Data from: Genetic structure, spatial organization, and dispersal in two populations of bat-eared foxesJan F. Kamler, Melissa M. Gray, Annie Oh & David W. Macdonald
We incorporated radio-telemetry data with genetic analysis of bat-eared foxes (Otocyon megalotis) from individuals in 32 different groups to examine relatedness and spatial organization in two populations in South Africa that differed in density, home-range sizes, and group sizes. Kin clustering occurred only for female dyads in the high-density population. Relatedness was negatively correlated with distance only for female dyads in the high-density population, and for male and mixed-sex dyads in the low-density population. Home-range...
Representatives of several metazoan clades engage in symbiotic interactions with bioluminescent bacteria, but the evolution and maintenance of these interactions remain poorly understood. Uroteuthis is a genus of loliginid squid (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) characterized by paired ventral photophores (light organs) housing bioluminescent bacteria. While previous phylogenetic studies have suggested that Uroteuthis is closely related to Loliolus, a genus of non-bioluminescent species, this relationship remains unresolved. To illuminate Uroteuthis and Loliolus phylogeny and its implications for the...
Data from: Rates of speciation and morphological evolution are correlated across the largest vertebrate radiationDaniel L. Rabosky, Francesco Santini, Jonathan Eastman, Stephen A. Smtih, Brian Sidlauskas, Jonathan Chang & Michael E. Alfaro
Several evolutionary theories predict that rates of morphological change should be positively associated with the rate at which new species arise. For example, the theory of punctuated equilibrium proposes that phenotypic change typically occurs in rapid bursts associated with speciation events. However, recent phylogenetic studies have found little evidence linking these processes in nature. Here we demonstrate that rates of species diversification are highly correlated with the rate of body size evolution across the 30,000+...
Data from: Influence of late Quaternary climate change on present patterns of genetic variation in valley oak, Quercus lobata NéePaul F. Gugger, Makihiko Ikegami & Victoria L. Sork
Phylogeography and ecological niche models (ENMs) suggest that late Quaternary glacial cycles have played a prominent role in shaping present population genetic structure and diversity, but have not applied quantitative methods to dissect the relative contribution of past and present climate vs. other forces. We integrate multilocus phylogeography, climate-based ENMs and multivariate statistical approaches to infer the effects of late Quaternary climate change on contemporary genetic variation of valley oak (Quercus lobata Née). ENMs indicated...
Environmentally imposed selection pressures are well known to shape animal signals. Changes in these signals can result in recognition mismatches between individuals living in different habitats, leading to reproductive divergence and speciation. For example, numerous studies have shown that differences in avian song may be a potent prezygotic isolating mechanism. Typically, however, detailed studies of environmental pressures on variation in animal behavior have been conducted only at small spatial scales. Here, we use remote-sensing data...
Data from: The strategy of psychopathy: primary psychopathic traits predict defection on low-value relationshipsMatthew M. Gervais, Michelle A. Kline, Mara Ludmer, Rachel George, Joseph H. Manson & M. Kline
Recent evidence suggests that psychopathy is a trait continuum. This has unappreciated implications for understanding the selective advantage of psychopathic traits. Whereas clinical psychopathy is typically construed as a strategy of unconditional defection, subclinical psychopathy may promote strategic conditional defection, broadening the adaptive niche of psychopathy within human societies. To test this, we focus on a ubiquitous real-life source of conditional behaviour: the expected relational value of social partners, both in terms of their quality...
To account for the widespread human tendency to cooperate in one-shot social dilemmas, some theorists have proposed that cooperators can be reliably detected based on ethological displays that are difficult to fake. Experimental findings have supported the view that cooperators can be distinguished from defectors based on “thin slices” of behavior, but the relevant cues have remained elusive, and the role of the judge's perspective remains unclear. In this study, we followed triadic conversations among...
Data from: A phylogenomic perspective on the radiation of ray-finned fishes based upon targeted sequencing of ultraconserved elements (UCEs)Brant C. Faircloth, Laurie Sorenson, Francesco Santini & Michael E. Alfaro
Ray-finned fishes constitute the dominant radiation of vertebrates with over 32,000 species. Although molecular phylogenetics has begun to disentangle major evolutionary relationships within this vast section of the Tree of Life, there is no widely available approach for efficiently collecting phylogenomic data within fishes, leaving much of the enormous potential of massively parallel sequencing technologies for resolving major radiations in ray-finned fishes unrealized. Here, we provide a genomic perspective on longstanding questions regarding the diversification...
Data from: Do habitat shifts drive the diversity in teleost fishes? An example from the pufferfishes (Tetraodontidae)Francesco Santini, Mai T. T. Nguyen, Laurie Sorenson, Thomas B. Waltzek, Jessica W. Lynch Alfaro, Jonathan M. Eastman & Michael E. Alfaro
Habitat shifts are implicated as the cause of many vertebrate radiations, yet relatively few empirical studies quantify patterns of diversification following colonization of new habitats in fishes. The pufferfishes (family Tetraodontidae) occur in several habitats, including coral reefs and freshwater, which are thought to provide ecological opportunity for adaptive radiation, and thus provide a unique system for testing the hypothesis that shifts to new habitats alter diversification rates. To test this hypothesis we sequenced eight...
University of California Los Angeles9
University of California, Santa Barbara2
University of Idaho2
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor1
Oregon State University1
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology1
Manchester Metropolitan University1
University of Florida1
University of Turin1
Southern Illinois University Carbondale1