127 Works

Polymorphisms in dipeptidyl peptidase 4 reduce host cell entry of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus

Hannah Kleine-Weber, Simon Schroeder, Nadine Krüger, Alexander Prokscha, Hassan Y. Naim, Marcel A. Müller, Christian Drosten, Stefan Pöhlmann & Markus Hoffmann
Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV) causes a severe respiratory disease in humans. The MERS-CoV spike (S) glycoprotein mediates viral entry into target cells. For this, MERS-CoV S engages the host cell protein dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4, CD26) and the interface between MERS-CoV S and DPP4 has been resolved on the atomic level. Here, we asked whether naturally-occurring polymorphisms in DPP4, that alter amino acid residues required for MERS-CoV S binding, influence cellular entry...

Data from: Resources alter the structure and increase stochasticity in bromeliad microfauna communities

Jana S. Petermann, Pavel Kratina, Nicolas A. C. Marino, A. Andrew M. MacDonald, Diane S. Srivastava & Nicholas A. C. Marino
Although stochastic and deterministic processes have been found to jointly shape structure of natural communities, the relative importance of both forces may vary across different environmental conditions and across levels of biological organization. We tested the effects of abiotic environmental conditions, altered trophic interactions and dispersal limitation on the structure of aquatic microfauna communities in Costa Rican tank bromeliads. Our approach combined natural gradients in environmental conditions with experimental manipulations of bottom-up interactions (resources), top-down...

Data from: Phenotypic plasticity of mate recognition systems prevents sexual interference between two sympatric leaf beetle species

Tobias Otte, Monika Hilker & Sven Geiselhardt
Maladaptive sexual interactions among heterospecific individuals (sexual interference) can prevent the coexistence of animal species. Thus, the avoidance of sexual interference by divergence of mate recognition systems is crucial for a stable coexistence in sympatry. Mate recognition systems are thought to be under tight genetic control. However, we demonstrate that mate recognition systems of two closely related sympatric leaf beetle species show a high level of host-induced phenotypic plasticity. Mate choice in the mustard leaf...

Data from: When homoplasy is not homoplasy: dissecting trait evolution by contrasting composite and reductive coding

Alejandro Torres-Montúfar, Thomas Borsch & Helga Ochoterena
The conceptualization and coding of characters is a difficult issue in phylogenetic systematics, no matter which inference method is used when reconstructing phylogenetic trees or if the characters are just mapped onto a specific tree. Complex characters are groups of features that can be divided into simpler hierarchical characters (reductive coding), although the implied hierarchical relational information may change depending on the type of coding (composite vs reductive). Up to now, there is no common...

Data from: The palaeogenetics of cat dispersal in the ancient world

Claudio Ottoni, Wim Van Neer, Bea De Cupere, Julien Daligault, Silvia Guimaraes, Joris Peters, Nikolai Spassov, Mary E. Prendergast, Nicole Boivin, Arturo Morales-Muñiz, Adrian Bălăşescu, Cornelia Becker, Norbert Benecke, Adina Boroneant, Hijlke Buitenhuis, Jwana Chahoud, Alison Crowther, Laura Llorente, Nina Manaseryan, Hervé Monchot, Vedat Onart, Marta Osypińska, Olivier Putelat, Eréndira M. Quintana Morales, Jacqueline Studer … & Eva-Maria Geigl
The cat has long been important to human societies as a pest-control agent, object of symbolic value and companion animal, but little is known about its domestication process and early anthropogenic dispersal. Here we show, using ancient DNA analysis of geographically and temporally widespread archaeological cat remains, that both the Near Eastern and Egyptian populations of Felis silvestris lybica contributed to the gene pool of the domestic cat at different historical times. While the cat’s...

Should I stay or must I go? Predictors of dropout in an internet-based psychotherapy programme for posttraumatic stress disorder in Arabic

Max Vöhringer, Christine Knaevelsrud, Birgit Wagner, Martin Slotta, Anne Schmidt, Nadine Stammel & Maria Böttche
Background: Dropout from psychotherapy has negative impacts on clients, therapists, and health-care agencies. Research has identified a variety of variables as predictors of dropout, which can be grouped in three domains: socio-demographic, psychological, and treatment-related variables. Objective: In order to further clarify the question of predictors of dropout, an exploratory research design was applied to a large sample, testing 25 different variables from the three domains as possible predictors. Method: The sample included 386 adults...

Global Diversification Dynamics Since the Jurassic: Low Dispersal and Habitat-Dependent Evolution Explain Hotspots of Diversity and Shell Disparity in River Snails (Viviparidae)

Björn Stelbrink, Romy Richter, Frank Köhler, Frank Riedel, Ellen Strong, Bert Van Bocxlaer, Christian Albrecht, Torsten Hauffe, Timothy Page, David Aldridge, Arthur Bogan, Li-Na Du, Marivene Manuel-Santos, Ristiyanti Marwoto, Alena Shirokaya & Thomas Von Rintelen
The Viviparidae, commonly known as River Snails, is a dominant group of freshwater snails with a nearly worldwide distribution that reaches its highest taxonomic and morphological diversity in Southeast Asia. The rich fossil record is indicative of a probable Middle Jurassic origin on the Laurasian supercontinent where the group started to diversify during the Cretaceous. However, it remains uncertain when and how the biodiversity hotspot in Southeast Asia was formed. Here, we used a comprehensive...

Data from: Socio-economic impact classification of alien taxa (SEICAT)

Sven Bacher, Tim M. Blackburn, Franz Essl, Piero Genovesi, Jaakko Heikkilä, Jonathan M. Jeschke, Glyn Jones, Reuben Keller, Marc Kenis, Christoph Kueffer, Angeliki F. Martinou, Wolfgang Nentwig, Jan Pergl, Petr Pyšek, Wolfgang Rabitsch, David M. Richardson, Helen E. Roy, Wolf-Christian Saul, Riccardo Scalera, Montserrat Vila, John R. U. Wilson, Sabina Kumschick & Sabrina Kumschick
Many alien taxa are known to cause socio-economic impacts by affecting the different constituents of human well-being (security; material and non-material assets; health; social, spiritual and cultural relations; freedom of choice and action). Attempts to quantify socio-economic impacts in monetary terms are unlikely to provide a useful basis for evaluating and comparing impacts of alien taxa because they are notoriously difficult to measure and important aspects of human well-being are ignored. Here, we propose a...

Data from: Evolution of defence cocktails: antimicrobial peptide combinations reduce mortality and persistent infection

Caroline Zanchi, Paul R. Johnston & Jens Rolff
The simultaneous expression of costly immune effectors such as multiple antimicrobial peptides is a hallmark of innate immunity of multicellular organisms, yet the adaptive advantage remains unresolved. Here, we test current hypotheses on the evolution of such defence cocktails. We use RNAi gene knock-down to explore, the effects of three highly expressed antimicrobial peptides, displaying different degrees of activity in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus, during an infection in the beetle Tenebrio molitor. We find that...

Protest Events in the Federal Republic of Germany, 1950-1993

Friedhelm Neidhardt & D. Rucht
This data collection contains data concerning protest events in the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany and since 1980 for the territory of the German Democratic Republic (GDR). Variables include point in time and weekday of the protest; length of the protest; report source; page in the newspaper; extent of report; origin of the report; number of reports and comments on the protest; area of mobilizing the protest; primary place of the protest; number...

Data from: Street lighting: sex-independent impacts on moth movement

Tobias Degen, Oliver Mitesser, Elizabeth K. Perkin, Nina-Sophie Weiß, Martin Oehlert, Emily Mattig & Franz Hölker
1.Artificial lights have become an integral and welcome part of our urban and peri-urban environments. However, recent research has highlighted the potentially negative ecological consequences of ubiquitous artificial light. In particular, insects, especially moths, are expected to be negatively impacted by the presence of artificial lights. Previous research with light traps has shown a male-biased attraction to light in moths. 2.In this study, we sought to determine if street lights could limit moth dispersal and...

Data from: A point mutation in a herpesvirus co-determines neuropathogenicity and viral shedding

Mathias Franz, Laura B. Goodman, Gerlinde R. Van De Walle, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Alex D. Greenwood, Laura Goodman, Gerlinde Van De Walle & Alex Greenwood
A point mutation in the DNA polymerase gene in equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is one determinant for the development of neurological disease in horses. Three recently conducted infection experiments using domestic horses and ponies failed to detect statistically significant differences in viral shedding between the neuropathogenic and non-neuropathogenic variants. These results were interpreted as suggesting the absence of a consistent selective advantage of the neuropathogenic variant and therefore appeared to be inconsistent with a...

Data from: Divergence of cuticular hydrocarbons in two sympatric grasshopper species and the evolution of fatty acid synthases and elongases across insects

Jonas Finck, Emma L. Berdan, Frieder Mayer, Bernhard Ronacher & Sven Geiselhardt
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play a major role in the evolution of reproductive isolation between insect species. The CHC profiles of two closely related sympatric grasshopper species, Chorthippus biguttulus and C. mollis, differ mainly in the position of the first methyl group in major methyl-branched CHCs. The position of methyl branches is determined either by a fatty acid synthase (FAS) or by elongases. Both protein families showed an expansion in insects. Interestingly, the FAS family showed...

Data from: Gene expression response to a nematode parasite in novel and native eel hosts

Seraina E. Bracamonte, Paul R. Johnston, Michael T. Monaghan & Klaus Knopf
Invasive parasites are involved in population declines of new host species worldwide. The high susceptibilities observed in many novel hosts have been attributed to the lack of protective immunity to the parasites which native hosts acquired during their shared evolution. We experimentally infected Japanese eels (Anguilla japonica) and European eels (A. anguilla) with Anguillicola crassus, a nematode parasite that is native to the Japanese eel and invasive in the European eel. We inferred gene expression...

Data from: Intransitive competition is common across five major taxonomic groups and is driven by productivity, competitive rank and functional traits.

Santiago Soliveres, Anika Lehmann, Steffen Boch, Florian Altermatt, Francesco Carrara, Thomas W. Crowther, Manuel Delgado-Baquerizo, Anne Kempel, Daniel S. Maynard, Matthias C. Rillig, Brajesh K. Singh, Pankaj Trivedi & Eric Allan
1. Competition can be fully hierarchical or intransitive, and this degree of hierarchy is driven by multiple factors, including environmental conditions, the functional traits of the species involved or the topology of competition networks. Studies simultaneously analyzing these drivers of competition hierarchy are rare. Additionally, organisms compete either directly or via interference competition for resources or space, within a local neighbourhood or across the habitat. Therefore, the drivers of competition could change accordingly and depend...

Data from: The strength of negative plant-soil feedback increases from the intraspecific to the interspecific and the functional group level

Alexandra R. Bukowski, Conrad Schittko & Jana S. Petermann
1. One of the processes that may play a key role in plant species coexistence and ecosystem functioning is plant-soil feedback, the effect of plants on associated soil communities and the resulting feedback on plant performance. Plant-soil feedback at the interspecific level (comparing growth on own soil with growth on soil from different species) has been studied extensively, while plant-soil feedback at the intraspecific level (comparing growth on own soil with growth on soil from...

Data from: Parasites driving host diversity: incidence of disease correlated with Daphnia clonal turnover

Patrick Turko, Christoph Tellenbach, Esther Keller, Nadine Tardent, Barbara Keller, Piet Spaak & Justyna Wolinska
According to the Red Queen hypothesis, clonal diversity in asexual populations could be maintained by negative frequency-dependant selection by co-evolving parasites. If common clones are selected against and rare clones gain a concomitant advantage, we expect that clonal turnover should be faster during parasite epidemics than between them. We tested this hypothesis exploring field data of the Daphnia – Caullerya host-parasite system. The clonal make-up and turnover of the Daphnia host population was tracked with...

Data from: Costs and benefits of admixture between foreign genotypes and local populations in the field

Jun Shi, Jasmin Joshi, Katja Tielborger, Koen J. F. Verhoeven & Mirka Macel
Admixture is the hybridization between populations within one species. It can increase plant fitness and population viability by alleviating inbreeding depression and increasing genetic diversity. However, populations are often adapted to their local environments and admixture with distant populations could break down local adaptation by diluting the locally adapted genomes. Thus, admixed genotypes might be selected against and be outcompeted by locally adapted genotypes in the local environments. To investigate the costs and benefits of...

Data from: Phylogenetic diversity of two geographically overlapping species in the lichen genus Sticta (Ascomycota: Peltigeraceae): Isolation by distance, environment, or fragmentation?

Robert Lücking, Bibiana Moncada & H. Thorsten Lumbsch
Aim: To test whether the degree of phylogenetic diversity differs in two congeneric, morphologically similar lichens that are both widespread and with a similar geographical range (Neotropics and Hawaii), but differ in altitudinal and habitat preferences, and whether the two species underwent isolation by distance (IBD), environment (IBE), or fragmentation (IBF). Location: South and Central America, Caribbean, Hawaii, Azores. Taxon: Sticta (Peltigeraceae). Methods: Analysis of 395 specimens across the study area; ITS barcoding marker; maximum...

Data from: Ecological stasis in Spinicaudata (Crustacea, Branchiopoda)? Early Cretaceous clam shrimp of the Yixian Formation of north‐east China occupied a broader realized ecological niche than extant members of the group

Manja Hethke, Franz T. Fürsich, Baoyu Jiang, Bo Wang, Patrick Chellouche & Stephen C. Weeks
The palaeoecology of Spinicaudata, the dominant group of benthic invertebrates in many pre-Cenozoic freshwater environments, remains poorly understood. In analogy with extant taxa, it has been oversimplified and often reduced to shallow, temporary environments characterised by few trophic levels, implying ecological stasis from the Devonian to the Recent. We excavated 43 horizons of the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation (Anjiagou and Hengdaozi beds) to evaluate whether spinicaudatan ecology can be simplified to such an extent. Sedimentological...

Data from: Hodge decomposition of wall shear stress vector fields characterizing biological flows

Faniry H. Razafindrazaka, Pavel Yevtushenko, Konstantin Poelke, Konrad Polthier & Leonid Goubergrits
A discrete boundary-sensitive Hodge decomposition is proposed as a central tool for the analysis of wall shear stress (WSS) vector fields in aortic blood flows. The method is based on novel results for the smooth and discrete Hodge-Morrey-Friedrichs decomposition on manifolds with boundary and subdivides the WSS vector field into five components: gradient (curl-free), co-gradient (divergence-free), and three harmonic fields induced from the boundary, which are called the center, Neumann and Dirichlet fields. First, an...

Soil conditions drive belowground trait space in temperate agricultural grasslands

Tom Lachaise, Joana Bergmann, Norbert Hölzel, Valentin Klaus, Till Kleinebecker, Matthias Rillig & Mark Van Kleunen
Plant belowground organs perform essential functions, including water and nutrient uptake, anchorage, vegetative reproduction and recruitment of mutualistic soil microbiota. Recently, multivariate analyses showed that root traits of species can largely be linked to a ‘conservation’ and a ‘collaboration’ gradient. Here, we tested whether this species-level bidimensional belowground trait space also exists at the community level in grasslands. Furthermore, we tested whether the position of grassland communities in belowground trait space relates to environmental variables....

PanDDA-analyzed data of a crystallographic fragment screening of F2X-Universal Library vs. AR

Tatjana Barthel, Jan Wollenhaupt, Gustavo M. A. Lima, Markus C. Wahl & Manfred S. Weiss
A crystallographic fragment screening (CFS) has been performed on a spliceosomal yeast protein-protein complex of Aar2 and the RNaseH-like domain of Prp8 (AR). The F2X-Universal Library is a fragment library representing the commercially available chemical space of fragments. 917 fragments have been individually screened via crystal soaking. The datasets that could be successfully auto-processed and auto-refined had been subjected to a Pan-Dataset Density Analysis (PanDDA) (Pearce et al., 2017). This analysis allows to find low...

epigenetic_qPCR_data_final.xlsx

Bjoern Samans, Marta Rossello Chornet, Araceli Rossello Chornet, Janine Jung, Konstantin Schildknecht, Laura Lozza, Lourdes Alos Zaragoza, Javier Hernández Laforet, Nina Babel & Sven Olek
We analysed whole blood and nasopharyngeal swabs from COVID-19 patients in two different cohorts collected at hospitals in Germany (Bochum) and Spain (Valencia) by epigenetic immune cell quantification using qPCR assays (demethyl-specific). The aim was to investigate the prognostic potential of this approach to identify patients with higher risk for a poor outcome. Also, we compared epigenetic data of patients with those of healthy donors.
Dataset includes Cp (crossing-point) values, cell specific plasmid units...

Heat stress can change the competitive outcome between fungi – insights from a modelling approach

Felix Wesener, Matthias Rillig & Britta Tietjen
Under a changing climate, soil fungal communities will increasingly be subject to periods of heat stress. These periods can affect the performance of individual fungi and their competition for space and resources. Competition between fungi is strongly controlled by the exudation of inhibitory compounds, resulting in different competitive outcomes that range from overgrowth of the inferior competitor to a deadlock, where the competing fungi inhibit each other. As heat stress can alter the competitive outcome...

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