127 Works

Data from: Elevated virulence of an emerging viral genotype as a driver of honeybee loss

Dino P. McMahon, Myrsini E. Natsopoulou, Vincent Doublet, Matthias Fürst, Silvio Weging, Mark J. F. Brown, Andreas Gogol-Döring & Robert J. Paxton
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) have contributed significantly to the current biodiversity crisis, leading to widespread epidemics and population loss. Owing to genetic variation in pathogen virulence, a complete understanding of species decline requires the accurate identification and characterization of EIDs. We explore this issue in the Western honeybee, where increasing mortality of populations in the Northern Hemisphere has caused major concern. Specifically, we investigate the importance of genetic identity of the main suspect in mortality,...

Data from: Temporal regularity increases with repertoire complexity in the Australian pied butcherbird’s song

Eathan Janney, Hollis Taylor, Constance Scharff, David Rothenberg, Lucas C. Parra & Ofer Tchernichovski
Music maintains a characteristic balance between repetition and novelty. Here, we report a similar balance in singing performances of free-living Australian pied butcherbirds. Their songs include many phrase types. The more phrase types in a bird's repertoire, the more diverse the singing performance can be. However, without sufficient temporal organization, avian listeners may find diverse singing performances difficult to perceive and memorize. We tested for a correlation between the complexity of song repertoire and the...

Data from: \"Transcriptomic resources for the critically endangered stellate sturgeon Acipenser stellatus\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 April 2015 – 31 May 2015

Michele Vidotto, Alessandro Grapputo, Elisa Boscari, Lorenzo Zane & Leonardo Congiu
This article documents the public availability of transcriptomic resources of the non-model and critically endangered starlet sturgeon Acipenser stellatus.

Data from: Community trees: identifying codiversification in the páramo dipteran community

Bryan Charles Carstens, Michael Gruenstaeudl & Noah M. Reid
Groups of codistributed species that responded in a concerted manner to environmental events are expected to share patterns of evolutionary diversification. However, the identification of such groups has largely been based on qualitative, post hoc analyses. We develop here two methods (PPS, K-F ANOVA) for the analysis of codistributed species that, given a group of species with a shared pattern of diversification, allow empiricists to identify those taxa that do not codiversify (i.e., "outlier" species)....

Data from: Combined analysis of variation in core, accessory and regulatory genome regions provides a super-resolution view into the evolution of bacterial populations

Alan McNally, Yaara Oren, Darren Kelly, Ben Pascoe, Steven Dunn, Tristan Seecharan, Minna Vehkala, Niko Välimäki, Michael B. Prentice, Amgad Ashour, Oren Avram, Tal Pupko, Ulrich Dobrindt, Ivan Literak, Sebastian Guenther, Katharina Schauffler, Lothar H. Wieler, Zong Zhiyong, Samuel K. Sheppard, James O. McInerney, Jukka Corander & Tristan Sreecharan
The use of whole-genome phylogenetic analysis has revolutionized our understanding of the evolution and spread of many important bacterial pathogens due to the high resolution view it provides. However, the majority of such analyses do not consider the potential role of accessory genes when inferring evolutionary trajectories. Moreover, the recently discovered importance of the switching of gene regulatory elements suggests that an exhaustive analysis, combining information from core and accessory genes with regulatory elements could...

Data from: Metabarcoding vs. morphological identification to assess diatom diversity in environmental studies

Jonas Zimmermann, Gernot Glöckner, Regine Jahn, Neela Enke & Birgit Gemeinholzer
Diatoms are frequently used for water quality assessments; however, identification to species level is difficult, time-consuming and needs in-depth knowledge of the organisms under investigation, as nonhomoplastic species-specific morphological characters are scarce. We here investigate how identification methods based on DNA (metabarcoding using NGS platforms) perform in comparison to morphological diatom identification and propose a workflow to optimize diatom fresh water quality assessments. Diatom diversity at seven different sites along the course of the river...

Data from: Early-life inflammation, immune response and ageing

Imroze Khan, Deepa Agashe & Jens Rolff
Age-related diseases are often attributed to immunopathology, which results in self-damage caused by an inappropriate inflammatory response. Immunopathology associated with early-life inflammation also appears to cause faster ageing, although we lack direct experimental evidence for this association. To understand the interactions between ageing, inflammation and immunopathology, we used the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor as a study organism. We hypothesized that phenoloxidase, an important immune effector in insect defence, may impose substantial immunopathological costs by causing...

Data from: Assessing patterns in introduction pathways of alien species by linking major invasion databases

Wolf-Christian Saul, Helen E. Roy, Olaf Booy, Lucilla Carnevali, Hsuan-Ju Chen, Piero Genovesi, Colin A. Harrower, Philip E. Hulme, Shyama Pagad, Jan Pergl & Jonathan M. Jeschke
1. Preventing the arrival of invasive alien species (IAS) is a major priority in managing biological invasions. However, information on introduction pathways is currently scattered across many databases that often use different categorisations to describe similar pathways. This hampers the identification and prioritisation of pathways in order to meet the main targets of recent environmental policies. 2. Therefore, we integrate pathway information from two major IAS databases, IUCN's Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) and the...

Data from: Bats, primates, and the evolutionary origins and diversification of mammalian gammaherpesviruses

Marina Escalera-Zamudio, Edith Rojas-Anaya, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Blanca Taboada, Elizabeth Loza-Rubio, Maria L. Méndez-Ojeda, Carlos F. Arias, Nikolaus Osterrieder & Alex D. Greenwood
Gammaherpesviruses (γHVs) are generally considered host specific and to have codiverged with their hosts over millions of years. This tenet is challenged here by broad-scale phylogenetic analysis of two viral genes using the largest sample of mammalian γHVs to date, integrating for the first time bat γHV sequences available from public repositories and newly generated viral sequences from two vampire bat species (Desmodus rotundus and Diphylla ecaudata). Bat and primate viruses frequently represented deep branches...

Data from: An empirical assessment of a single family-wide hybrid capture locus set at multiple evolutionary timescales in Asteraceae

Katy E Jones, Tomáš Fér, Roswitha E Schmickl, Rebecca B Dikow, Vicki A Funk, Sonia Herrando-Moraira, Norbert Kilian, Carolina M Siniscalchi, Alfonso Susanna, Marek Slovák, Ramhari Thapa, Linda E Watson & Jennifer R Mandel
Premise of the study: Hybrid capture with high-throughput sequencing (Hyb-Seq) is a powerful tool for evolutionary studies. The applicability of an Asteraceae family-specific Hyb-Seq method and the outcomes of different phylogenetic analyses are assessed. Methods: Hyb-Seq data from 112 Asteraceae samples were organized into groups at different taxonomic levels (tribe, genus, and species). For each group, datasets of non-paralogous loci were built and proportions of parsimony informative characters estimated. The impacts of the analyzing alternative...

Data from: Insectivorous birds can see and smell systemically herbivore-induced pines

Elina Mäntylä, Silke Kipper & Monika Hilker
Several studies have shown that insectivorous birds are attracted to herbivore-damaged trees even when they cannot see or smell the actual herbivores or their faeces. However, it often remained an open question whether birds are attracted by herbivore-induced changes in leaf odour or in leaf light reflectance or by both types of changes. Our study addressed this question by investigating the response of great tits (Parus major) and blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus) to Scots pine...

Data from: A phylogenomic analysis of Marek's disease virus (MDV) reveals independent paths to virulence in Eurasia and North America

Jakob Trimpert, Nicole Groenke, Maria Jenckel, Shulin He, Dusan Kunec, Moriah L. Szpara, Stephen J. Spatz, Nikolaus Osterrieder & Dino P. McMahon
Virulence determines the impact a pathogen has on the fitness of its host, yet current understanding of the evolutionary origins and causes of virulence of many pathogens is surprisingly incomplete. Here, we explore the evolution of Marek's disease virus (MDV), a herpesvirus commonly afflicting chickens and rarely other avian species. The history of MDV in the 20th century represents an important case study in the evolution of virulence. The severity of MDV infection in chickens...

Environmental heterogeneity predicts global species richness patterns better than area

Kristy Udy, Matthias Fritsch, Katrin Meyer, Ingo Grass, Sebastian Hanß, Florian Hartig, Thomas Kneib, Hoger Kreft, Collins Kukuna, Guy Pe'er, Hannah Reininghaus, Britta Tietjen, Clara-Sophie Van Waveren, Kerstin Wiegand & Teja Tscharntke
Aim: It is widely accepted that biodiversity can be determined by niche-relate processes and by pure area effects from local to global scales. Their relative importance, however, is still disputed, and empirical tests are still surprisingly scarce at the global scale. We compare the explanatory power of area and environmental heterogeneity as a proxy for niche-related processes as drivers of native mammal species richnessworldwide and with biogeographical regions. Location: Global Time Period: Data was collated...

Data from: Diversity patterns of non-mammalian cynodonts (Synapsida, Therapsida) and the impact of taxonomic practice and research history on diversity estimates

Marcus Lukic-Walther, Neil Brocklehurst, Christian F. Kammerer & Jörg Fröbisch
Non-mammalian cynodonts represent a speciose and ecologically diverse group with a fossil record stretching from the late Permian until the Cretaceous. Because of their role as major components of Triassic terrestrial ecosystems and as the direct ancestors of mammals, cynodonts are an important group for understanding Mesozoic tetrapod diversity. We examine patterns of non-mammalian cynodont species richness and the quality of their fossil record. A supertree of cynodonts is constructed from recently published trees and...

Genotypes and their interaction effects on reproduction and mating-induced immune activation in Drosophila melanogaster

Claudia Fricke, Sergio Ávila-Calero & Sophie Armitage
Mating causes considerable alterations in female physiology and behaviour, and immune gene expression, partly due to proteins transferred from males to females during copulation. The magnitude of these phenotypic changes could be driven by the genotypes of males and females, as well as their interaction. To test this, we carried out a series of genotype by genotype (G × G) experiments using Drosophila melanogaster populations from two distant geographical locations. We expected lines to have...

Data from: Daphnia galeata and D. dentifera are geographically and ecologically separated whereas their hybrids occur in intermediate habitats: a survey of 44 Chinese lakes

Xiaolin Ma, Wei Hu, Petr Smilauer, Mingbo Yin & Justyna Wolinska
The idea that hybridization promotes range expansion has received recent attention, but support from field studies is limited. We hypothesized that in the cladoceran waterflea Daphnia, parental species are geographically and ecologically separated, whereas hybrids occupy intermediate or occasionally extreme environments, potentially facilitating range expansion of parental species. We assessed the distribution of Daphnia dentifera, D. galeata and their interspecific hybrids across 44 lakes in China (using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers), and related it to...

Tire wear particles: An emerging threat to soil health

Jing Ding, Min Lv, Dong Zhu, Eva F. Leifheit, Qing-Lin Chen, Yun-Qing Wang, Ling-Xin Chen, Matthias C. Rillig & Yong-Guan Zhu
Tire wear particles (TWP) have caused widespread contamination in the environment. However, their behavior and potential impacts in soil remain unclear since studies have so far been mainly conducted in aquatic ecosystems. It is possible that soil ecosystems are already under pressure from pollution by TWP. We here firstly synthesize knowledge about the composition, distribution, and behavior of TWP in soils. By comparing with effects of microplastics (MP) in soil, we further outline several potential...

Data from: Neglected very long-chain hydrocarbons and the incorporation of body surface area metrics reveal novel perspectives for cuticular profile analysis in insects

Jan Buellesbach, Marek Golian, Tanja Bien, Sebastian Schmelzle, Margy Alejandra Esparza-Mora, Dino McMahon & Klaus Dreisewerd
Most of our knowledge on insect cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) stems from analytical techniques based on gas-chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). However, this method has its limits under standard conditions, particularly in detecting compounds beyond a chain length of around C40. Here, we compare the CHC chain length range detectable by GC-MS with the range assessed by silver-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (Ag-LDI-MS), a novel and rarely applied technique on insect CHCs, in seven species...

Single-cell phenotypic characteristics of tolerance under recurring antibiotic exposure in Escherichia coli

Silvia Kollerová, Lionel Jouvet, Julia Smelková, Sara Zunk-Parras, Alexandro Rodriguez-Rojas & Ulrich Steiner
Non-heritable drug resistance, such as tolerance and persistence towards antibiotics, is little characterized compared to genetic resistance. Tolerance and persistence allow cells to survive application of antibiotics that are bactericidal to non-tolerant cells. Non-heritable drug resistance challenges antibiotic treatment, particularly of recurrent infections, and have implications towards heritable resistance evolution. Tolerant cells have commonly been characterized as growth arrested cells prior and during antibiotic application that quickly resume growth post-application. Here, we explore characteristic of...

Urban biotic homogenization: approaches and knowledge gaps

Sophie Lokatis & Jonathan Jeschke
Urbanization is restructuring ecosystems at an unprecedented pace, with complex and profound consequences for life on earth. One of the hypothesized trajectories of urban ecosystems and species communities is biotic homogenization, possibly leading to very similar species assemblages in cities across the globe. Urbanization can, however, also have the opposite effect: biotic diversification, with cities – at least on the local scale – becoming biologically more diverse, mainly as a consequence of high species introduction...

Data from: Testing the success of palaeontological methods in the delimitation of clam shrimp (Crustacea, Branchiopoda) on extant species

Manja Hethke, Kai Hartmann, Matthias Alberti, Theresa Kutzner & Martin Schwentner
Fossil spinicaudatan taxonomy heavily relies on carapace features (size, shape, ornamentation), and palaeontologists have greatly refined methods to study and describe carapace variability. Whether carapace features alone are sufficient for distinguishing between species of a single genus has remained untested. In our study, we tested common palaeontological methods on 481 individuals of the extant Australian genus Ozestheria that have been previously assigned to ten species based on genetic analysis. All species are morphologically distinct based...

Thermodynamic Analysis of Allosteric and Chelate Cooperativity in Di- and Trivalent Ammonium/Crown-Ether Pseudorotaxanes

Karol Nowosinski, Larissa K. S. von Krbek, Nora L. Traulsen & Christoph A. Schalley
A detailed thermodynamic analysis of the axle-wheel binding in di- and trivalent secondary ammonium/[24]crown-8 pseudorotaxanes is presented. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data and double mutant cycle analyses reveal an interesting interplay of positive as well as negative allosteric and positive chelate cooperativity thus providing profound insight into the effects governing multivalent binding in these pseudorotaxanes.

Data from: Bypass of genetic constraints during mutator evolution to antibiotic resistance

Alejandro Couce, Alexandro Rodríguez-Rojas, Jesús Blázquez, A. Rodriguez-Rojas & J. Blazquez
Genetic constraints can block many mutational pathways to optimal genotypes in real fitness landscapes, yet the extent to which this can limit evolution remains to be determined. Interestingly, mutator bacteria elevate only specific types of mutations, and therefore could be very sensitive to genetic constraints. Testing this possibility is not only clinically relevant, but can also inform about the general impact of genetic constraints in adaptation. Here, we evolved 576 populations of two mutator and...

Data from: Selection for niche differentiation in mixed plant communities increases biodiversity effects

Debra Zuppinger-Dingley, Bernhard Schmid, Jana S. Petermann, Varuna Yadav, Gerlinde B. De Deyn & Dan F. B. Flynn
In experimental plant communities, relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning have been found to strengthen over time, a fact often attributed to increased resource complementarity between species in mixtures and negative plant–soil feedbacks in monocultures. Here we show that selection for niche differentiation between species can drive this increasing biodiversity effect. Growing 12 grassland species in test monocultures and mixtures, we found character displacement between species and increased biodiversity effects when plants had been selected...

Data from: No evidence that plant-soil feedback effects of native and invasive plant species under greenhouse conditions are reflected in the field

Conrad Schittko, Christian Runge, Marek Strupp, Sascha Wolff & Susanne Wurst
Plant–soil feedback (PSF) may affect above-ground higher trophic levels in glasshouse experiments, but evidence from field studies on the relevance of these multitrophic interactions for plant performance is lacking. Therefore, we examined whether PSF effects of several native and invasive plant species occur also in the field and influence plant damage by above-ground herbivores. Root zone soil from an abandoned urban field was used as inocula for the PSF experiment. First, we grew eight urban...

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