333 Works

Individual variation in tolerance of human activity by urban dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) 2021 Stansell et al data file

Peter Nonacs, Pamela Yeh, Daniel Blumstein & Hayley Stansell
An important goal of urban ecology is determining what differentiates urban-tolerant populations of birds from their non-urban ancestors and urban-intolerant species. One key to urban success may be reacting appropriately to human activity, and the degree to which birds view humans as threats can be quantified by their escape behavior. Understanding individual-level plasticity, however, requires the tracking of known individuals. We compared flight-initiation distances (FID) and distances fled (DF) from approaches by a human between...

Lack of synchronized breeding success in a seabird community: extreme events, niche separation, and environmental variability

Casey Youngflesh, Yun Li, Heather Lynch, Karine Delord, Christophe Barbraud, Rubao Ji & Stephanie Jenouvrier
Synchrony in ecological systems, the degree to which elements respond similarly over time or space, can inform our understanding of how ecosystems function and how they are responding to global change. While studies of ecological synchrony are often focused on within-species dynamics, synchrony among species may provide important insights into how dynamics of one species are indicative of conditions relevant to the larger community, with both basic and applied implications. Ecological theory suggests there may...

Data from: The American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) genoscape: implications for monitoring, management, and subspecies boundaries

Kristen Ruegg, Michaela Brinkmeyer, Christen M Bossu, Rachael Bay, Eric C Anderson & Julie Heath
Identifying population genetic structure is useful for inferring evolutionary process as well as defining subspecies boundaries and/or conservation units that can aid in species management. The American kestrel (Falco sparverius) is a widespread species with two described North American subspecies, (F. s. sparverius and F. s. paulus), the latter in the southeastern United States and the former across the remainder of its distribution. In many parts of their range, American kestrels have been declining, but...

Iterative evolution of large-bodied hypercarnivory in canids benefits species but not clades

Mairin Balisi & Blaire Van Valkenburgh
Ecological specialization has costs and benefits at various scales: traits benefitting an individual may disadvantage its population, species or clade. In particular, large body size and hypercarnivory (diet over 70% meat) have evolved repeatedly in mammals; yet large hypercarnivores are thought to be trapped in a macroevolutionary “ratchet”, marching unilaterally toward decline. Here, we weigh the impact of this specialization on extinction risk using the rich fossil record of North American canids (dogs). In two...

NEXUS Head CT

Robert Rodriguez & William Mower
BackgroundClinicians, afraid of missing intracranial injuries, liberally obtain computed tomographic (CT) head imaging in blunt trauma patients. Prior work suggests that clinical criteria (NEXUS Head CT decision instrument) can reliably identify patients with important injuries, while excluding injury, and the need for imaging in many patients.MethodsWe conducted a prospective observational study of the NEXUS Head CT decision instrument (DI) that requires patients to meet eight criteria to achieve “low-risk” classification. We examined the instrument’s performance...

On the cross-population generalizability of gene expression prediction models

Kevin L. Keys, Angel C.Y. Mak, Marquitta J. White, Walter L. Eckalbar, Andrew W. Dahl, Joel Mefford, Anna V. Mikhaylova, María G. Contreras, Jennifer R. Elhawary, Celeste Eng, Donglei Hu, Scott Huntsman, Sam S. Oh, Sandra Salazar, Michael A. Lenoir, Jimmie Chun Ye, Timothy A. Thornton, Noah Zaitlen, Esteban G. Burchard & Christopher R. Gignoux
The genetic control of gene expression is a core component of human physiology. For the past several years, transcriptome-wide association studies have leveraged large datasets of linked genotype and RNA sequencing information to create a powerful gene-based test of association that has been used in dozens of studies. While numerous discoveries have been made, the populations in the training data are overwhelmingly of European descent, and little is known about the generalizability of these models...

Data from: Environmental context shapes the long‐term role of nutrients in driving producer community trajectories in a top‐down dominated marine ecosystem

Rachel Clausing, Nicole E. Phillips & Peggy Fong
1. Two predominant anthropogenic impacts on ecosystems, nutrient enrichment and the removal of consumers, are predicted to interact in their effects on producer diversity. Yet, measures of diversity alone may not capture changes occurring in the underlying mechanisms structuring communities. Furthermore, evidence for these interactions in rocky intertidal systems is mixed and may be confounded by variable baseline productivity or short experimental durations that do not capture seasonality, environmental heterogeneity or successional processes. 2. We...

Data from: Beyond the limits: identifying the high-frequency detectors in the anuran ear

Ariadna Cobo-Cuan, T. Ulmar Grafe & Peter M. Narins
Despite the predominance of low-frequency hearing in anuran amphibians, a few frog species have evolved high-frequency communication within certain environmental contexts. Huia cavitympanum is the most remarkable anuran with regard to upper frequency limits; it is the first frog species known to emit exclusively ultrasonic signals. Characteristics of the Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions from the amphibian papilla and the basilar papilla were analysed to gain insight into the structures responsible for high-frequency/ultrasound sensitivity. Our results...

Data from: eDNA metabarcoding bioassessment of endangered fairy shrimp (Branchinecta spp.) - Part A

Zachary Gold, Adam Wall, Paul Barber, Emily Curd, N. Dean Pentcheff, Lee Ripma & Regina Wetzer
Fairy shrimp are integral components of vernal pool ecosystems, providing key food resources for migratory birds and amphibians. However, habitat degradation and land use change severely threaten the health of both vernal pools and the survival of fairy shrimp species. Branchinecta sandiegonensis has been particularly affected by urban and agricultural development in its small native range within San Diego County, California, USA. It is listed as an endangered species under both state and federal laws...

Intracrater Terminal Dune Fields in Arabia Terra, Mars

Taylor Dorn & Mackenzie Day
Craters are the most prevalent basins and potential depo-centers of sediment on Mars. Within these craters and extending from them, terminal dune fields and wind streaks are abundant, indicating active sediment transport and providing a way to study how wind and sediment interact with crater topography. Here, we explore the role of craters as both sources and sinks in the modern martian sedimentary cycle. Our results show that craters with low albedo wind streaks (indicative...

Woody encroachment happens via intensification, not extensification, of species ranges in an African savanna

Yong Zhou, Morgan Tingley, Madelon Case, Corli Coetsee, Gregory Kiker, Rheinhardt Scholtz, Freek Venter & Carla Staver
Widespread woody encroachment is a prominent concern for savanna systems as it is often accompanied by losses in productivity and biodiversity. Extensive ecosystem-level work has advanced our understanding of its causes and consequences. However, there is still debate over whether local management can override regional and global drivers of woody encroachment, and it remains largely unknown how encroachment influences woody community assemblages. Here, we examined species-level changes in woody plant distributions and size structure from...

Data from: Remarkably divergent regions punctuate the genome assembly of the Caenorhabditis elegans Hawaiian strain CB4856

Owen A. Thompson, L. Basten Snoek, Harm Nijveen, Mark G. Sterken, Rita J. M. Volkers, Rachel Brenchley, Arjen Van't Hof, Roel P. J. Bevers, Andrew R. Cossins, Itai Yanai, Alex Hajnal, Tobias Schmid, Jaryn D. Perkins, David Spencer, Leonid Kruglyak, Erik C. Andersen, Donald G. Moerman, LaDeana W. Hillier, Jan E. Kammenga & Robert H. Waterston
The Hawaiian strain (CB4856) of Caenorhabditis elegans is one of the most divergent from the canonical laboratory strain N2 and has been widely used in developmental, population and evolutionary studies. To enhance the utility of the strain, we have generated a draft sequence of the CB4856 genome, exploiting a variety of resources and strategies. The CB4856 genome when compared against the N2 reference has 327,050 single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and 79,529 insertion-deletion events (indels) that...

Data from: Seasonal polyphenism in wing coloration affects species recognition in rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina spp.)

Jonathan P. Drury, Christopher N. Anderson & Gregory F. Grether
Understanding how phenotypic plasticity evolves and in turn affects the course of evolution is a major challenge in modern biology. By definition, biological species are reproductively isolated, but many animals fail to distinguish between conspecifics and closely related heterospecifics. In some cases, phenotypic plasticity may interfere with species recognition. Here, we document a seasonal polyphenism in the degree of dark wing pigmentation in smoky rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina titia) – a shift so pronounced that it...

Data from: Dietary hardness, loading behavior, and the evolution of skull form in bats

Sharlene E. Santana, Ian R. Grosse & Elizabeth R. Dumont
The morphology and biomechanics of the vertebrate skull reflect the physical properties of diet and behaviors used in food acquisition and processing. We use phyllostomid bats, the most diverse mammalian dietary radiation, to investigate if and how changes in dietary hardness and loading behaviors during feeding shaped the evolution of skull morphology and biomechanics. When selective regimes of food hardness are modeled, we found that species consuming harder foods have evolved skull shapes that allow...

Data from: How well can we estimate diversity dynamics for clades in diversity decline?

Gustavo Burin, Laura R.V. Alencar, Jonathan Chang, Michael E. Alfaro, Tiago B. Quental & Laura R V Alencar
The fossil record shows that the vast majority of all species that ever existed are extinct and that most lineages go through an expansion and decline in diversity. However, macroevolutionary analyses based upon molecular phylogenies have difficulty inferring extinction dynamics, raising questions about whether the neontological record can contribute to an understanding of the decline phenomenon. Two recently developed diversification methods for molecular phylogenies (RPANDA and BAMM) incorporate models that theoretically have the capacity to...

Data from: Population genetic and field ecological analyses return similar estimates of dispersal over space and time in an endangered amphibian

Ian J. Wang & H. Bradley Shaffer
The explosive growth of empirical population genetics has seen a proliferation of analytical methods leading to a steady increase in our ability to accurately measure key population parameters, including genetic isolation, effective population size, and gene flow in natural systems. Assuming they yield similar results, population genetic methods offer an attractive complement to, or replacement of, traditional field ecological studies. However, empirical assessments of the concordance between direct field ecological and indirect population genetic studies...

Data from: Underlying mechanisms and ecological context of variation in exploratory behavior of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile

Hannah Page, Andrew Sweeney, Anna Pilko & Noa Pinter-Wollman
Uncovering how and why animals explore their environment is fundamental for understanding population dynamics, the spread of invasive species, species interactions, etc. In social animals, individuals within a group can vary in their exploratory behavior, and the behavioral composition of the group can determine its collective success. Workers of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) exhibit individual variation in exploratory behavior, which affects the colony’s collective nest selection behavior. Here, we examine the mechanisms underlying...

Data from: An inexpensive and open-source method to study large terrestrial animal diet and behavior using time-lapse video and GPS

Carlos A. De La Rosa
1. The behavior of free-ranging animals is difficult to study, especially on the large spatial and temporal scales relevant to long-lived large species. Animal-borne video and environmental data collection systems (AVEDs) record behavior and other data in real time as animals conduct daily activities. However, few studies have combined systematically collected, long term AVED foraging data with environmental and movement data to test hypotheses on animal foraging. Additionally, AVEDs are often either prohibitively expensive, or...

Data from: Morphological convergence of the prey-killing arsenal of sabertooth predators

Julie A. Meachen-Samuels
Sabertooth members of the Felidae, Nimravidae, and Barbourofelidae are well-known for their elongated saber-shaped canines. However, within these groups, there is a wide range of independently derived tooth shapes and lengths, including dirk-tooth and scimitar-tooth morphs. In conjunction with the saberteeth, forelimbs were also used to subdue prey. Thus, there may be a functional link between canine shape and forelimb morphology. Because there are no living sabertooth forms for comparison, extant felids make a good...

Data from: Forelimb indicators of prey-size preference in the Felidae

Julie Meachen-Samuels & Blaire Van Valkenburgh
The forelimbs, along with the crania, are an essential part of the prey-killing apparatus in cats. Linear morphometrics of the forelimbs were used to determine the morphological differences between felids that specialize on large prey, small prey, or mixed prey. We also compared the scaling of felid forelimbs to those of canids to test whether prey capture strategies affect forelimb scaling. Results suggest that large prey specialists have relatively robust forelimbs when compared with smaller...

Data from: Olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation in a coastal shark

Andrew P. Nosal, Yi Chao, John D. Farrara, Fei Chai & Philip A. Hastings
How animals navigate the constantly moving and visually uniform pelagic realm, often along straight paths between distant sites, is an enduring mystery. The mechanisms enabling pelagic navigation in cartilaginous fishes are particularly understudied. We used shoreward navigation by leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) as a model system to test whether olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation. Leopard sharks were captured alongshore, transported 9 km offshore, released, and acoustically tracked for approximately 4 h each until the transmitter...

Data from: Interactions between demography, genetics, and landscape connectivity increase extinction probability for a small population of large carnivores in a major metropolitan area

John F. Benson, Peter J. Mahoney, Jeff A. Sikich, Laurel E.K. Serieys, John P. Pollinger, Holly B. Ernest, Seth P.D. Riley, Laurel E. K. Serieys & Seth P. D. Riley
The extinction vortex is a theoretical model describing the process by which extinction risk is elevated in small, isolated populations owing to interactions between environmental, demographic, and genetic factors. However, empirical demonstrations of these interactions have been elusive. We modelled the dynamics of a small mountain lion population isolated by anthropogenic barriers in greater Los Angeles, California, to evaluate the influence of demographic, genetic, and landscape factors on extinction probability. The population exhibited strong survival...

Data from: Temporal genetic analysis of the endangered tidewater goby: metapopulation dynamics or drift in isolation?

Andrew P. Kinziger, Michael Hellmair, William Tyler McCraney, David K. Jacobs & Greg Goldsmith
Extinction and colonization dynamics are critical to understanding the evolution and conservation of metapopulations. However, traditional field studies of extinction–colonization are potentially fraught with detection bias and have rarely been validated. Here, we provide a comparison of molecular and field-based approaches for assessment of the extinction–colonization dynamics of tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi) in northern California. Our analysis of temporal genetic variation across 14 northern California tidewater goby populations failed to recover genetic change expected with...

Data from: Tree mortality across biomes is promoted by drought intensity, lower wood density and higher specific leaf area

Sarah Greenwood, Paloma Ruiz-Benito, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Francisco Lloret, Thomas Kitzberger, Craig D. Allen, Rod Fensham, Daniel C. Laughlin, Jens Kattge, Gerhard Bonisch, Nathan J. B. Kraft & Alistair S. Jump
Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and...

Data from: Inferring heterogeneous evolutionary processes through time: from sequence substitution to phylogeography

Filip Bielejec, Philippe Lemey, Guy Baele, Andrew Rambaut & Marc A. Suchard
Molecular phylogenetic and phylogeographic reconstructions generally assume time-homogeneous substitution processes. Motivated by computational convenience, this assumption sacrifices biological realism and offers little opportunity to uncover the temporal dynamics in evolutionary histories. Here, we propose an evolutionary approach that explicitly relaxes the time-homogeneity assumption by allowing the specification of different infinitesimal substitution rate matrices across different time intervals, called epochs, along the evolutionary history. We focus on an epoch model implementation in a Bayesian inference framework...

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