92 Works

Data from: Vegetation phenology and nest survival: diagnosing heterogeneous effects through time

Kevin M. Ringelman & Cassandra G. Skaggs
Birds should select nest sites that minimize predation risk, but understanding the influence of vegetation on nest survival has proven problematic. Specifically, the common practice of measuring vegetation on nest fate date can overestimate its effect on survival, simply because vegetation at hatched nests grows for a longer period of time than vegetation at nests that were depredated. Here, we sampled the literature to determine the prevalence of this bias in studies of duck breeding...

Data from: Genomic variation in a widespread Neotropical bird (Xenops minutus) reveals divergence, population expansion, and gene flow

Michael G. Harvey & Robb T. Brumfield
The demographic and phylogeographic histories of species provide insight into the processes responsible for generating biological diversity, and genomic datasets are now permitting the estimation of species histories with unprecedented accuracy. We used a genomic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) dataset generated using a RAD-Seq method to investigate the historical demography and phylogeography of a widespread lowland Neotropical bird (Xenops minutus). As expected, we found that prominent landscape features that act as dispersal barriers, such as...

Data from: Sizing ocean giants: patterns of intraspecific size variation in marine megafauna

Craig R. McClain, Meghan A. Balk, Mark C. Benfield, Trevor A. Branch, Catherine Chen, James Cosgrove, Alistair D. M. Dove, Leo C. Gaskins, Rebecca Helm, Frederick G. Hochberg, Frank B. Lee, Andrea Marshall, Steven E. McMurray, Caroline Schanche, Shane N. Stone, Andrew D. Thaler & Rebecca R. Helm
What are the greatest sizes that the largest marine megafauna obtain? This is a simple question with a difficult and complex answer. Many of the largest-sized species occur in the world’s oceans. For many of these, rarity, remoteness, and quite simply the logistics of measuring these giants has made obtaining accurate size measurements difficult. Inaccurate reports of maximum sizes run rampant through the scientific literature and popular media. Moreover, how intraspecific variation in the body...

Data from: Historical and recent processes shaping the geographic range of a rocky intertidal gastropod: phylogeography, ecology, and habitat availability

Phillip B. Fenberg, Karine Posbic & Michael E. Hellberg
Factors shaping the geographic range of a species can be identified when phylogeographic patterns are combined with data on contemporary and historical geographic distribution, range-wide abundance, habitat/food availability, and through comparisons with codistributed taxa. Here, we evaluate range dynamism and phylogeography of the rocky intertidal gastropod Mexacanthina lugubris lugubris across its geographic range – the Pacific coast of the Baja peninsula and southern California. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA (CO1) from ten populations and compliment these...

Data from: No gene flow across the Eastern Pacific Barrier in the reef-building coral Porites lobata

Iliana B. Baums, Jennifer N. Boulay, Nicholas R. Polato & Michael E. Hellberg
The expanse of deep water between the Central Pacific islands and the continental shelf of the Eastern Tropical Pacific is regarded as the world’s most potent marine biogeographic barrier. During recurrent climatic fluctuations (ENSO - El Niño Southern Oscillation), however, changes in water temperature and the speed and direction of currents become favorable for trans-oceanic dispersal of larvae from central Pacific to marginal Eastern Pacific reefs. Here we investigate the population connectivity of the reef...

Data from: The first record of a trans-oceanic sister-group relationship between obligate vertebrate troglobites

Prosanta Chakrabarty, Matthew P. Davis & John S. Sparks
We show using the most complete phylogeny of one of the most species-rich orders of vertebrates (Gobiiformes), and calibrations from the rich fossil record of teleost fishes, that the genus Typhleotris, endemic to subterranean karst habitats in southwestern Madagascar, is the sister group to Milyeringa, endemic to similar subterranean systems in northwestern Australia. Both groups are eyeless, and our phylogenetic and biogeographic results show that these obligate cave fishes now found on opposite ends of...

Data from: Identifying biases at different spatial and temporal scales of diversification: a case study in the Neotropical parrotlet genus Forpus

Brian Tilston Smith, Camila C. Ribas, Bret M. Whitney, Blanca E. Hernández-Baños & John Klicka
The temporal origins of the extraordinary biodiversity of the Neotropical region are highly debated. Recent empirical work has found support for alternative models on the tempo of speciation in Neotropical species further fuelling the debate. However, relationships within many Neotropical lineages are poorly understood and it is unclear how this uncertainty impacts inferences on the evolution of taxa in the region. We examined the robustness of diversification patterns in the avian genus Forpus by testing...

Data from: Diversification across the New World within the ‘blue’ cardinalids (Aves: Cardinalidae)

, Jaime Chaves, Brian Tilston Smith, Matthew J. Miller, Kevin Winker, Jorge L. Pérez-Emán, John Klicka & Robert W. Bryson
Aim: To examine the history of diversification of ‘blue’ cardinalids (Cardinalidae) across North and South America. Location: North America (including Middle America) and South America. Methods: We collected 163 individuals of the 14 species of blue cardinalids and generated multilocus sequence data (3193 base pairs from one mitochondrial and three nuclear genes) to infer phylogeographical structure and reconstruct time-calibrated species trees. We then estimated the ancestral range at each divergence event and tested for temporal...

Data from: The genomic consequences of adaptive divergence and reproductive isolation between species of manakins

Thomas L. Parchman, Zachariah Gompert, Michael J. Braun, Robb T. Brumfield, D. B. McDonald, J. Albert C. Uy, G. Zhang, Erich D. Jarvis, B. A. Schlinger & C. A. Buerkle
The processes of adaptation and speciation are expected to shape genomic variation within and between diverging species. Here we analyze genomic heterogeneity of genetic differentiation and introgression in a hybrid zone between two bird species (Manacus candei and M. vitellinus) using 59 100 SNPs, a whole genome assembly, and Bayesian models. Measures of genetic differentiation (inline image) and introgression (genomic cline center [α] and rate [β]) were highly heterogeneous among loci. We identified thousands of...

Data from: Stochastic faunal exchanges drive diversification in widespread Wallacean and Pacific island lizards (Squamata: Scincidae: Lamprolepis smaragdina)

Charles W. Linkem, Rafe M. Brown, Cameron D. Siler, Ben J. Evans, Christopher C. Austin, Djoko T. Iskandar, Arvin C. Diesmos, Jatna Supriatna, Noviar Andayani, Jimmy A. McGuire & Malte Ebach
Aim: Widespread species found in disturbed habitats are often expected to be human commensals. In island systems, this association predicts that dispersal will be mediated by humans. We investigated the biogeographical relationships among populations of a widespread tree skink that inhabits coastal forest and human-cultivated plantations in Southeast Asia. We sought to determine whether populations of the emerald tree skink, Lamprolepis smaragdina, dis- persed via mechanisms that were not human-mediated (‘natural’ dispersal) or whether dispersal...

Data from: The biogeography of sodium in Neotropical figs (Moraceae)

Adriana Bravo & Kyle E. Harms
Sodium is essential for animals but not for most plants. Terrestrial sodium comes largely from marine aerosols, so inland ecosystems should have greater potential for sodium limitation than coastal ecosystems. We report a significant decrease of sodium in fruits of four Neotropical Ficus species with distance from presumed marine source.

Data from: Asynchronous demographic responses to Pleistocene climate change in Eastern Nearctic vertebrates

Frank T. Burbrink, Yvonne L. Chan, Edwards A. Myers, Sara Ruane, Brian T. Smith & Michael J. Hickerson
Pleistocene climatic cycles altered species distributions in the Eastern Nearctic of North America, yet the degree of congruent demographic response to the Pleistocene among codistributed taxa remains unknown. We use a hierarchical approximate Bayesian computational approach to test if population sizes across lineages of snakes, lizards, turtles, mammals, birds, salamanders and frogs in this region expanded synchronously to Late Pleistocene climate changes. Expansion occurred in 75% of 74 lineages, and of these, population size trajectories...

Data from: Quantifying demographic uncertainty: Bayesian methods for integral projection models (IPMs)

Bret D. Elderd & Tom E. X. Miller
Integral projection models (IPMs) are a powerful and popular approach to modeling population dynamics. Generalized linear models form the statistical backbone of an IPM. These models are typically fit using a frequentist approach. We suggest that hierarchical Bayesian statistical approaches offer important advantages over frequentist methods for building and interpreting IPMs, especially given the hierarchical nature of most demographic studies. Using a stochastic IPM for a desert cactus based on a 10-year study as a...

Data from: RADcap: sequence capture of dual-digest RADseq libraries with identifiable duplicates and reduced missing data

Sandra L. Hoffberg, Troy J. Kieran, Julian M. Catchen, Alison Devault, Brant C. Faircloth, Rodney Mauricio & Travis C. Glenn
Molecular ecologists seek to genotype hundreds to thousands of loci from hundreds to thousands of individuals at minimal cost per sample. Current methods, such as restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) and sequence capture, are constrained by costs associated with inefficient use of sequencing data and sample preparation. Here, we introduce RADcap, an approach that combines the major benefits of RADseq (low cost with specific start positions) with those of sequence capture (repeatable sequencing of...

Data from: Contemporary evolution of a Lepidopteran species, Heliothis virescens, in response to modern agricultural practices

Megan L. Fritz, Alexandra M. DeYonke, Alexie Papanicolaou, Stephen Micinski, John Westbrook & Fred Gould
Adaptation to human-induced environmental change has the potential to profoundly influence the genomic architecture of affected species. This is particularly true in agricultural ecosystems, where anthropogenic selection pressure is strong. Heliothis virescens primarily feeds on cotton in its larval stages and US populations have been declining since the widespread planting of transgenic cotton, which endogenously expresses proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). No physiological adaptation to Bt toxin has been found in the field, so...

Data from: Dynamics of marsh-mangrove ecotone since the mid-Holocene: a palynological study of mangrove encroachment and sea level rise in the Shark River Estuary, Florida

Qiang Yao & Kam-Biu Liu
Sea level rise and the associated inland shift of the marsh-mangrove ecotone in south Florida have raised many scientific and management concerns in recent years. Holocene paleoecological records can provide an important baseline to shed light on the long-term dynamics of vegetation changes across this ecotone in the past, which is needed to predict the future. In this study, we present palynological, X-ray fluorescence, and loss-on ignition data from four sedimentary cores recovered from a...

Data from: Genome-wide association analysis in dogs implicates 99 loci as risk variants for anterior cruciate ligament rupture

Lauren A. Baker, Brian Kirkpatrick, Guilherme J.M. Rosa, Daniel Gianola, Bruno Valente, Julia P. Sumner, Wendy Baltzer, Zhengling Hao, Emily E. Binversie, Nicola Volstad, Alexander Piazza, Susannah J. Sample, Peter Muir & Guilherme J. M. Rosa
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is common condition that can be devastating and life changing, particularly in young adults. A non-contact mechanism is typical. Second ACL ruptures through rupture of the contralateral ACL or rupture of a graft repair is also common. Risk of rupture is increased in females. ACL rupture is also common in dogs. Disease prevalence exceeds 5% in several dog breeds, ~100 fold higher than human beings. We provide insight into the...

Data from: Behavioral response to song and genetic divergence in two subspecies of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys)

Sara E. Lipshutz, Isaac A. Overcast, Michael J. Hickerson, Robb T. Brumfield & Elizabeth P. Derryberry
Divergence in sexual signals may drive reproductive isolation between lineages, but behavioral barriers can weaken in contact zones. Here, we investigate the role of song as a behavioral and genetic barrier in a contact zone between two subspecies of white-crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia leucophrys). We employed a reduced genomic dataset to assess population structure and infer the history underlying divergence, gene flow and hybridization. We also measured divergence in song and tested behavioral responses to song...

Data from: Purifying selection in the toll-like receptors of song sparrows Melospiza melodia

Martha J. Nelson-Flower, Ryan R. Germain, Elizabeth A. MacDougall-Shackleton, Sabrina S. Taylor & Peter Arcese
Variation in immune gene sequences is known to influence resistance to infectious diseases and parasites, and hence survival and mate choice, across animal taxa. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) comprise one essential gene family in the vertebrate innate immune system, and recognize evolutionarily conserved structures from all major microorganism classes. However, the causes and consequences of TLR variation in passerine birds remain largely unexplored. We examined seven TLR genes in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia), a species that...

Data from: Comparative population genomics reveals key barriers to dispersal in Southern Ocean penguins

Gemma V. Clucas, Jane L. Younger, Damian Kao, Louise Emmerson, Colin Southwell, Barbara Wienecke, Alex D. Rogers, Charles-Andre Bost, Gary D. Miller, Michael J. Polito, Patrick Lelliot, Jonathan Handley, Sarah Crofts, Richard A. Phillips, Michael J. Dunn, Karen J. Miller, Tom Hart & Patrick Lelliott
The mechanisms that determine patterns of species dispersal are important factors in the production and maintenance of biodiversity. Understanding these mechanisms helps to forecast the responses of species to environmental change. Here we used a comparative framework and genome-wide data obtained through RAD-seq to compare the patterns of connectivity among breeding colonies for five penguin species with shared ancestry, overlapping distributions, and differing ecological niches, allowing an examination of the intrinsic and extrinsic barriers governing...

Data from: Genetic species delineation among branching Caribbean Porites corals

Carlos Prada, Melissa B. Debiasse, Joseph E. Neigel, Bree Yednock, Joseph L. Stake, Zach H. Foesman, Iliana B. Baums & Michael E. Hellberg
Coral species are difficult to discern because of their morphological plasticity, long generation times, and slow rates of mitochondrial DNA evolution. Amongst Caribbean representatives of the genus Porites are three named species (P. divaricata, P. furcata, and P. porites) with branching colony morphologies whose validity as genetically isolated species has been debated. We present sequence data from the mitochondrial control region, nuclear ITS, and nine single copy nuclear loci for the Caribbean Porites and a...

Data from: Model selection as a tool for phylogeographic inference: an example from the willow Salix melanopsis

Bryan C. Carstens, Reid S. Brennan, Vivien Chua, Caroline V. Duffie, Michael G. Harvey, Rachel A. Koch, Caleb D. McMahan, Bradley J. Nelson, Catherine E. Newman, Jordan D. Satler, Glenn Seeholzer, Karine Posbic, David C. Tank & Jack Sullivan
Phylogeographic inference has typically relied on analyses of data from one or a few genes to provide estimates of demography and population histories. While much has been learned from these studies, all phylogeographic analysis is conditioned on the data, and thus, inferences derived from data that represent a small sample of the genome are unavoidably tenuous. Here, we demonstrate one approach for moving beyond classic phylogeographic research. We use sequence capture probes and Illumina sequencing...

Data from: Small-scale variation in fuel loads differentially affects two co-dominant bunchgrasses in a species-rich pine savanna

Paul R. Gagnon, Kyle E. Harms, William J. Platt, Heather A. Passmore & Jonathan A. Myers
Ecological disturbances frequently control the occurrence and patterning of dominant plants in high-diversity communities like C4 grasslands and savannas. In such ecosystems disturbance-related processes can have important implications for species, and for whole communities when those species are dominant, yet mechanistic understanding of such processes remains fragmentary. Multiple bunchgrass species commonly co-dominate disturbance-dependent and species-rich pine savannas, where small-scale fuel heterogeneity may influence bunchgrass survival and growth following fires. We quantified how fire in locally...

Data from: The role of physical barriers in the location of avian suture zones in the Guiana Shield, northern Amazonia

Luciano Nicholas Naka, Catherine L. Bechtoldt, L. Magalli Pinto Henriques, Robb T. Brumfield & Luciano Nicolas Naka
Suture zones represent natural forums to examine the role of geography and ecology in the speciation process. Here, we conduct a comparative analysis designed to investigate the location of avian phylogeographic breaks and contact zones in the Guiana Shield, northern Amazonia. We use distributional and genetic data from 78 pairs of avian taxa to address whether phylogeographic breaks and contact zones are associated with contemporary landscape features. Using spatially explicit statistical models, we found that...

Data from: More than 1000 ultraconserved elements provide evidence that turtles are the sister group of archosaurs

Nicholas G. Crawford, Brant C. Faircloth, John E. McCormack, Robb T. Brumfield, Kevin Winker & Travis C. Glenn
We present the first genomic-scale analysis addressing the phylogenetic position of turtles, using over 1,000 loci from representatives of all major reptile lineages including tuatara. Previously, studies of morphological traits positioned turtles either at the base of the reptile tree or with lizards, snakes, and tuatara (lepidosaurs), whereas molecular analyses typically allied turtles with crocodiles and birds (archosaurs). A recent analysis of shared microRNA families found that turtles are more closely related to lepidosaurs. To...

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