallgrass prairie

Ellen A.R. Welti, Fan Qiu, Hannah M. Tetreault, Mark Ungerer, John Blair, Anthony Joern & Ellen A. R. Welti
1. Species interactions are integral to ecological community function and the structure of species interactions has repercussions for the consequences of species extinctions. Few studies have examined the role of environmental factors in controlling species interaction networks across time. 2. We examined variation in plant-grasshopper network structural properties in response to three major grassland drivers: periodic fire, ungulate grazing and climate. 3. We sequenced a plant barcoding gene from extracted grasshopper gut contents to characterize...

Data from: Phylogenetic patterns of trait and trait plasticity evolution: Insights from amphibian embryos

Rick Relyea, Patrick R. Stephens, Lisa N. Barrow, Andrew Blaustein, Paul Bradley, Julia Buck, Ann Chang, Brian I Crother, James Collins, Julia Earl, Stephanie S. Gervasi, Jason T. Hoverman, Olliver Hyman, Emily Claire Moriarty Lemmon, Thomas Luhring, Moses Michelsohn, Christopher M. Murray, Steven Price, Raymond Semlitsch, Andy Sih, Aaron Stoler, Nick VandenBroek, Alexa Warwick, Greta Wengert, John Hammond … & Aaron B. Stoler
Environmental variation favors the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. For many species, we understand the costs and benefits of different phenotypes, but we lack a broad understanding of how plastic traits evolve across large clades. Using identical experiments conducted across North America, we examined prey responses to predator cues. We quantified five life history traits and the magnitude of their plasticity for 23 amphibian species/populations (spanning three families and five genera) when exposed to no cues,...

Data from: Modification of wheat gluten for improvement of binding capacity with keratin in hair

Shukun Wang, Danyang Meng, Sisi Wang, Zhong Zhang, Ruijin Yang & Wei Zhao
In this study, enzymatic hydrolysis and cationization with epoxypropyldodecyldimethylammonium chloride of wheat protein, an economic protein complex containing great amount of disulfide bonds, were conducted to improve properties such as solubility and disassociation behaviour for recovery of damaged hair when used in shampoo. The optimal conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis were pH 8.2, 55°C with Alcalase for 60 min. After the selected hydrolysis, the degree of hydrolysis, nitrogen solubility index, foaming capacity index, foam stability index,...

Data from: Field evidence challenges the often-presumed relationship between early male maturation and female-biased sexual size dimorphism

Marie-Claire Chelini & Eileen Hebets
Female‐biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often considered an epiphenomenon of selection for the increased mating opportunities provided by early male maturation (i.e., protandry). Empirical evidence of the adaptive significance of protandry remains nonetheless fairly scarce. We use field data collected throughout the reproductive season of an SSD crab spider, Mecaphesa celer, to test two hypotheses: Protandry provides fitness benefits to males, leading to female‐biased SSD, or protandry is an indirect consequence of selection for...

Data from: High soil test phosphorus effect on corn yield

Charles Wortmann, Charles Shapiro, Tim Shaver & Michael Mainz Retired
Phosphorus removal in crop harvest has increased as yields have increased. Fertilizer P use guidelines are based on calibrations often developed for much lower yield levels and may need recalibration. Corn yields may be greater with higher than recommended soil test P when springs are relatively wet and cool. Research was conducted across 12 irrigated and five rainfed siteyr in Nebraska with initial Bray-1 P ≤ 11 mg kg–1 to evaluate P application strategies for...

Data from: Sorghum and groundnut sole and intercrop nutrient response in semi-arid West Africa

N. Maman, M. K. Dicko, A. Gonda, C. S. Wortmann, Idriss Serme, Korodjuma Ouattara & A Bandogo
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)–groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) intercropping is important in the Sahel and Sudan Savanna. Nineteen trials were conducted during 2014 and 2015 in Mali and Niger for determination of: response functions for sorghum sole crop (SSC) and intercrop to N, P, and K; effects of the P×N interaction and of a nutrient package for diagnosis of other deficiencies; and a procedure for estimation of intercrop functions from SSC response functions. Six Niger...

Data from: Modeled and measured ecosystem respiration in maize–soybean systems over 10 years

Ming Zhan, Adam J. Liska, Anthony L. Nguy-Robertson, Andrew E. Suyker, Matthew P. Pelton & Haishun Yang
Crop residue is an abundant resource for the potential production of biofuels, but a better understanding of its use on net carbon emissions must be developed to mitigate climate change. This analysis combines two established crop growth models (Hybrid-Maize and Soysim) with a simple soil and crop residue respiration model to estimate daily ecosystem respiration (ERe) from maize and soybean; ERe was estimated to be the sum of CO2 emissions from the oxidation of the...

Data from: Lake regionalization and diatom metacommunity structuring in tropical South America

Xavier Benito, Sherilyn C. Fritz, Miriam Steinitz-Kannan, Maria I. Vélez & Michael M. McGlue
Lakes and their topological distribution across Earth’s surface impose ecological and evolutionary constraints on aquatic metacommunities. In this study, we group similar lake ecosystems as metacommunity units influencing diatom community structure. We assembled a database of 195 lakes from the tropical Andes and adjacent lowlands (8ºN–30ºS and 58–79ºW) with associated environmental predictors to examine diatom metacommunity patterns at two different levels: taxon and functional (deconstructed species matrix by ecological guilds). We also derived spatial variables...

Data from: Maize-nutrient response information applied across Sub-Saharan Africa

Charles S. Wortmann, Maribeth Milner, Kayuki C. Kaizzi, Maman Nouri, Athanase R. Cyamweshi, Mohammed K. Dicko, Catherine N. Kibunja, Martin Macharia, Ricardo Maria, Patson C. Nalivata, Negash Demissie, Davy Nkonde, Korodjouma Ouattara, Catherine J. Senkoro, Bitrus Dawi Tarfa & Francis M. Tetteh
The profit potential for a given investment in fertilizer use can be estimated using representative crop nutrient response functions. Where response data is scarce, determination of representative response functions can be strengthened by using results from homologous crop growing conditions. Maize (Zea mays L.) nutrient response functions were selected from the Optimization of Fertilizer Recommendations in Africa (OFRA) database of 5500 georeferenced response functions determined from field research conducted in Sub-Saharan Africa. Three methods for...

Data from: Maize-nutrient response functions for Eastern and Southern Africa

Charles S. Wortmann, Catherine Senkoro, Athanase R. Cyamweshi, Catherine Kibunja, Davy Nkonde, Moses Munthali, Patson Nalivata, Léon N. Nabahungu, Kayuki Kaizzi & Charles Wortmann
Information is scarce for maize (Zea mays L.) response to nutrient application for many production areas in tropical Africa. Research was conducted to determine macronutrient response functions and to diagnose Mg–S–Zn–B deficiencies. Site–year × N-rate interactions within countries often accounted for little variation in yield relative to the N-rate effect. Country mean grain yield responses to N-rate were curvilinear to plateau, but linear in Malawi. Although mean yields differed, the response to N was similar...

Data from: Social-ecological landscape patterns predict woody encroachment from native tree plantings in a temperate grassland

Victoria M. Donovan, Jessica L. Burnett, Christine H. Bielski, Hannah E. Birge, Rebecca Bevans, Dirac Twidwell & Craig R. Allen
Afforestation is often viewed as the purposeful planting of trees in historically non-forested grasslands, but an unintended consequence is woody encroachment, which should be considered part of the afforestation process. In North America’s temperate grassland biome, Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is a native species used in tree plantings that aggressively invades in the absence of controlling processes. Cedar is a well-studied woody encroacher, but little is known about the degree to which cedar windbreaks,...

Data from: Habitat, latitude, and body mass influence the temperature dependence of metabolic rate

John P. DeLong, Gwendolyn Bachman, Jean P. Gibert, Thomas M. Luhring, Kristi L. Montooth, Abigail Neyer & Ben Reed
The sensitivity of metabolic rate to temperature constrains the climate in which ectotherms can function, yet the temperature dependence of metabolic rate may evolve in response to biotic and abiotic factors. We compiled a dataset on the temperature dependence of metabolic rate for heterotrophic ectotherms from studies that show a peak in metabolic rate at an optimal temperature (i.e., that describe the thermal performance curve for metabolic rate). We found that peak metabolic rates were...

Data from: CO2 enrichment and soil type additively regulate grassland productivity

H. Wayne Polley, Michael J. Aspinwall, Harold P. Collins, Anne E. Gibson, Richard A. Gill, Robert B. Jackson, Virginia L. Jin, Albina R. Khasanova, Lara G. Reichmann & Philip A. Fay
Atmospheric CO2 enrichment usually increases aboveground productivity (ANPP) of grassland vegetation, but the magnitude of the ANPP-CO2 response differs among ecosystems. Soil properties affect ANPP via multiple mechanisms and vary over topographic to geographic gradients, but have received little attention as potential modifiers of the ANPP-CO2 response. We assessed effects of three soil types, sandy loam, silty clay, and clay, on the ANPP response of perennial C3/C4 grassland communities to a subambient to elevated CO2...

Data from: The greatest hits of all time: the histories of dominant genera in the fossil record

Roy E. Plotnick & Peter Wagner
Certain taxa are noticeably common within collections, widely distributed, and frequently long-lived. We have examined these dominant genera as compared to rarer genera, with a focus on their temporal histories. Using occurrence data from the Paleobiology Database, we determined which genera belonging to six target groups ranked among the most common within each of 49 temporal bins based on occurrences. The turnover among these dominant taxa from bin-to-bin was then determined for each of these...

Data from: Evaluation of acoustic telemetry grids for determining aquatic animal movement and survival

Richard T. Kraus, Christopher M. Holbrook, Christopher S. Vandergoot, Taylor R. Stewart, Matthew D. Faust, Douglas A. Watkinson, Colin Charles, Mark Pegg, Eva C. Enders & Charles C. Krueger
1. Acoustic telemetry studies have frequently prioritized linear configurations of hydrophone receivers, such as perpendicular from shorelines or across rivers, to detect the presence of tagged aquatic animals. This approach introduces unknown bias when receivers are stationed for convenience at geographic bottlenecks (e.g., at the mouth of an embayment or between islands) as opposed to deployments following a statistical sampling design. 2. We evaluated two-dimensional acoustic receiver arrays (grids: receivers spread uniformly across space) as...

Data from: Mesotocin influences pinyon jay prosociality.

Juan F. Duque, Whitney Leichner, Holly Ahmann & Jeffrey R. Stevens
Many species exhibit prosocial behavior, in which one individual’s actions benefit another individual, often without an immediate benefit to itself. The neuropeptide oxytocin is an important hormonal mechanism influencing prosociality in mammals, but it is unclear whether the avian homologue mesotocin plays a similar functional role in birds. Here, we experimentally tested prosociality in pinyon jays (Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus), a highly social corvid species that spontaneously shares food with others. First, we measured prosocial preferences in...

Data from: Arena size modulates functional responses via behavioral mechanisms

Stella F. Uiterwaal, Anthony I. Dell & John P. DeLong
Laboratory-based functional response experiments, in which foraging rates are measured across a range of resource densities, are central for determining trophic interaction strength. Historically these experiments often are performed in arbitrarily sized arenas, with larger sized organisms generally used in larger arenas. However, arena size influences foraging rates and therefore also estimates of the functional response parameters, particularly space clearance rate (attack rate). We hypothesized that non-random movement within arenas by predators and prey may...

Data from: Wheat nutrient response functions for the East Africa highlands

Athanase R. Cyamweshi, Leon N. Nabahungu, Catherine J. Senkoro, Catherine Kibunja, Athanase Mukuralinda, Kayuki C. Kaizzi, Simon M. Mvuyekure, John Kayumba, Keziah W. Ndungu-Magiroi, Mary N. Koech, Charles S. Wortmann & Charles Wortmann
Wheat (Triticum æstivum L.) is an important East Africa highland crop but yields are low. Information is scarce for optimization of fertilizer use. Research was conducted to determine yield response functions for N, P and K, and to diagnose Mg–S–Zn–B deficiencies. The average grain yield increase in Rwanda due to N application was 1.5 Mg ha−1 with a mean economically optimal rate (EOR) of 68 kg ha−1 N. In Kenya and Tanzania, yield was increased...

Data from: Pearl millet and cowpea intercrop response to applied nutrients in West Africa

Nouri Maman, Mohamed Dicko, Gonda Abdou, Zoumana Kouyate & Charles Wortmann
In the Sahel, crop production is dominated by pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] cropping systems including intercropping with cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]. The research objectives were to determine pearl millet sole crop (PMSC) and intercrop nutrient response functions, profit opportunities from fertilizer use, and a means of relating intercrop to PMSC response. Pearl millet–cowpea trials were conducted in Niger and Mali. The treatment structure was an incomplete factorial with five, four, and...

Data from: Nestling and adult sparrows respond differently to conspecific dialects

Emily Jane Hudson, Matthew Hahn & Daizaburo Shizuka
Understanding the causes and consequences of divergence in mate recognition traits has long been a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. In songbirds, songs are culturally transmitted, and cultural divergence can generate discrete geographic variation in song (i.e., dialects). Understanding how responses to within- versus across-species variation in songs changes across life stages may shed light on the functional significance of population divergence in learned traits. Here, we use a novel combination of song playbacks to...

Data from: Energy demand and the context-dependent effects of genetic interactions underlying metabolism

Luke A. Hoekstra, Cole R. Julick, Katelyn M. Mika & Kristi L. Montooth
Genetic effects are often context-dependent, with the same genotype differentially affecting phenotypes across environments, life stages, and sexes. We used an environmental manipulation designed to increase energy demand during development to investigate energy demand as a general physiological explanation for context-dependent effects of mutations, particularly for those mutations that affect metabolism. We found that increasing the period during which Drosophila larvae are active during development phenocopies a temperature-dependent developmental delay in a mitochondrial-nuclear genotype with...

Data from: Effects of mistletoe (Phoradendron villosum) on California oaks

Walter D. Koenig, Johannes M.H. Knops, William J. Carmen, Mario B. Pesendorfer, Janis L. Dickinson & Johannes M. H. Knops
Mistletoes are a widespread group of plants often considered to be hemiparasitic, having detrimental effects on growth and survival of their hosts. We studied the effects of the Pacific mistletoe Phoradendron villosum, a member of a largely autotrophic genus, on three species of deciduous California oaks. We found no effects of mistletoe presence on radial growth or survivorship and detected a significant positive relationship between mistletoe and acorn production. This latter result is potentially explained...

Registration Year

  • 2018
    43

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    43

Affiliations

  • University of Nebraska - Lincoln
    43
  • Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique du Niger
    4
  • Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization
    4
  • Rwanda Agriculture Board
    4
  • University of Kentucky
    3
  • Lilongwe university of Agriculture and Natural Resources
    2
  • Ahmadu Bello University
    2
  • Institut D'Economie Rurale
    2
  • Oklahoma State University
    2
  • Northern Kentucky University
    2