410 Works

Data from: Maintenance of age in human neurons generated by microRNA-based neuronal conversion of fibroblasts

Christine J. Huh, Bo Zhang, Matheus Victor, Sonika Dahiya, Luis F. Z. Batista, Steve Horvath, Andrew S. Yoo, Matheus B Victor & Luis FZ Batista
Aging is a major risk factor in many forms of late-onset neurodegenerative disorders. The ability to recapitulate age-related characteristics of human neurons in culture will offer unprecedented opportunities to study the biological processes underlying neuronal aging. Here, we show that using a recently demonstrated microRNA-based cellular reprogramming approach, human fibroblasts from postnatal to near centenarian donors can be efficiently converted into neurons that maintain multiple age-associated signatures. Application of an epigenetic biomarker of aging (referred...

Data from: A quantitative electrophysiological biomarker of duplication 15q11.2-q13.1 syndrome

Joel Frohlich, Damla Senturk, Vidya Saravanapandian, Peyman Golshani, Lawrence T. Reiter, Raman Sankar, Ronald Thibert, Charlotte Distefano, Scott Huberty, Edwin H. Cook & Shafali S. Jeste
Background: Duplications of 15q11.2-q13.1 (Dup15q syndrome) are highly penetrant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A distinct electrophysiological (EEG) pattern characterized by excessive activity in the beta band has been noted in clinical reports. We asked whether EEG power in the beta band, as well as in other frequency bands, distinguished children with Dup15q syndrome from those with non-syndromic ASD and then examined the clinical correlates of this electrophysiological biomarker in Dup15q syndrome. Methods: In the...

Data from: The roles of geography and environment in divergence within and between two closely related plant species inhabiting an island-like habitat

Artur Maria Wanderley, Isabel Cristina Sobreira Machado, Erton Mendonça De Almeida, Leonardo Pessoa Felix, Leonardo Galetto, Ana Maria Benko-Iseppon, Victoria L. Sork & Artur Maia Wanderley
Aim: In island-like habitats, geographic isolation facilitates population and species divergence by constraining gene flow, while environmental isolation can enhance divergence. We tested the relative contribution of geographic and environmental isolation in genetic and phenotypic divergence within and between two species of the figwort Ameroglossum (Scrophulariaceae) inhabiting spatially isolated habitats, known as inselbergs. Location: Borborema Plateau, north-eastern Brazil. Methods: Multivariate models of redundancy (RDAs) and partial redundancy analyses (pRDAs) were used to partition the geographic...

Data from: Genomic divergence across ecological gradients in the Central African rainforest songbird (Andropadus virens)

Ying Zhen, Ryan J. Harrigan, Kristen C. Ruegg, Eric C. Anderson, Thomas C. Ng, Sirena Lao, Kirk E. Lohmueller & Thomas B. Smith
The little greenbul, a common rainforest passerine from sub-Saharan Africa, has been the subject of long-term evolutionary studies to understand the mechanisms leading to rainforest speciation. Previous research found morphological and behavioural divergence across rainforest–savannah transition zones (ecotones), and a pattern of divergence with gene flow suggesting divergent natural selection has contributed to adaptive divergence and ecotones could be important areas for rainforests speciation. Recent advances in genomics and environmental modelling make it possible to...

Data from: Optimists or realists? How ants allocate resources in making reproductive investments.

Brittany L. Enzmann & Peter Nonacs
1. Parents often face an investment trade-off between either producing many small or fewer large offspring. When environments vary predictably, the fittest parental solution matches available resources by varying only number of offspring and never optimal individual size. However when mismatches occur often between parental expectations and true resource levels, dynamic models like multifaceted parental investment (MFPI) and parental optimism (PO) both predict offspring size can vary significantly. MFPI is a “realist” strategy: parents assume...

Data from: The legacy effects of keystone individuals on collective behavior scale to how long they remain within a group

Jonathan N. Pruitt & Noa Pinter-Wollman
The collective behaviour of social groups is often strongly influenced by one or few individuals, termed here ‘keystone individuals’. We examined whether the influence of keystone individuals on collective behaviour lingers after their departure and whether these lingering effects scale with their tenure in the group. In the social spider, Stegodyphus dumicola, colonies' boldest individuals wield a disproportionately large influence over colony behaviour. We experimentally manipulated keystones' tenure in laboratory-housed colonies and tracked their legacy...

Data from: Life history strategy and everyday word use

Joseph H. Manson
Research by Sherman et al. (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105, 873–888, 2013) has shown that, in speech during clinical-style interviews, life history strategy (LHS) was correlated with variation in the use of 16–19 word categories from the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count program. However, links between individual difference variables and word use have been shown to vary as a function of communication context. Therefore, I sought to replicate their results using speech recorded...

Data from: Influence of environmental heterogeneity on genetic diversity and structure in an endemic southern Californian oak

Joaquín Ortego, Erin C. Riordan, Paul F. Gugger & Victoria L. Sork
Understanding how specific environmental factors shape gene flow while disentangling their importance relative to the effects of geographical isolation is a major question in evolutionary biology and a specific goal of landscape genetics. Here, we combine information from nuclear microsatellite markers and ecological niche modelling to study the association between climate and spatial genetic structure and variability in Engelmann oak (Quercus engelmannii), a wind-pollinated species with high potential for gene flow. We first test whether...

Data from: Genetic structure, spatial organization, and dispersal in two populations of bat-eared foxes

Jan F. Kamler, Melissa M. Gray, Annie Oh & David W. Macdonald
We incorporated radio-telemetry data with genetic analysis of bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) from individuals in 32 different groups to examine relatedness and spatial organization in two populations in South Africa that differed in density, home-range sizes, and group sizes. Kin clustering occurred only for female dyads in the high-density population. Relatedness was negatively correlated with distance only for female dyads in the high-density population, and for male and mixed-sex dyads in the low-density population. Home-range...

Data from: Hydrological niche segregation defines forest structure and drought tolerance strategies in a seasonal Amazon forest

Mauro Brum, Matthew A. Vadeboncoeur, Valeriy Ivanov, Heidi Asbjornsen, Scott Saleska, Luciana F. Alves, Deliane Penha, Jadson D. Dias, Luiz E.O.C. Aragão, Fernanda Barros, Paulo Bittencourt, Luciano Pereira & Rafael S. Oliveira
1) Understanding if and how trees coordinate rooting depth and aboveground hydraulic traits to define drought-resistance strategies in seasonal Amazon forests is a major gap to model parametrization aimed at predicting the effects of climate change in these ecosystems. 2) We assessed the rooting depth of 12 dominant tree species (representing ~ 42% of the forest basal area) in a seasonal Amazon forest, using the stable isotope ratios (δ18O and δ²H) of water collected from...

Data from: Behavioural hypervolumes of spider communities predict community performance and disbandment

Jonathan N. Pruitt, Daniel I. Bolnick, Andrew Sih, Nicholas DiRienzo & Noa Pinter-Wollman
Trait-based ecology argues that an understanding of the traits of interactors can enhance the predictability of ecological outcomes. We examine here whether the multidimensional behavioural-trait diversity of communities influences community performance and stability in situ. We created experimental communities of web-building spiders, each with an identical species composition. Communities contained one individual of each of five different species. Prior to establishing these communities in the field, we examined three behavioural traits for each individual spider....

Data from: Host and habitat specialization of avian malaria in Africa

Claire Loiseau, Ryan J. Harrigan, Alexandre Robert, Rauri C. K. Bowie, Henri A. Thomassen, Thomas B. Smith & Ravinder N. M. Sehgal
Studies of both vertebrates and invertebrates have suggested that specialists, as compared to generalists, are likely to suffer more serious declines in response to environmental change. Less is known about the effects of environmental conditions on specialist vs. generalist parasites. Here, we study the evolutionary strategies of malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) among different bird host communities. We determined the parasite diversity and prevalence of avian malaria in three bird communities in the lowland forests in...

Data from: Nest shape explains variation in sexual dichromatism in New World blackbirds

Jonathan P. Drury & Nathan Burroughs
Following Charles Darwin, research on sexual dichromatism has long focused on sexual selection driving ornamentation in males. However, Alfred Russel Wallace proposed another explanation – that dichromatism evolves as a result of selection favoring crypsis in incubating females. Many recent studies suggest that evolutionary changes in sexual dichromatism often result from changes in female, in addition to male, plumage, yet the evolutionary mechanisms driving changes in female plumage remain largely unexplained. To test Wallace's hypothesis,...

Data from: Marine biodiversity at the end of the world: Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez islands

Alan M. Friedlander, Enric Ballesteros, Tom W. Bell, Jonatha Giddens, Brad Henning, Mathias Hüne, Alex Muñoz, Pelayo Salinas-De-León & Enric Sala
The vast and complex coast of the Magellan Region of extreme southern Chile possesses a diversity of habitats including fjords, deep channels, and extensive kelp forests, with a unique mix of temperate and sub-Antarctic species. The Cape Horn and Diego Ramírez archipelagos are the most southerly locations in the Americas, with the southernmost kelp forests, and some of the least explored places on earth. The giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera plays a key role in structuring...

Data from: Urbanization and anticoagulant poisons promote immune dysfunction in bobcats

Laurel E.K. Serieys, Amanda J. Lea, Marta Epeldegui, Tiffany C. Armenta, Joanne Moriarty, Sue Vandewoude, Scott Carver, Janet Foley, Robert K. Wayne, Seth P.D. Riley, Christel H. Uittenbogaart, Laurel E. K. Serieys & Seth P. D. Riley
Understanding how human activities influence immune response to environmental stressors can support biodiversity conservation across increasingly urbanizing landscapes. We studied a bobcat (Lynx rufus) population in urban southern California that experienced a rapid population decline from 2002–2005 due to notoedric mange. Because anticoagulant rodenticide (AR) exposure was an underlying complication in mange deaths, we aimed to understand sublethal contributions of urbanization and ARs on 65 biochemical markers of immune and organ function. Variance in immunological...

Data from: Meta-analysis reveals that hydraulic traits explain cross-species patterns of drought-induced tree mortality across the globe

William R. L. Anderegg, Tamir Klein, Megan Bartlett, Lawren Sack, Adam F. A. Pellegrini, Brendan Choat & Steven Jansen
Drought-induced tree mortality has been observed globally and is expected to increase under climate change scenarios, with large potential consequences for the terrestrial carbon sink. Predicting mortality across species is crucial for assessing the effects of climate extremes on forest community biodiversity, composition, and carbon sequestration. However, the physiological traits associated with elevated risk of mortality in diverse ecosystems remain unknown, although these traits could greatly improve understanding and prediction of tree mortality in forests....

Data from: The molecular biogeography of the Indo-Pacific: testing hypotheses with multispecies genetic patterns

Eric D. Crandall, Cynthia Riginos, Chris E. Bird, Libby Liggins, Eric Treml, Maria Beger, Paul H. Barber, Sean R. Connolly, Peter F. Cowman, Joseph D. Dibattista, Jeff A. Eble, Sharon F. Magnuson, John B. Horne, Marc Kochzius, Harilaos A. Lessios, Shang Yin Vanson Liu, William B. Ludt, Hawis Madduppa, John M. Pandolfi, Robert R. Toonen, Contributing Members Of Diversity Of The Indo-Pacific Network & Michelle R. Gaither
Aim: To test hypothesized biogeographic partitions of the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean with phylogeographic data from 56 taxa, and to evaluate the strength and nature of barriers emerging from this test. Location: The Indo-Pacific Ocean. Time Period: Pliocene through the Holocene. Major Taxa Studied: 56 marine species. Methods: We tested eight biogeographic hypotheses for partitioning of the Indo-Pacific using a novel modification to analysis of molecular variance. Putative barriers to gene flow emerging from this analysis...

Data from: Collective responses to heterospecifics emerge from individual differences in aggression

Kevin M. Neumann & Noa Pinter-Wollman
Variation in individual behavior among group members impacts collective outcomes. The ability of both individuals and groups to outcompete others can determine access to resources. The invasive Argentine ant, Linepithema humile, dominates resources and displaces native species. To determine how access to resources by groups of L. humile is impacted by their behavioral composition we first determined that L. humile workers consistently vary in aggressive behavior. We then asked if variation in aggression within a...

Data from: New host and lineage diversity of avian haemosporidia in the Northern Andes

Ryan J. Harrigan, Raul Sedano, Anthony C. Chasar, Jaime A. Chaves, Jennifer T. Nguyen, Alexis Whitaker & Thomas B. Smith
The northern Andes, with their steep elevational and climate gradients, are home to an exceptional diversity of flora and fauna, particularly rich in avian species that have adapted to divergent ecological conditions. With this diversity comes the opportunity for parasites to exploit a wide breadth of avian hosts. However, little research has focused on examining the patterns of prevalence and lineage diversity of avian parasites in the Andes. Here, we screened a total of 428...

Data from: Relatedness within and between leks of golden-collared manakin differ between sexes and age classes

Leonida Fusani, Julia Barske, Chiara Natali, Guido Chelazzi & Claudio Ciofi
Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the evolution of leks, a mating system in which males aggregate at display sites where females choose their mates. Only a small proportion of males obtain copulations, and why other males join the lek remains unexplained. One hypothesis has called kin selection into play: if juvenile males join leks where their relatives display and contribute to attract females to the lek, they can gain indirect fitness benefits. We...

Data from: Comparing forest structure and biodiversity on private and public land: secondary tropical dry forests in Costa Rica

Moana McClellan, Rebecca Montgomery, Kristen Nelson & Justin Becknell
Secondary forests constitute a substantial proportion of tropical forestlands. These forests occur on both public and private lands and different underlying environmental variables and management regimes may affect post‐abandonment successional processes and resultant forest structure and biodiversity. We examined whether differences in ownership led to differences in forest structure, tree diversity, and tree species composition across a gradient of soil fertility and forest age. We collected soil samples and surveyed all trees in 82 public...

Data from: Simultaneous synergist, antagonistic, and additive interactions between multiple local stressors all degrade algal turf communities on coral reefs

Caitlin R. Fong, Sarah J. Bittick & Peggy Fong
1.Ecological communities are subjected to multiple anthropogenic stressors at both global and local scales that are increasing in number and magnitude. Stressors can interact in complex ways, and are classified as additive, synergistic, or antagonistic; the nature of the interaction is key to predicting changes and understanding community resilience. Coral reefs are among the most impacted communities and have shifted from coral- to algal-dominated states, and overfishing, nutrient enrichment, and sedimentation are local stressors that...

Data from: Feeding capability in the extinct giant Siamogale melilutra and comparative mandibular biomechanics of living Lutrinae

Z. Jack Tseng, Denise F. Su, Xiaoming Wang, Stuart C. White & Xueping Ji
At 50 kg in estimated weight, the extinct Siamogale melilutra is larger than all living otters, and ranks among the largest fossil otters. The biomechanical capability of S. melilutra jaws as related to their large size is unknown but crucial to reconstructing the species’ potentially unique ecological niche. Here we compare the mandibular biomechanics of S. melilutra using engineering-based performance measures against ten extant otter biomechanical models. Despite a wide range of feeding preferences from...

Data from: Genome-wide SNP markers breathe new life into phylogeography and species delimitation for the problematic short-necked turtles (Chelidae: Emydura) of eastern Australia

Arthur Georges, Bernd Gruber, Greg B. Pauly, Duanne White, Mark Adams, Matthew J. Young, Andzrej Kilian, Xiuwen Zhang, H. Bradley Shaffer, Peter J. Unmack & Andrzej Kilian
Understanding the evolutionary history of diversifying lineages and the delineation of evolutionarily significant units and species remain major challenges for evolutionary biology. Low cost representational sampling of the genome for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shows great potential at the temporal scales that are typically the focus of species delimitation and phylogeography. We apply these markers to a case study of a freshwater turtle, Emydura macquarii, whose systematics has so far defied resolution, to bring to...

Data from: Issues and perspectives in species delimitation using phenotypic data: Atlantean evolution in Darwin's finches

Carlos Daniel Cadena, Felipe Zapata & Iván Jiménez
Progress in the development and use of methods for species delimitation employing phenotypic data lags behind conceptual and practical advances in molecular genetic approaches. The basic evolutionary model underlying the use of phenotypic data to delimit species assumes random mating and quantitative polygenic traits, so that phenotypic distributions within a species should be approximately normal for individuals of the same sex and age. Accordingly, two or more distinct normal distributions of phenotypic traits suggest the...

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