351 Works

Data from: Developmental plasticity affects sexual size dimorphism in an anole lizard

Camille Bonneaud, Erin Marnocha, Anthony Herrel, Bieke Vanhooydonck, Duncan J. Irschick & Thomas B. Smith
While developmental plasticity has been shown to contribute to sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in laboratory studies, its role in shaping SSD variation in wild vertebrate populations is unclear. Here we use a field study and a laboratory experiment to show that resource availability influences the degree of SSD among insular populations of Anolis sagrei lizards in the Bahamas. Total amounts of food biomass explained variation in male, but not female, body size on six Bahamian...

Data from: Checkerboard score-area relationships reveal spatial scales of plant community structure

Gordon G. McNickle, Eric G. Lamb, Mike Lavender, , Brandon S. Schamp, Steven D. Siciliano, Richard Condit, Stephen P. Hubbell, Jennifer L. Baltzer & James F Cahill
Identifying the spatial scale at which particular mechanisms influence plant community assembly is crucial to understanding the mechanisms structuring communities. It has long been recognized that many elements of community structure are sensitive to area; however the majority of studies examining patterns of community structure use a single relatively small sampling area. As different assembly mechanisms likely cause patterns at different scales we investigate how plant species co-occurrence patterns change with sampling unit scale. We...

Data from: Forelimb indicators of prey-size preference in the Felidae

Julie Meachen-Samuels & Blaire Van Valkenburgh
The forelimbs, along with the crania, are an essential part of the prey-killing apparatus in cats. Linear morphometrics of the forelimbs were used to determine the morphological differences between felids that specialize on large prey, small prey, or mixed prey. We also compared the scaling of felid forelimbs to those of canids to test whether prey capture strategies affect forelimb scaling. Results suggest that large prey specialists have relatively robust forelimbs when compared with smaller...

Data from: Underlying mechanisms and ecological context of variation in exploratory behavior of the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile

Hannah Page, Andrew Sweeney, Anna Pilko & Noa Pinter-Wollman
Uncovering how and why animals explore their environment is fundamental for understanding population dynamics, the spread of invasive species, species interactions, etc. In social animals, individuals within a group can vary in their exploratory behavior, and the behavioral composition of the group can determine its collective success. Workers of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) exhibit individual variation in exploratory behavior, which affects the colony’s collective nest selection behavior. Here, we examine the mechanisms underlying...

Data from: Seasonal polyphenism in wing coloration affects species recognition in rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina spp.)

Jonathan P. Drury, Christopher N. Anderson & Gregory F. Grether
Understanding how phenotypic plasticity evolves and in turn affects the course of evolution is a major challenge in modern biology. By definition, biological species are reproductively isolated, but many animals fail to distinguish between conspecifics and closely related heterospecifics. In some cases, phenotypic plasticity may interfere with species recognition. Here, we document a seasonal polyphenism in the degree of dark wing pigmentation in smoky rubyspot damselflies (Hetaerina titia) – a shift so pronounced that it...

Data from: Ephemeral stream reaches preserve the evolutionary and distributional history of threespine stickleback in the Santa Clara and Ventura River Watersheds of southern California

Jonathan Q. Richmond, David K. Jacobs, Adam R. Backlin, Camm C. Swift, Chris Dellith & Robert N. Fisher
Much remains to be understood about the evolutionary history and contemporary landscape genetics of unarmored threespine stickleback in southern California, where populations collectively referred to as Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni have severely declined over the past 70+ years and are now endangered. We used mitochondrial sequence and microsatellite data to assess the population genetics and phylogeography of unarmored populations sampled immediately downstream from the type locality of G. a. williamsoni in the upper Santa Clara River,...

Data from: Evaluating the potential for pre-zygotic isolation and hybridization between landlocked and anadromous alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) following secondary contact

Katherine A. Littrell, David Ellis, Stephen R. Gephard, Andrew D. MacDonald, Eric P. Palkovacs, Katherine Scranton & David M. Post
The recent increase of river restoration projects is altering habitat connectivity for many aquatic species, increasing the chance that previously isolated populations will come into secondary contact. Anadromous and landlocked alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) are currently undergoing secondary contact as a result of a fishway installation at Rogers Lake in Old Lyme, Connecticut. To determine the degree of pre-zygotic isolation and potential for hybridization between alewife life history forms, we constructed spawning time distributions for two...

Data from: Effects of temperature on consumer-resource interactions

Priyanga Amarasekare
1. Understanding how temperature variation influences the negative (e.g., self-limitation) and positive feedback (e.g., saturating functional responses) processes that characterize consumer-resource interactions is an important research priority. Previous work on this topic has yielded conflicting outcomes with some studies predicting that warming should increase consumer-resource oscillations and others predicting that warming should decrease consumer-resource oscillations. 2. Here I develop a consumer-resource model that both synthesizes previous findings in a common framework and yields novel insights...

Data from: Biting disrupts integration to spur skull evolution in eels

David C. Collar, Peter C. Wainwright, Michael E. Alfaro, Liam J. Revell & Rita S. Mehta
The demand that anatomical structures work together to perform biological functions is thought to impose strong limits on morphological evolution. Breakthroughs in diversification can occur, however, when functional integration among structures is relaxed. Although such transitions are expected to generate variation in morphological diversification across the tree of life, empirical tests of this hypothesis are rare. Here we show that transitions between suction-based and biting modes of prey capture, which require different degrees of coordination...

Data from: Exploring visual plasticity: dietary carotenoids can change color vision in guppies (Poecilia reticulata)

Benjamin A. Sandkam, Kerry A. Deere-Machemer, Ashley M. Johnson, Gregory F. Grether, F. Helen Rodd & Rebecca C. Fuller
Differences in color vision can play a key role in an organism’s ability to perceive and interact with the environment across a broad range of taxa. Recently, species have been shown to vary in color vision across populations as a result of differences in regulatory sequence and/or plasticity of opsin gene expression. For decades, biologists have been intrigued by among-population variation in color-based mate preferences of female Trinidadian guppies. We proposed that some of this...

Data from: A mix-and-click method to measure amyloid-β concentration with sub-micromolar sensitivity

Christine Xue, Yoon Lee, Joyce Tran, Dennis Chang, Zhefeng Guo & Yoon Kyung Lee
Aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) protein plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease. Because protein aggregation is a concentration-dependent process, rigorous investigations require accurate concentration measurements. Owing to the high aggregation propensity of Aβ protein, working solutions of Aβ are typically in the low micromolar range. Therefore, an ideal Aβ quantification method requires high sensitivity without sacrificing speed and accuracy. Absorbance at 280 nm is frequently used to measure Aβ concentration, but the sensitivity is low...

Data from: Tree mortality across biomes is promoted by drought intensity, lower wood density and higher specific leaf area

Sarah Greenwood, Paloma Ruiz-Benito, Jordi Martínez-Vilalta, Francisco Lloret, Thomas Kitzberger, Craig D. Allen, Rod Fensham, Daniel C. Laughlin, Jens Kattge, Gerhard Bonisch, Nathan J. B. Kraft & Alistair S. Jump
Drought events are increasing globally, and reports of consequent forest mortality are widespread. However, due to a lack of a quantitative global synthesis, it is still not clear whether drought-induced mortality rates differ among global biomes and whether functional traits influence the risk of drought-induced mortality. To address these uncertainties, we performed a global meta-analysis of 58 studies of drought-induced forest mortality. Mortality rates were modelled as a function of drought, temperature, biomes, phylogenetic and...

Data from: Can plan recommendations improve the coverage decisions of vulnerable populations in health insurance marketplaces?

Andrew J. Barnes, Yaniv Hanoch & Thomas Rice
Objective: The Affordable Care Act’s marketplaces present an important opportunity for expanding coverage but consumers face enormous challenges in navigating through enrollment and re-enrollment. We tested the effectiveness of a behaviorally informed policy tool—plan recommendations—in improving marketplace decisions. Study Setting: Data were gathered from a community sample of 656 lower-income, minority, rural residents of Virginia. Study Design: We conducted an incentive-compatible, computer-based experiment using a hypothetical marketplace like the one consumers face in the federally-facilitated...

Data from: Dietary hardness, loading behavior, and the evolution of skull form in bats

Sharlene E. Santana, Ian R. Grosse & Elizabeth R. Dumont
The morphology and biomechanics of the vertebrate skull reflect the physical properties of diet and behaviors used in food acquisition and processing. We use phyllostomid bats, the most diverse mammalian dietary radiation, to investigate if and how changes in dietary hardness and loading behaviors during feeding shaped the evolution of skull morphology and biomechanics. When selective regimes of food hardness are modeled, we found that species consuming harder foods have evolved skull shapes that allow...

Data from: Olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation in a coastal shark

Andrew P. Nosal, Yi Chao, John D. Farrara, Fei Chai & Philip A. Hastings
How animals navigate the constantly moving and visually uniform pelagic realm, often along straight paths between distant sites, is an enduring mystery. The mechanisms enabling pelagic navigation in cartilaginous fishes are particularly understudied. We used shoreward navigation by leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) as a model system to test whether olfaction contributes to pelagic navigation. Leopard sharks were captured alongshore, transported 9 km offshore, released, and acoustically tracked for approximately 4 h each until the transmitter...

Data from: Dry-season decline in tree sapflux is correlated with leaf turgor loss point in a tropical rainforest

Isabelle Maréchaux, Damien Bonal, Megan K. Bartlett, Benoît Burban, Sabrina Coste, Elodie A. Courtois, Maguy Dulormne, Jean-Yves Goret, Eléonore Mira, Ariane Mirabel, Lawren Sack, Clément Stahl & Jerome Chave
1. Water availability is a key determinant of forest ecosystem function and tree species distributions. While droughts are increasing in frequency in many ecosystems, including in the tropics, plant responses to water supply vary with species and drought intensity, and are therefore difficult to model. Based on physiological first principles, we hypothesized that trees with a lower turgor loss point (πtlp), i.e., a more negative leaf water potential at wilting, would maintain water transport for...

Data from: Natural selection interacts with recombination to shape the evolution of hybrid genomes

Molly Schumer, Chenling Xu, Daniel L Powell, Arun Durvasula, Laurits Skov, Chris Holland, John C Blazier, Sriram Sankararaman, Peter Andolfatto, Gil G Rosenthal & Molly Przeworski
To investigate the consequences of hybridization between species, we studied three replicate hybrid populations that formed naturally between two swordtail fish species, estimating their fine-scale genetic map and inferring ancestry along the genomes of 690 individuals. In all three populations, ancestry from the “minor” parental species is more common in regions of high recombination and where there is linkage to fewer putative targets of selection. The same patterns are apparent in a reanalysis of human...

Data from: An inexpensive and open-source method to study large terrestrial animal diet and behavior using time-lapse video and GPS

Carlos A. De La Rosa
1. The behavior of free-ranging animals is difficult to study, especially on the large spatial and temporal scales relevant to long-lived large species. Animal-borne video and environmental data collection systems (AVEDs) record behavior and other data in real time as animals conduct daily activities. However, few studies have combined systematically collected, long term AVED foraging data with environmental and movement data to test hypotheses on animal foraging. Additionally, AVEDs are often either prohibitively expensive, or...

Data from: Explosive diversification of marine fishes at the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary

Michael E. Alfaro, Brant C. Faircloth, Richard C. Harrington, Laurie Sorenson, Matt Friedman, Christine E. Thacker, Carl H. Oliveros, David Černý & Thomas J. Near
The Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K–Pg) mass extinction is linked to the rapid emergence of ecologically divergent higher taxa (for example, families and orders) across terrestrial vertebrates, but its impact on the diversification of marine vertebrates is less clear. Spiny-rayed fishes (Acanthomorpha) provide an ideal system for exploring the effects of the K–Pg on fish diversification, yet despite decades of morphological and molecular phylogenetic efforts, resolution of both early diverging lineages and enormously diverse subclades remains problematic. Recent...

Precision mapping of snail habitat provides a powerful indicator of human schistosomiasis transmission

Chelsea Wood, Susanne Sokolow, Isabel Jones, Andrew Chamberlin, Kevin Lafferty, Armand Kuris, Merlijn Jocque, Skylar Hopkins, Grant Adams, Julia Buck, Andrea Lund, Ana Garcia-Vedrenne, Evan Fiorenza, Jason Rohr, Fiona Allan, Bonnie Webster, Muriel Rabone, Joanne Webster, Lydie Bandagny, Raphael Ndione, Simon Senghor, Anne-Marie Schacht, Nicolas Jouanard, Gilles Riveau & Giulio De Leo
Recently, the World Health Organization recognized that efforts to interrupt schistosomiasis transmission through mass drug administration have been ineffective in some regions; one of their new recommended strategies for global schistosomiasis control emphasizes targeting the freshwater snails that transmit schistosome parasites. We sought to identify robust indicators that would enable precision targeting of these snails. At the site of the world’s largest recorded schistosomiasis epidemic—the Lower Senegal River Basin in Senegal—intensive sampling revealed positive relationships...

High-frequency measurements of aeolian saltation flux: time series data

Raleigh L. Martin, Jasper F. Kok, Chris H. Hugenholtz, Thomas E. Barchyn, Marcelo Chamecki & Jean T. Ellis
High-frequency (25-50 Hz) coupled observations of wind speed and aeolian saltation flux (i.e, the wind-blown movement of sand) were measured at three field sites: Jericoacoara, Brazil; Rancho Guadalupe, California; and Oceano, California. The dataset provided here contains the full record of raw and processed time series of saltation flux and wind speed measured at multiple heights above the sediment surface.

Pelagiella exigua, an early Cambrian stem gastropod with chaetae: lophotrochozoan heritage and conchiferan novelty

Roger D. K. Thomas, Bruce Runnegar & Kerry Matt
Exceptionally well-preserved impressions of two bundles of bristles protrude from the apertures of small, spiral shells of Pelagiella exigua, recovered from the Kinzers Formation (Cambrian, Stage 4, “Olenellus Zone”, ~ 512 Ma) of Pennsylvania. These impressions are inferred to represent clusters of chitinous chaetae, comparable to those borne by annelid parapodia and some larval brachiopods. They provide an affirmative test in the early metazoan fossil record of the inference, from phylogenetic analyses of living taxa,...

Data from: eDNA metabarcoding bioassessment of endangered fairy shrimp (Branchinecta spp.) - Part A

Zachary Gold, Adam Wall, Paul Barber, Emily Curd, N. Dean Pentcheff, Lee Ripma & Regina Wetzer
Fairy shrimp are integral components of vernal pool ecosystems, providing key food resources for migratory birds and amphibians. However, habitat degradation and land use change severely threaten the health of both vernal pools and the survival of fairy shrimp species. Branchinecta sandiegonensis has been particularly affected by urban and agricultural development in its small native range within San Diego County, California, USA. It is listed as an endangered species under both state and federal laws...

Intracrater Terminal Dune Fields in Arabia Terra, Mars

Taylor Dorn & Mackenzie Day
Craters are the most prevalent basins and potential depo-centers of sediment on Mars. Within these craters and extending from them, terminal dune fields and wind streaks are abundant, indicating active sediment transport and providing a way to study how wind and sediment interact with crater topography. Here, we explore the role of craters as both sources and sinks in the modern martian sedimentary cycle. Our results show that craters with low albedo wind streaks (indicative...

Precipitation and vegetation shape patterns of genomic and craniometric variation in the Central African rodent Praomys misonnei

Katy Morgan, Jean Francois Mboumba, Stephan Ntie, Patrick Mickala, Courtney A. Miller, Ying Zhen, Ryan J. Harrigan, Vinh Le Underwood, Kristen Ruegg, Eric B. Fokam, Geraud C. Tasse Taboue, Paul R. Sesink Clee, Trevon Fuller, Thomas B. Smith & Nicola M. Anthony
Predicting species capacity to respond to climate change is an essential first step in developing effective conservation strategies. However, conservation prioritization schemes rarely take evolutionary potential into account. Ecotones provide important opportunities for diversifying selection and may thus constitute important reservoirs of standing variation, increasing the capacity for future adaptation. Here we map patterns of environmentally-associated genomic and craniometric variation in the central African rodent Praomys misonnei to identify areas with the greatest turnover in...

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