51 Works

Data from: Theoretical conditions for the coexistence of viral strains with differences in phenotypic traits: a bifurcation analysis

Anel Nurtay, Matthew G. Hennessy, Josep Sardanyes, Lluis Alseda & Santiago F. Elena
We investigate the dynamics of a wild-type viral strain which generates mutant strains differing in phenotypic properties for infectivity, virulence, and mutation rates. We study, by means of a mathematical model and bifurcation analysis, conditions under which the wild-type and mutant viruses, which compete for the same host cells, can coexist. The coexistence conditions are formulated in terms of the basic reproductive numbers of the strains, a maximum value of the mutation rate, and the...

Data from: Experimental contact zones reveal causes and targets of sexual selection in hybridizing lizards

Hannah E. A. MacGregor, Geoffrey M. While, Jade Barrett, Guillem Pérez I De Lanuza, Pau Carazo, Sozos Michaelides & Tobias Uller
Divergence in sexually selected traits in allopatry should affect the degree and direction of hybridization. However, few studies have established the causes and targets of sexual selection during secondary contact. Common wall lizards (Podarcis muralis) from north-central Italy have highly exaggerated male sexual traits compared to populations in Western Europe. Using experimental populations, we show that this creates asymmetries in male dominance, spatial habitat use and reproductive success upon secondary contact. Hybridization occurred almost exclusively...

Data from: There is no general model for occlusal kinematics in conodonts

Carlos Martínez-Pérez, Pablo Plasencia, David Jones, Tea Kolar-Jurkovšek, Jingeng Sha, Hector Botella, Philip C. J. Donoghue & Philip C.J. Donoghue
Knowledge of conodont element function is based largely on analysis of morphologically similar P1 elements of few comparatively closely related species known from abundant articulated remains. From these, a stereotypical pattern of rotational occlusion has been inferred, leading to the suggestion that this may represent a general model for ozarkodinin P1 elements at the very least. We test the generality of this occlusal model through functional analysis of Pseudofurnishius murcianus P1 elements which, though superficially...

Data from: paco: implementing Procrustean Approach to Cophylogeny in R

Matthew C. Hutchinson, Edgar Fernando Cagua, Juan A. Balbuena, Daniel B. Stouffer & Timothée Poisot
1. The concordance of evolutionary histories and extant species interactions provides a useful metric for addressing questions of how the structure of ecological communities is influenced by macro-evolutionary processes. 2. We introduce paco (v.0.3.1), an R package to perform Procrustean Approach to Cophylogeny. This method assesses the phylogenetic congruence, or evolutionary dependence, of two groups of interacting species using both ecological interaction networks and their phylogenetic history. 3. We demonstrate the functionality of paco through...

Short telomeres drive pessimistic judgment bias in zebrafish

Rui Oliveira, Felipe Espigares, Diana Abad, Miguel Godinho-Ferreira & Susana Varela
The role of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has been widely investigated in the contexts of aging and age-related diseases. Interestingly, decreased telomerase activities (and accelerated telomere shortening) have also been reported in patients with emotion-related disorders, opening the possibility for subjective appraisal of stressful stimuli playing a key role in stress-driven telomere shortening. In fact, patients showing a pessimistic judgment bias have shorter telomeres. However, these evidences in humans are correlational and the causal inference...

Data from: Analysis of personal and family factors in the persistence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results of a prospective follow-up study in childhood

Ana Miranda, Carla Colomer, M. Inmaculada Fernández, M. Jesús Presentación & Belén Roselló
Objectives: To study the course of ADHD during childhood and analyze possible personal and family predictor variables of the results. Method: Sixty-one children with ADHD who were between 6 and 12 years old at the baseline assessment were evaluated 30 months later (mean age at baseline: 8.70 ± 1.97; mean age at follow-up: 10.98 ± 2.19). Status of ADHD in follow-up was identified as persistent (met DSM-IV-TR criteria according to parents’ and teachers’ ratings), contextually...

Data from: The ecology of sexual conflict: temperature variation in the social environment can drastically modulate male harm to females

Roberto Garcia-Roa, Valeria Chirinos & Pau Carazo
1. Sexual conflict is a fundamental driver of male/female adaptations, an engine of biodiversity, and a crucial determinant of population viability. Sexual conflict frequently leads to behavioural adaptations that allow males to displace their rivals, but in doing so harm those same females they are competing to access, which can decrease population viability and facilitate extinction. 2. We are far from understanding what factors modulate the intensity of sexual conflict, and particularly the role of...

Data from: Learning outdoors: Male lizards show flexible spatial learning under semi-natural conditions

Daniel W. A. Noble, Pau Carazo & Martin J. Whiting
Spatial cognition is predicted to be a fundamental component of fitness in many lizard species, and yet some studies suggest that it is relatively slow and inflexible. However, such claims are based on work conducted using experimental designs or in artificial contexts that may underestimate their cognitive abilities. We used a biologically realistic experimental procedure (using simulated predatory attacks) to study spatial learning and its flexibility in the lizard Eulamprus quoyii in semi-natural outdoor enclosures...

Data from: The joint evolution of the Myxozoa and their alternate hosts: a cnidarian recipe for success and vast biodiversity

Astrid S. Holzer, Pavla Bartosova-Sojkova, Ana Born-Torrijos, Alena Lövy, Ashlie Hartigan & Ivan Fiala
The relationships between parasites and their hosts are intimate, dynamic and complex; the evolution of one is inevitably linked to the other. Despite multiple origins of parasitism in the Cnidaria, only parasites belonging to the Myxozoa are characterized by a complex life cycle, alternating between fish and invertebrate hosts, as well as by exceptionally high species diversity. This inspired us to examine the history of reciprocal interactions and adaptive radiations in myxozoans and their hosts...

Data from: Random Tanglegram Partitions (Random TaPas): an Alexandrian approach to the Cophylogenetic Gordian Knot

Juan Antonio Balbuena, Oscar Pérez-Escobar, Cristina Llopis-Belenguer & Isabel Blasco-Costa
Symbiosis is a key driver of evolutionary novelty and ecological diversity, but our understanding of how macroevolutionary processes originate extant symbiotic associations is still very incomplete. Cophylogenetic tools are used to assess the congruence between the phylogenies of two groups of organisms related by extant associations. If phylogenetic congruence is higher than expected by chance, we conclude that there is cophylogenetic signal in the system under study. However, how to quantify cophylogenetic signal is still...

Data from: Condition dependent mortality exacerbates male (but not female) reproductive senescence and the potential for sexual conflict

Zahida Sultanova, Roberto García-Roa & Pau Carazo
Disentangling the relationship between age and reproduction is central to understand life-history evolution, and recent evidence shows that considering condition-dependent mortality is a crucial piece of this puzzle. For example, non-random mortality of “low-condition” individuals can lead to an increase in average lifespan. However, selective disappearance of such low-condition individuals may also affect reproductive senescence at the population level due to trade-offs between physiological functions related to survival/lifespan and the maintenance of reproductive functions. Here,...

Sex-specific impact of inbreeding on pathogen load in the striped dolphin

Georgios Gkafas, Menno De Jong, Athanasios Exadactylos, Juan Antonio Raga, Francisco Aznar & Rus Hoelzel
The impact of inbreeding on fitness has been widely studied and provides consequential inference about adaptive potential and the impact on survival for reduced and fragmented natural populations. Correlations between heterozygosity and fitness are common in the literature, but they rarely inform about the likely mechanisms. Here we investigate a pathology with clear impact on health in striped dolphin hosts (a nematode infection that compromises lung function). Dolphins varied with respect to their parasite burden...

Data from: Intensity of male-male competition predicts morph diversity in a colour polymorphic lizard

Guillem Perez I De Lanuza, Miguel A. Carretero & Enrique Font
Sexual selection is one of the main processes involved in the emergence and maintenance of heritable colour polymorphisms in a variety of taxa. Here we test whether the intensity of sexual selection, estimated from population sex ratio, predicts morph diversity in Podarcis muralis, a colour polymorphic lizard with discrete white, yellow, orange, white-orange, and yellow-orange male and female phenotypes (i.e. morphs). In a sample of 116 Pyrenean populations and 5421 lizards, sex ratios (m/f) vary...

Data from: Male investments in high quality sperm improve fertilization success, but may have negative impact on offspring fitness in whitefish

Jukka Kekäläinen, Carles Soler, Sami Veentaus & Hannu Huuskonen
Many ejaculate traits show remarkable variation in relation to male social status. Males in disfavoured (subordinate) mating positions often invest heavily on sperm motility but may have less available resources on traits (e.g., secondary sexual ornaments) that improve the probability of gaining matings. Although higher investments in sperm motility can increase the relative fertilization success of subordinate males, it is unclear whether status-dependent differences in sperm traits could have any consequences for offspring fitness. We...

Data from: Moving in the Anthropocene: global reductions in terrestrial mammalian movements

Marlee A. Tucker, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, William F. Fagan, John M. Fryxell, Bram Van Moorter, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Andrew M. Allen, Nina Attias, Tal Avgar, Hattie Bartlam-Brooks, Buuveibaatar Bayarbaatar, Jerrold L. Belant, Alessandra Bertassoni, Dean Beyer, Laura Bidner, Floris M. Van Beest, Stephen Blake, Niels Blaum, Chloe Bracis, Danielle Brown, P. J. Nico De Bruyn, Francesca Cagnacci, Justin M. Calabrese, Constança Camilo-Alves … & Thomas Mueller
Animal movement is fundamental for ecosystem functioning and species survival, yet the effects of the anthropogenic footprint on animal movements have not been estimated across species. Using a unique GPS-tracking database of 803 individuals across 57 species, we found that movements of mammals in areas with a comparatively high human footprint were on average one-half to one-third the extent of their movements in areas with a low human footprint. We attribute this reduction to behavioral...

Data from: Evolution of alternative male morphotypes in oxyurid nematodes: a case of convergence?

Fátima Jorge, Ana Perera, Vicente Roca, Miguel Carretero, D. James Harris, Robert Poulin & M. A. Carretero
Male dimorphism has been reported across different taxa, and is usually expressed as the coexistence of a larger morph with exaggerated male traits and a smaller one with reduced traits. The evolution and maintenance of male dimorphism are still poorly understood for several of the species in which it has been observed. Here, we analyse male dimorphism in several species of reptile parasitic nematodes of the genus Spauligodon, in which a major male morph (exaggerated...

Data from: Colour patch size and measurement error using reflectance spectrometry

Arnaud Badiane, Guillem Pérez I De Lanuza, María Del Carmen García-Custodio, Pau Carazo & Enrique Font
1. Over the past twenty years, portable and relatively affordable spectrophotometers have greatly advanced the study of animal coloration. However, the small size of many colour patches poses methodological challenges that have not, to date, been assessed in the literature. Here, we tackle this issue for a reflectance spectrophotometry set-up widely used in ecology and evolution (the beam method). 2. We reviewed the literature on animal coloration reporting the use of reflectance spectrophotometry to explore...

Data from: Adaptation in response to environmental unpredictability

Lluis Franch-Gras, Eduardo M. García-Roger, Manuel Serra & María José Carmona
Understanding how organisms adaptively respond to environmental fluctuations is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. The Mediterranean region typically exhibits levels of environmental unpredictability that vary greatly in habitats over small geographical scales. In cyclically parthenogenetic rotifers, clonal proliferation occurs along with occasional bouts of sex. These bouts contribute to the production of diapausing eggs, which allows survival between growing seasons. Here, we studied two diapause-related traits in rotifers using clones from nine Brachionus plicatilis...

Data from: Sex ratio at mating does not modulate age fitness effects in D. melanogaster

Zahida Sultanova & Pau Carazo
Understanding the effects of male and female age on reproductive success is vital to explain the evolution of life history traits and sex-specific ageing. A general prediction is that pre/post-meiotic ageing processes will lead to a decline in the pre- and post-copulatory abilities of both males and females. However, inasmuch as sexes have different strategies to optimize their fitness, the decline of reproductive success late in life can be modulated by social context, such as...

Data from: Additive effects of nurse and facilitated plants on ecosystem functions

Jose Navarro Cano, Bethanie Horner, Marta Goberna & Miguel Verdu
1. Nurse plants drive the assembly of facilitated communities and commonly promote plant-soil feedbacks, and are thus recognized as key engineers in abiotically stressful ecosystems. The literature neglects however, the role of the communities which benefit from the presence of the nurse as contributors to soil ecosystem functions. We hypothesized that the nurse and its beneficiaries synergistically enhance essential ecosystem functions mediated by soil microbiota. 2. To track how plant-plant facilitation impacts plant-soil feedbacks, we...

Proteomic data of endometrial and myometrial hydrogels

Sara López-Martínez, Hannes Campo, Lucía De Miguel-Gomez, Amparo Faus, Alfredo T. Navarro, Ana Díaz, Antonio Pellicer, Hortensia Ferrero & Irene Cervelló
Decellularization techniques support the creation of biocompatible extracellular matrix hydrogels, providing tissue-specific environments for both in vitro cell culture and in vivo tissue regeneration. We obtained endometrium derived from porcine decellularized uteri to create endometrial extracellular matrix (EndoECM) hydrogels. After decellularization and detergent removal, we investigated the physicochemical features of the EndoECM, including gelation kinetics, ultrastructure, and proteomic profile. The matrisome showed conservation of structural and tissue-specific components with low amounts of immunoreactive molecules. This...

Data for: Sexual conflict drives micro- and macroevolution of sexual dimorphism in immunity

David Berger, Basabi Bagchi, Quentin Corbel, Imroze Khan, Ellen Payne, Devshuvam Banerji, Johanna Liljestrand-Rönn, Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Julian Baur, Ahmed Sayadi, Elina Immonen, Göran Arnqvist & Irene Söderhäll
Background: Sexual dimorphism in immunity is believed to reflect sex-differences in reproductive strategies and trade-offs between competing life history demands. Sexual selection can have major effects on mating rates and sex-specific costs of mating and may thereby influence sex-differences in immunity as well as associated host-pathogen dynamics. Yet, experimental evidence linking the mating system to evolved sexual dimorphism in immunity are scarce and the direct effects of mating rate on immunity are not well established....

Data from: The distribution of mutational fitness effects of phage ϕX174 on different hosts

Pedro F. Vale, Marc Choisy, Rémy Froissart, Rafael Sanjuán & Sylvain Gandon
Adaptation depends greatly on the distribution of mutation fitness effects (DMFE), but the phenotypic expression of mutations is often environment-dependent. The environments of multi-host pathogens are mostly governed by their hosts and therefore measuring the DMFE on multiple hosts can inform on the likelihood of short-term establishment and longer-term adaptation of emerging pathogens. We explored this by measuring the growth rate of 36 mutants of the lytic bacteriophage ϕX174 on two host backgrounds, Escherichia coli...

Data from: Rumbling orchids: how to assess divergent evolution between chloroplast endosymbionts and the nuclear host

Oscar Alejandro Pérez-Escobar, Juan Antonio Balbuena & Marc Gottschling
Phylogenetic relationships inferred from multilocus organellar and nuclear DNA data are often difficult to resolve because of evolutionary conflicts among gene trees. However, conflicting or “outlier” associations (i.e., linked pairs of “operational terminal units” in two phylogenies) among these data sets often provide valuable information on evolutionary processes such as chloroplast capture following hybridization, incomplete lineage sorting, and horizontal gene transfer. Statistical tools that to date have been used in cophylogenetic studies only also have...

Data from: Experimental evolution of bet hedging in rotifer diapause traits as a response to environmental unpredictability

Eva Tarazona, Eduardo M. García-Roger & María José Carmona
The adaptive response of organisms to unpredictable environments is increasingly recognized as a central topic in fundamental and applied evolutionary ecology. Selection due to environmental unpredictability can act on multiple traits of an organism’s life cycle to reduce the impact of high environmental variance. The aim of this research was to study how unpredictability selects for diapause traits: (1) the timing of sex (a proxy of the timing of diapausing egg production), and (2) the...

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