16 Works

Hemotological and morphometric measurements from geladas

Kenneth L. Chiou, Mareike C. Janiak, India A. Schneider-Crease, Sharmi Sen, Ferehiwot Ayele, Idrissa S. Chuma, Sascha Knauf, Alemayehu Lemma, Anthony V. Signore, Anthony M. D’Ippolito, Belayneh Abebe, Abebaw Azanaw Haile, Fanuel Kebede, Peter J. Fashing, Nga Nguyen, Colleen McCann, Marlys L. Houck, Jeffrey D. Wall, Andrew S. Burrell, Christina M. Bergey, Jeffrey Rogers, Jane E. Phillips-Conroy, Clifford J. Jolly, Amanda D. Melin, Jay F. Storz … & Noah Snyder-Mackler
Primates have adapted to numerous environments and lifestyles but very few species are native to high elevations. Here, we investigated high-altitude adaptations in the gelada (Theropithecus gelada), a monkey endemic to the Ethiopian Plateau. We examined genome-wide variation in conjunction with measurements of haematological and morphological traits. Our new gelada reference genome is highly intact and assembled at chromosome-length levels. Unexpectedly, we identified a chromosomal polymorphism in geladas that could potentially contribute to reproductive barriers...

Data from: Shoaling guppies evade predation but have deadlier parasites

Jason Walsman, Mary Janecka, David Clark, Rachael Kramp, Faith Rovenolt, Regina Patrick, Ryan Mohammed, Mateusz Konczal, Clayton Cressler & Jessica Stephenson
We collected data on coinfection rates, infection prevalence, and infection intensity for Gyrodactylus spp. on wild Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata). We also collected data on the shoaling preference of wild-caught guppy hosts. Further, we collected data on transmission rates, infection intensity, and infected host mortality rates of lines of these parasites on guppies in the laboratory. We fouind that wild guppy populations with stronger shoaling preferences had higher infection prevalence and coinfection rates. Further, we...

A 130-year global inventory of methane emissions from livestock: trends, patterns, and drivers

Lei Zhang, Hanqin Tian, Hao Shi, Shufen Pan, Jinfeng Chang, Shree R.S. Dangal, Xiaoyu Qin, Siyuan Wang, Francesco N. Tubiello, Josep G. Canadell & Robert B. Jackson
Livestock contributes approximately one-third of global anthropogenic methane (CH4) emissions. Quantifying the spatial and temporal variations of these emissions is crucial for climate change mitigation. Although country-level information is reported regularly through national inventories and global databases, spatially-explicit quantification of century-long dynamics of CH4 emissions from livestock has been poorly investigated. Using the Tier 2 method adopted from the 2019 Refinement to 2006 IPCC guidelines, we estimated CH4 emissions from global livestock at a spatial...

Phylogeny and secondary sexual trait evolution in Schizocosa wolf spiders (Araneae, Lycosidae) shows evidence for multiple gains and losses of ornamentation and species delimitation uncertainty

James Starrett, Rowan McGinley, Eileen Hebets & Jason Bond
Members of the Nearctic spider genus Schizocosa Chamberlin, 1904 have garnered much attention in behavioral studies and over many decades, a number of species have developed as model systems for investigating patterns of sexual selection and multimodal communication. Many of these studies have employed a comparative approach using putative, but not rigorously tested, sister species pairs that have distinctive morphological traits and attendant behaviors. Despite past emphasis on the efficacy of these presumably comparative-based studies...

Light environment interacts with visual displays in a species-specific manner in multimodal signaling wolf spiders

Rowan McGinley, James Starrett, Jason Bond & Eileen Hebets
Light availability is highly variable, yet predictable, over various timescales and the light environment is expected to play an important role in the evolution of visual signals. Courtship displays within the wolf spider genus Schizocosa always involve the use of substrate borne vibrations, however, there is substantial variation between species in the use of visual displays. We assessed the impact of light intensity on the courtship of four species of Schizocosa that vary in their...

Assessing population structure and genetic diversity in U.S. Suffolk sheep to define a framework for genomic selection

Carrie Wilson, Jessica Petersen, Harvey Blackburn & Ronald Lewis
Long-term sustainability of breeds depends on having sufficient genetic diversity for adaptability to change, whether driven by climatic conditions or by priorities in breeding programs. Genetic diversity in Suffolk sheep in the U.S. was evaluated in four ways: 1) using genetic relationships from pedigree data [(n=64,310 animals recorded in the U.S. National Sheep Improvement Program (NSIP)]; 2) using molecular data (n=304 Suffolk genotyped with the OvineHD BeadChip); 3) comparing Australian (n=109) and Irish (n=55) Suffolk...

Data from: Hybrid incompatibility between D. virilis and D. lumei is stronger in the presence of transposable elements

Dean Castillo & Leonie Moyle
Mismatches between parental genomes in selfish elements are frequently hypothesized to underlie hybrid dysfunction and drive speciation. However, because the genetic basis of most hybrid incompatibilities is unknown, testing the contribution of selfish elements to reproductive isolation is difficult. Here we evaluated the role of transposable elements (TEs) in hybrid incompatibilities between Drosophila virilis and D. lummei by experimentally comparing hybrid incompatibility in a cross where active TEs are present in D. virilis (TE+) and...

Individual or group signatures in spotted hyena whoops

Kenna Lehmann
In animal societies, identity signals mediate interactions within groups, and allow individuals to discriminate group-mates from out-group competitors. However, individual recognition becomes increasingly challenging as group size increases and as signals must be transmitted over greater distances. Group vocal signatures appear to evolve when successful in-group/out-group distinctions are at the crux of fitness-relevant decisions, but individual-based recognition systems may be favored when differentiated within-group relationships are important for decision-making. Spotted hyenas are social carnivores that...

Data from: Puma responses to unreliable human cues suggest an ecological trap in a fragmented landscape

Anna Nisi, John Benson & Christopher C. Wilmers
Animals’ fear of people is widespread across taxa and can mitigate the risk of human-induced mortality, facilitating coexistence in human-dominated landscapes. However, humans can be unpredictable predators and anthropogenic cues that animals perceive may not be reliable indicators of the risk of being killed. In these cases, animal fear responses may be ineffective and may even exacerbate the risk of anthropogenic mortality. Here, we explore these questions using a 10-year dataset of movement and mortality...

Pea aphid winged and wingless males exhibit reproductive, gene expression, and lipid metabolism differences

Omid Saleh Ziabari, Qingyi Zhong, Swapna Purandare, Joel Reiter, Anthony Zera & Jennifer Brisson
Alternative, intraspecific phenotypes offer an opportunity to identify the mechanistic basis of differences associated with distinctive life-history strategies. Wing dimorphic insects, in which both flight-capable and flight-incapable individuals occur in the same population, are particularly well-studied in terms of why and how the morphs trade-off flight for reproduction. Yet despite a wealth of studies examining the differences between female morphs, little is known about male differences, which could arise from different causes than those acting...

A comparative phylogenomic analysis of birds reveals heterogeneous differentiation processes among Neotropical Savannas

Cássia Alves Lima-Rezende, Gustavo S. Cabanne, Amanda Vaz Rocha, Martin Carboni, Robert M. Zink & Renato Caparroz
The main objective of this study is to evaluate biogeographic hypotheses of diversification and connection between isolated savannas north (Amazonian savannas) and south (Cerrado core) of the Amazon River. To achieve our goal, we employed genomic markers (genotyping by sequencing) to evaluate the genetic structure, population phylogenetic relationships, and historical range shifts of four Neotropical passerines with peri-Atlantic distributions: the Narrow-billed Woodcreeper (Lepidocolaptes angustirostris), the Plain-crested Elaenia (Elaenia cristata), the Grassland Sparrow (Ammodramus humeralis), and...

Data from: Increased signal complexity is associated with increased mating success

Noori Choi, Matt Adams, Kasey Fowler-Finn, Elise Knowlton, Malcolm Rosenthal, Aaron Rundus, Roger Santer, Dustin Wilgers & Eileen Hebets
The evolution of complex signaling has often been explored by testing multiple functional hypotheses that vary in their underlying assumptions about how independent signal components provide selective benefits to offset the costs of their production. In the present study, we take a different approach to exploring the function of complexity per se. We test the hypothesis that increased vibratory signal complexity – based on both proportional and temporal patterning - provides selective benefits to courting...

An ordinal severity scale for COVID-19 retrospective studies using electronic health record data

Maryam Khodaverdi, Bradley Price, Zachary Porterfield, Timothy Bunnell, Michael Vest, Jerrod Anzalone, Jeremy Harper, Wes Kimble, Hamidreza Moradi, Brian Hendricks, Susan Santangelo & Sally Hodder
Objectives: Although the World Health Organization (WHO) Clinical Progression Scale for COVID-19 is useful in prospective clinical trials, it cannot be effectively used with retrospective Electronic Health Record (EHR) datasets. Modifying the existing WHO Clinical Progression Scale, we developed an ordinal severity scale (OS) and assessed its usefulness in the analyses of COVID-19 patient outcomes using retrospective EHR data. Results: The data set used in this analysis consists of 2,880,456 patients. PCA of the day-to-day...

Data from: Constraints on the evolution of toxin-resistant Na,K-ATPases have limited dependence on sequence divergence

Shabnam Mohammadi, Santiago Herrera-Álvarez, Lu Yang, María Del Pilar Rodríguez-Ordoñez, Karen Zhang, Jay F. Storz, Susanne Dobler, Andrew J. Crawford & Peter Andolfatto
A growing body of theoretical and experimental evidence suggests that intramolecular epistasis is a major determinant of rates and patterns of protein evolution and imposes a substantial constraint on the evolution of novel protein functions. Here, we examine the role of intramolecular epistasis in the recurrent evolution of resistance to cardiotonic steroids (CTS) across tetrapods, which occurs via specific amino acid substitutions to the α-subunit family of Na,K-ATPases (ATP1A). After identifying a series of recurrent...

Targeted grazing and mechanical thinning enhance forest stand resilience under a narrow range of wildfire scenarios

Victoria Donovan, Caleb Roberts, Dillon Fogarty, David Wedin & Dirac Twidwell
Increasing wildfire activity has spurred ecological resilience-based management that aims to reduce the vulnerability of forest stands to wildfire by reducing the probability of crown fire. Targeted grazing is increasingly being used to build forest resilience to wildfire, either on its own or in combination with treatments like mechanical thinning; however, it is unclear how effective this method is at altering the probability of crown fire in forest stands. We use crown fire simulation models...

Land use influences the composition and antimicrobial effects of propolis

Carol Fassbinder-Orth, Amara Orth, Emma Curran, Eric Haas, Audrey Anderson, Nicholas Mason & Andrew Kraemer
Honey bee propolis is a complex, resinous mixture created by bees using plant sources such as leaves, flowers, and bud exudates. This study characterized how cropland surrounding apiaries affects the chemical composition and antimicrobial effects of propolis. The chemical composition and compound abundance of the propolis samples were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and the antimicrobial effects were analyzed using the 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) assay against four relevant bee pathogens, Serratia marcescens,...

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