71 Works

Social status, forest disturbance, and Barred Owls shape long-term trends in breeding dispersal distance of Northern Spotted Owls

Julianna Jenkins, Damon Lesmeister, Eric Forsman, Katie Dugger, Steven Ackers, L. Steven Andrews, Chris McCafferty, M. Shane Pruett, Janice Reid, Stan Sovern, Rob Horn, Scott Gremel, J. David Wiens & Zhiqiang Yang
Dispersal among breeding sites in territorial animals (i.e. breeding dispersal) is driven by numerous selection pressures, including competition and spatiotemporal variation in habitat quality. The scale and trend of dispersal movements over time may signal changing conditions within the population or on the landscape. We examined 2,158 breeding dispersal events from 694 male and 608 female individually-marked Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) monitored over 28 years on seven study areas to assess the relative...

A comprehensive anatomical and phylogenetic evaluation of Dilophosaurus wetherilli (Dinosauria: Theropoda) with descriptions of new specimens from the Kayenta Formation of northern Arizona

Adam Marsh & Timothy Rowe
Dilophosaurus wetherilli was the largest animal known to have lived on land in North America during the Early Jurassic. Despite its charismatic presence in pop culture and dinosaurian phylogenetic analyses, major aspects of the skeletal anatomy, taxonomy, ontogeny, and evolutionary relationships of this dinosaur remain unknown. Skeletons of this species were collected from the middle and lower part of the Kayenta Formation in the Navajo Nation of Arizona. Redescription of the holotype, referred, and previously...

Urbanization reduces genetic connectivity in bobcats (Lynx rufus) at both intra- and inter-population spatial scales

Christopher P Kozakiewicz, Christopher Burridge, W. Chris Funk, Patricia E Salerno, Daryl R Trumbo, Roderick B Gagne, Erin E Boydston, Robert N Fisher, Lisa M Lyren, Megan K Jennings, Seth P D Riley, Laurel E K Serieys, Sue VandeWoude, Kevin R Crooks & Scott Carver
Urbanization is a major factor driving habitat fragmentation and connectivity loss in wildlife. However, the impacts of urbanization on connectivity can vary among species and even populations due to differences in local landscape characteristics, and our ability to detect these relationships may depend on the spatial scale at which they are measured. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are relatively sensitive to urbanization and the status of bobcat populations is an important indicator of connectivity in urban coastal...

Data from: Ecological release lead to novel otogenetic diet shift in kokanee (Oncoryhnchus nerka)

Kyle R. Shedd, Frank A. Von Hippel, James J. Willacker, Troy R. Hamon, Ora L. Schlei, John K. Wenburg, Joe L. Miller, Scott Pavey & Scott A. Pavey
We investigate adaptive resource polymorphism in kokanee (Oncorhynchus nerka) from Jo-Jo Lake, Alaska by determining whether previously observed niche expansion occurs at the population or individual level. Utilizing morphological, genetic, and stable isotope techniques, we found no evidence of discrete trophic morphotypes as previously described, but instead found evidence for an ontogenetic diet shift. Carbon and nitrogen isotope data indicate a 40% decrease in the proportion of benthic feeding and an increase of 1 trophic...

Data from: Spatio-temporal dynamics of a tree-killing beetle and its predator

Aaron S. Weed, Matthew P. Ayres, Andrew M. Liebhold & Ronald F. Billings
Resolving linkages between local-scale processes and regional-scale patterns in abundance of interacting species is important for understanding long-term population stability across spatial scales. Landscape patterning in consumer population dynamics may be largely the result of interactions between consumers and their predators, or driven by spatial variation in basal resources. Empirical testing of these alternatives has been limited by the lack of suitable data. In this study, we analyzed an extensive network of spatially replicated time...

Data from: Replicated landscape genetic and network analyses reveal wide variation in functional connectivity for American pikas

Jessica A. Castillo, Clinton W. Epps, Mackenzie R. Jeffress, Chris Ray, Thomas J. Rodhouse & Donelle Schwalm
Landscape connectivity is essential for maintaining viable populations, particularly for species restricted to fragmented habitats or naturally arrayed in metapopulations and facing rapid climate change. The importance of assessing both structural connectivity (the physical distribution of favorable habitat patches) and functional connectivity (how species move among habitat patches) for managing such species is well understood. However, the degree to which functional connectivity for a species varies among landscapes, and the resulting implications for conservation, have...

Data from: A hierarchical Bayesian approach for handling missing classification data

Alison C. Ketz, Therese L. Johnson, Mevin B. Hooten & M. Thompson Hobbs
Ecologists use classifications of individuals in categories to understand composition of populations and communities. These categories might be defined by demographics, functional traits, or species. Assignment of categories is often imperfect, but frequently treated as observations without error. When individuals are observed but not classified, these “partial” observations must be modified to include the missing data mechanism to avoid spurious inference. We developed two hierarchical Bayesian models to overcome the assumption of perfect assignment to...

How climate impacts the composition of wolf killed-elk in northern Yellowstone National Park

Christopher Wilmers, Matthew Metz, Daniel Stahler, Michel Kohl, Chris Geremia & Douglas Smith
1. While the functional response of predators is commonly measured, recent work has revealed that the age and sex composition of prey killed is often a better predictor of prey population dynamics because the reproductive value of adult females is usually higher than that of males or juveniles. 2. Climate is often an important mediating factor in determining the composition of predator kills, but we currently lack a mechanistic understanding of how the multiple facets...

Recovery of a cultivation grazer: A mechanism for compensatory growth of Thalassia testudinum in a Caribbean seagrass meadow grazed by green turtles

Alexandra Gulick, Robert Johnson, Clayton Pollock, Zandy Hillis-Starr, Alan Bolten & Karen Bjorndal
Recovery of green turtles (Chelonia mydas), mega-herbivores that consume seagrasses, is resulting in dramatic ecosystem-wide changes as meadows are returned to a natural grazed state. The green turtle grazing strategy, with long-term cultivation of meadows and high foraging site fidelity, is distinct from other terrestrial and aquatic mega-herbivores and may affect seagrass compensatory growth responses. Identifying mechanisms of compensatory growth responses to grazing is essential to understanding the functioning of plant systems under natural grazing...

Data from: Influence of group size on the success of wolves hunting bison

Daniel R. MacNulty, Aimee Tallian, Daniel R. Stahler & Douglas W. Smith
An intriguing aspect of social foraging behaviour is that large groups are often no better at capturing prey than are small groups, a pattern that has been attributed to diminished cooperation (i.e., free riding) in large groups. Although this suggests the formation of large groups is unrelated to prey capture, little is known about cooperation in large groups that hunt hard-to-catch prey. Here, we used direct observations of Yellowstone wolves (Canis lupus) hunting their most...

Data from: Vegetation response to control of invasive Tamarix in southwestern US rivers: a collaborative study including 416 sites

Eduardo González, Anna A. Sher, Robert M. Anderson, Robin F. Bay, Daniel W. Bean, Gabriel J. Bissonnete, Bérenger Bourgeois, David J. Cooper, Kara Dohrenwend, Kim D. Eichhorst, Hisham El Waer, Deborah K. Kennard, Rebecca Harms-Weissinger, Annie L. Henry, Lori J. Makarick, Steven M. Ostoja, Lindsay V. Reynolds, W. Wright Robinson & Patrick B. Shafroth
Most studies assessing vegetation response following control of invasive Tamarix trees along southwestern U.S. rivers have been small in scale (e.g., river reach), or at a regional scale but with poor spatial-temporal replication, and most have not included testing the effects of a now widely-used biological control. We monitored plant composition following Tamarix control along hydrologic, soil and climatic gradients in 244 treated and 172 reference sites across six U.S. States. This represents the largest...

Data from: Quantifying climate sensitivity and climate-driven change in North American amphibian communities

David A. W. Miller, Evan H. Campbell Grant, Erin Muths, Staci M. Amburgey, Michael J. Adams, Maxwell B. Joseph, J. Hardin Waddle, Pieter T. J. Johnson, Maureen E. Ryan, Benedikt R. Schmidt, Daniel L. Calhoun, Courtney L. Davis, Robert N. Fisher, David M. Green, Blake R. Hossack, Tracy A. G. Rittenhouse, Susan C. Walls, Larissa L. Bailey, Sam S. Cruickshank, Gary M. Fellers, Thomas A. Gorman, Carola A. Haas, Ward Hughson, David S. Pilliod, Steven J. Price … & Brent H. Sigafus
Changing climate will impact species’ ranges only when environmental variability directly impacts the demography of local populations. However, measurement of demographic responses to climate change has largely been limited to single species and locations. Here we show that amphibian communities are responsive to climatic variability, using >500,000 time-series observations for 81 species across 86 North American study areas. The effect of climate on local colonization and persistence probabilities varies among eco-regions and depends on local...

Data from: Acoustically advertising male harbour seals in southeast Alaska do not make biologically relevant acoustic adjustments in the presence of vessel noise

Leanna P. Matthews, Michelle E. H. Fournet, Christine Gabriele, Susan E. Parks & Holger Klinck
Aquatically breeding harbour seal (Phoca vitulina) males use underwater vocalizations during the breeding season to establish underwater territories, defend territories against intruder males, and possibly to attract females. Vessel noise overlaps in frequency with these vocalizations and could negatively impact breeding success by limiting communication space. In this study we investigated whether harbour seals employed anti-masking strategies to maintain communication in the presence of vessel noise in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska. Harbour...

Maintaining historic disturbance regimes increases species’ resilience to catastrophic hurricanes

Erica H Henry, Martha O Burford Reiskind, Aerin Land & Nick M Haddad
As habitat loss and fragmentation, urbanization, and global climate change accelerate, conservation of rare ecosystems increasingly relies on human intervention. However, any conservation strategy is vulnerable to unpredictable, catastrophic events. Whether active management increases or decreases a system’s resilience to these events remains unknown. Following Hurricane Irma’s landfall in our habitat restoration study sites, we found that rare ecosystems with active, human-imposed management suffered less damage in a hurricane’s path than unmanaged systems. At the...

Genetic diversity of Shaw's agave and soil associated microbes in Southern California preserve

Goran Bozinovic, Jeanne Vu, Miguel Vasquez & Keith Lombardo
Shaw’s Agave (Agave shawii ssp. shawii) is an endangered maritime succulent growing along the coast of California and Northern Baja California. The population inhabiting Point Loma Peninsula has a complicated history of transplantation without documentation. The low effective population size in California prompted agave transplanting from the U.S. Naval base site (NB) to Cabrillo National Monument (CNM). Since 2008, there are no agave sprouts identified on the CNM site, and concerns have been raised about...

Data from: Estimating abundance of an open population with an N-mixture model using auxiliary data on animal movements

Alison C. Ketz, Therese L. Johnson, Ryan J. Monello, John A. Mack, Janet L. George, Benjamin R. Kraft, Margaret A. Wild, Mevin B. Hooten & N. Thompson Hobbs
Accurate assessment of abundance forms a central challenge in population ecology and wildlife management. Many statistical techniques have been developed to estimate population sizes because populations change over time and space, and to correct for the bias resulting from animals that are present in a study area but not observed. The mobility of individuals makes it difficult to design sampling procedures that account for movement into and out of areas with fixed jurisdictional boundaries. Aerial...

Data from: Urbanization and anticoagulant poisons promote immune dysfunction in bobcats

Laurel E.K. Serieys, Amanda J. Lea, Marta Epeldegui, Tiffany C. Armenta, Joanne Moriarty, Sue Vandewoude, Scott Carver, Janet Foley, Robert K. Wayne, Seth P.D. Riley, Christel H. Uittenbogaart, Laurel E. K. Serieys & Seth P. D. Riley
Understanding how human activities influence immune response to environmental stressors can support biodiversity conservation across increasingly urbanizing landscapes. We studied a bobcat (Lynx rufus) population in urban southern California that experienced a rapid population decline from 2002–2005 due to notoedric mange. Because anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) exposure was an underlying complication in mange deaths, we aimed to understand sublethal contributions of urbanization and ARs on 65 biochemical markers of immune and organ function. Variance in immunological...

Data from: Homing of invasive Burmese pythons in South Florida: evidence for map and compass senses in snakes

Shannon E. Pittman, Kristen M. Hart, Michael S. Cherkiss, Ray W. Snow, Ikuko Fujisaki, Brian J. Smith, Frank J. Mazzotti & Michael E. Dorcas
Navigational ability is a critical component of an animal's spatial ecology and may influence the invasive potential of species. Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) are apex predators invasive to South Florida. We tracked the movements of 12 adult Burmese pythons in Everglades National Park, six of which were translocated 21–36 km from their capture locations. Translocated snakes oriented movement homeward relative to the capture location, and five of six snakes returned to within 5 km...

Data from: Population genomics through time provides insights into the consequences of decline and rapid demographic recovery through head-starting in a Galapagos giant tortoise

Evelyn L. Jensen, Danielle L. Edwards, Ryan C. Garrick, Joshua M. Miller, James P. Gibbs, Linda J. Cayot, Washington Tapia, Aldalgisa Caccone, Michael A. Russello & Adalgisa Caccone
Population genetic theory related to the consequences of rapid population decline is well-developed, but there are very few empirical studies where sampling was conducted before and after a known bottleneck event. Such knowledge is of particular importance for species restoration, given links between genetic diversity and the probability of long-term persistence. To directly evaluate the relationship between current genetic diversity and past demographic events, we collected genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data from pre-bottleneck historical (c.1906)...

Data from: Trails-as-transects: phenology monitoring across heterogeneous microclimates in Acadia National Park, Maine

Caitlin McDonough MacKenzie, Abraham J. Miller-Rushing & Richard B. Primack
Climate‐driven shifts in phenology, which are being observed worldwide, affect ecosystem services, trophic interactions, and community composition, presenting challenges to managers in protected areas. Resource management benefits from local, species‐specific phenology information. However, phenology monitoring programs in heterogeneous landscapes typically require serendipitous historical records or many years of contemporary data before trends in phenological responses to changes in climate can be analyzed. Here, we used a trails‐as‐transects approach to rapidly accumulate monitoring data across environmental...

Data from: Accommodating temporary emigration in spatial distance sampling models

Jeremy D. Mizel, Joshua H. Schmidt & Mark S. Lindberg
1.Model-based distance sampling is commonly used to understand spatial variation in the density of wildlife species. The standard approach assumes that individuals are distributed uniformly and models spatial variation in density using plot-level effects. Thinned point process (TPP) models for surveys of unmarked populations (spatial distance sampling) better leverage the spatial information underlying individual encounters, and in the presence of within-plot variation in density, may explain a larger proportion of the spatial variation in density....

A habitat-based approach to determining the effects of drought on aridland bird communities

Samuel Roberts, David Thoma, Dusty Perkins, Elizabeth Tymkiw, Zachary Ladin & Gregory Shriver
Aridland breeding bird communities of the United States are among the most vulnerable to drought, with many species showing significant population declines associated with decreasing precipitation and increasing temperature. Individual breeding bird species have varied responses to drought which suggests complex responses to changes in water availability. Here, we evaluated the influence of water deficit, an integrative metric of drought stress, on breeding bird communities within three distinct aridland habitat types: riparian, pinyon-juniper, and sagebrush...

Data from: Disease and freeways drive genetic change in urban bobcat populations

Laurel E. K. Serieys, Amanda Lea, John P. Pollinger, Seth P. D. Riley & Robert K. Wayne
Urbanization profoundly impacts animal populations by causing isolation, increased susceptibility to disease, and exposure to toxicants. Genetic effects include reduced effective population size, increased population substructure, and decreased adaptive potential. We investigated the influence that urbanization and a disease epizootic had on the population genetics of bobcats (Lynx rufus) distributed across a highly fragmented urban landscape. We genotyped more than 300 bobcats, sampled from 1996-2012, for variation at nine neutral and seven immune gene-linked microsatellite...

Data from: Increased accuracy of species lists developed for alpine lakes using morphology and cytochrome oxidase I for identification of specimens

Kristy Deiner, Roland A. Knapp, Daniel M. Boiano & Bernie May
The first step in many community ecology studies is to produce a species list from a sample of individuals. Community ecologists now have two viable ways of producing a species list: morphological and barcode identification. In this study, we compared the taxonomic resolution gained by a combined use of both methods and tested whether a change in taxonomic resolution significantly impacted richness estimates for benthic macroinvertebrates sampled from ten lakes in Sequoia National Park, USA....

Data from: Genome-wide expression reveals multiple systemic effects associated with detection of anticoagulant poisons in bobcats (Lynx rufus)

Devaughn Fraser, Alice Mouton, Laurel E.K. Serieys, Steve Cole, Scott Carver, Sue Vandewoude, Michael Lappin, Seth P.D. Riley, Robert Wayne & Laurel E. K. Serieys
Anticoagulant rodenticides (ARs) are indiscriminate toxicants that threaten non-target predatory and scavenger species through secondary poisoning. Accumulating evidence suggests that AR exposure may have disruptive sublethal consequences on individuals that can affect fitness. We evaluated AR-related effects on genome wide expression patterns in a population of bobcats in southern California. We identify differential expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, epithelial integrity, and both adaptive and innate immune function. Further, we...

Registration Year

  • 2021
    9
  • 2020
    14
  • 2019
    8
  • 2018
    16
  • 2017
    7
  • 2016
    4
  • 2015
    4
  • 2014
    6
  • 2013
    1
  • 2011
    2

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    71

Affiliations

  • National Park Service
    71
  • Utah State University
    9
  • Colorado State University
    9
  • University of California Los Angeles
    9
  • United States Geological Survey
    8
  • University of Montana
    6
  • University of Wyoming
    4
  • University of Minnesota
    4
  • University of Washington
    3
  • Oregon State University
    3