61 Works

Data from: Physical and social cues shape nest-site preference and prey capture behavior in social spiders

Gabriella Najm, Angelika Pe, Jonathan Pruitt & Noa Pinter-Wollman
Animals often face conflicting demands when making movement decisions. To examine the decision process of social animals, we evaluated nest site preferences of the social spider Stegodyphus dumicola. Colonies engage in collective web building, constructing three-dimensional nests and two-dimensional capture webs on trees and fences. We examined how individuals and groups decide where to construct a nest based on habitat structure and conspecific presence. Individuals had a strong preference for three dimensional-substrates and conspecific presence....

An incoherent feedforward loop interprets NFkappaB/RelA dynamics to determine TNF-induced necroptosis decisions

Marie Oliver Metzig
Balancing cell death is essential to maintain healthy tissue homeostasis and prevent disease. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) not only activates nuclear factor kB (NFkappaB), which coordinates the cellular response to inflammation, but may also trigger necroptosis, a pro-inflammatory form of cell death. Whether TNF-induced NFkappaB affects the fate decision to undergo TNF-induced necroptosis is unclear. Live-cell microscopy and model-aided analysis of death kinetics identified a molecular circuit that interprets TNF-induced NFkappaB/RelA dynamics to control necroptosis...

Global gradients in intraspecific variation in vegetative and floral traits are partially associated with climate and species richness

Jonas Kuppler, Cécile H. Albert, Gregory M. Ames, W. Scott Armbruster, Gerhard Boenisch, Florian C. Boucher, Diane R. Campbell, Liedson T. Carneiro, Eduardo Chacón-Madrigal, Brian J. Enquist, Carlos R. Fonseca, José M. Gómez, Antoine Guisan, Pedro Higuchi, Dirk N. Karger, Jens Kattge, Michael Kleyer, Nathan J. B. Kraft, Anne-Amélie C. Larue-Kontić, Amparo Lázaro, Martin Lechleitner, Deirdre Loughnan, Vanessa Minden, Ülo Niinemets, Gerhard E. Overbeck … & Robert R. Junker
Aim Intraspecific trait variation (ITV) within natural plant communities can be large, influencing local ecological processes and dynamics. Here, we shed light on how ITV in vegetative and floral traits responds to large-scale abiotic and biotic gradients (i.e. climate and species richness). Specifically, we tested if associations of ITV with temperature, precipitation and species richness were consistent with any of from four hypotheses relating to stress-tolerance and competition. Furthermore, we estimated the degree of correlation...

Data from: Olfaction at depth: cribriform plate size declines with dive depth and duration in aquatic arctoid carnivorans

Deborah Bird, Iman Hamid, Lester Fox-Rosales & Blaire Van Valkenburgh
It is widely accepted that obligate aquatic mammals, specifically toothed whales, rely relatively little on olfaction. There is less agreement about the importance of smell among aquatic mammals with residual ties to land, such as pinnipeds and sea otters. Field observations of marine carnivorans stress their keen use of smell while on land or pack ice. Yet, one dimension of olfactory ecology is often overlooked: while underwater, aquatic carnivorans forage “noseblind,” diving with nares closed,...

Data from: Using a newly introduced framework to measure ecological stressor interactions

Elif Tekin, Eleanor Diamant, Mauricio Cruz-Loya, Vivien Enriquez, Nina Singh, Van Savage & Pamela Yeh
Understanding how stressors combine to affect population abundances and trajectories is a fundamental ecological problem with increasingly important implications worldwide. Generalizations about interactions among stressors are challenging due to different categorization methods and how stressors vary across species and systems. Here, we propose using a newly introduced framework to analyze data from the last 25 years on ecological stressor interactions, e.g. combined effects of temperature, salinity, and nutrients on population survival and growth. We contrast...

Right-wing Authoritarianism, Left-wing Authoritarianism, and pandemic-mitigation authoritarianism

Joseph H. Manson
On April 22, 2020, 549 U.S. resident users of Prolific.co completed (1) the Authoritarianism-Conservatism-Traditionalism Scales (Duckitt, Bizumic, Kruauss, and Heled, 2010), (2) the 22-item short form of the Left-Wing Authoritarianism Index (Costello and Lilienfeld, 2019), (3) their level of endorsement of 19 policies that could possibly mitigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, and (4) a set of demographic questions (age, gender, ethnicity, pre-pandemic household income, and highest educational attainment). They were also asked to...

Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) transiently stimulates the rate of mineralization in a 3-dimensional ring culture model of osteogenesis

Paul Benya, Aaron Kavanaugh, Martin Zakarian, Philip Söderlind, Tea Jashashvili, Nianli Zhang, Eric Waldorff, James Ryaby & Fabrizio Billi
Pulsed Electromagnetic Frequencies (PEMF) have shown efficacy in bone repair and yet the optimum characteristics of this modality and its molecular mechanism remain unclear. To determine the effects of timing of PEMF treatment we present a three-dimensional ring culture model of osteogenesis that demonstrates strong de novo generation of collagen and mineral matrix and exhibits stimulation by PEMF in multiple stages over 62 days of culture. Mouse postnatal day 2 calvarial pre-osteoblasts were cast within...

On collaborative reinforcement learning to optimize the redistribution of critical medical supplies throughout the COVID-19 pandemic

Bryan Bednarski
Objective: This work investigates how reinforcement learning and deep learning models can facilitate the near-optimal redistribution of medical equipment in order to bolster public health responses to future crises similar to the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: The system presented is simulated with disease impact statistics from the Institute of Health Metrics (IHME), Center for Disease Control, and Census Bureau[1, 2, 3]. We present a robust pipeline for data preprocessing, future demand inference, and a...

Population structure, inbreeding and stripe pattern abnormalities in plains zebras

Brenda Larison
One of the most iconic wild equids, the plains zebra occupies a broad region of sub-Saharan Africa and exhibits a wide range of phenotypic diversity in stripe patterns that have been used to classify multiple sub-species. After decades of relative stability, albeit with a loss of at least one recognized subspecies, the total population of plains zebras has undergone an approximate 25% decline since 2002. Individuals with abnormal stripe patterns have been recognized in recent...

Persistent panmixia despite extreme habitat loss and population decline in the threatened tricolored blackbird (Agelaius tricolor)

Kelly Barr
Habitat loss and alteration have driven many species into decline, often to the point of requiring protection and intervention to avert extinction. Genomic data provide the opportunity to inform conservation and recovery efforts with details about vital evolutionary processes with a resolution far beyond that of traditional genetic approaches. The tricolored blackbird (Agelaius tricolor) has suffered severe losses during the previous century largely due to anthropogenic impacts on their habitat. Using a dataset composed of...

Ancient balancing selection maintains incompatible versions of the galactose pathway in yeast (Figure creation)

James Boocock, Meru Sadhu, Joshua Bloom, Arun Durvasula & Leonid Kruglyak
Metabolic pathways differ between species, but are expected to be similar within a species. We discovered two functional, incompatible versions of the galactose pathway in S. cerevisiae. We identified a 3-locus genetic interaction for growth in galactose, and used precisely engineered alleles to show that is arises from variation in the metabolic genes GAL2, GAL1/10/7, and PGM1, and that the reference allele of PGM1 is incompatible with the alternative alleles of the other genes. Multi-locus...

Data from: A search for technosignatures from 14 planetary systems in the Kepler field with the Green Bank Telescope at 1.15–1.73 GHz

Jean-Luc Margot, Adam H. Greenberg, Pavlo Pinchuk, Akshay Shinde, Yashaswi Alladi, Srinivas Prasad MN, M. Oliver Bowman, Callum Fisher, Szilard Gyalay, Willow McKibbin, Brittany Miles, Donald Nguyen, Conor Power, Namrata Ramani, Rashmi Raviprasad, Jesse Santana & Ryan S. Lynch
This dataset describes candidate signal detections obtained at the Green Bank Telescope in 2016 and reprocessed with the 2020 UCLA SETI Group data processing pipeline. Analysis of Kepler mission data suggests that the Milky Way includes billions of Earth-sized planets in the habitable zone of their host stars. Current technology enables the detection of technosignatures emitted from a large fraction of the Galaxy. We describe a search for technosignatures that is sensitive to Arecibo-class transmitters...

Foliar water uptake by coastal wetland plants: a novel water acquisition mechanism in arid and humid subtropical mangroves

Matthew Hayes, Samantha Chapman, Amber Jesse, Elizabeth O'Brien, Adam Langley, Remi Bardou, John Devaney, John Parker & Kyle C. Cavanaugh
1. Climate change alters freshwater availability in many ecosystems leading to shifts in distributions for many plants. Despite living exclusively in intertidal, saline environments, mangroves rely on non-saline water to maintain plant productivity. However, several mangrove species persist in arid environments where non-saline water from rain and groundwater sources are limited. Under these conditions, foliar water uptake from fog and mist may be an important water acquisition strategy. 2. We conducted a field experiment in...

Dynamic stimulation of visual cortex produces form vision in sighted and blind humans

Michael Beauchamp, Denise Oswalt, Ping Sun, Brett Foster, John Magnotti, Soroush Niketeghad, Nader Pouratain, William Bosking & Daniel Yoshor
A visual cortical prosthesis(VCP) has long been proposed as astrategy for restoringuseful vision to the blind, under the assumptionthat visual percepts of small spots of lightproduced withelectrical stimulation of visual cortex (phosphenes) will combine into coherent percepts of visual forms, like pixels on a video screen.We tested analternative strategy in which shapes were traced on the surface of visual cortex by stimulating electrodes in dynamic sequence. In both sighted and blind participants, dynamic stimulation enabled...

The start sites of sequences of 18S and 25S rRNA found to be exonuclease resistant as indicated by oligo attachment

Jacob Fleischmann, Miguel Rocha, Peter Hauser, Bhavani Gowda & Mary Pilapil
Abstract Background We have previously reported 18S and 25S ribosomal RNA molecules in Candida albicans resistant to processive 5´→3´ exonuclease, appearing as cells approached stationary growth phase. Initial analysis pointed to extra phosphate(s) at their 5’- end raising the possibility that they were newly transcribed. Here we report on additional experiments exploring this possibility and try to establish which of the RNA polymerases may be transcribing them. Results Oligo-ligation and primer extension again showed the...

Data from: Multiple routes to interspecific territoriality in sister species of North American perching birds

Madeline C. Cowen, Jonathan Drury & Gregory Grether
Behavioral interference between species can influence a wide range of ecological and evolutionary processes. Here we test foundational hypotheses regarding the origins and maintenance of interspecific territoriality, and evaluate the role of interspecific territoriality and hybridization in shaping species distributions and transitions from parapatry to sympatry in sister species of North American perching birds (Passeriformes). We found that interspecific territoriality is pervasive among sympatric sister species pairs, and that interspecifically territorial species pairs have diverged...

Avian point-counts from Rhode Island and Connecticut used to test species distribution models

Valerie Steen, Morgan Tingley, Peter Paton & Chris Elphick
Spatial-biases are a common feature of presence-absence data from citizen scientists. Spatial thinning can mitigate errors in species distribution models (SDMs) that use these data. When detections or non-detections are rare, however, SDMs may suffer from class imbalance or low sample size of the minority (i.e. rarer) class. Poor predictions can result, the severity of which may vary by modeling technique. To explore the consequences of spatial bias and class imbalance in presence-absence data, we...

Filtered SNP tables - Rangewide, Hamilton, Tejon, and Madera transects

Paul Gugger, Sorel Fitz-Gibbon, Ana Albarrán-Lara, Jessica Wright & Victoria Sork
Understanding how the environment shapes genetic variation provides critical insight about the evolution of local adaptation in natural populations. At multiple spatial scales and multiple geographic contexts within a single species, such information could address a number of fundamental questions about the scale of local adaptation and whether or not the same loci are involved at different spatial scales or geographic contexts. We used landscape genomic approaches from three local elevational transects and range-wide sampling...

Data from: Ecological drivers of avian community assembly along a tropical elevation gradient

Flavia A. Montaño-Centellas, Bette A. Loiselle & Morgan W. Tingley
Community assembly theory hypothesizes that two main niche-based processes act to shape composition and organization of biological assemblages: abiotic filtering and biological interactions. Here, we conducted repeated surveys of bird abundance along an undisturbed elevational gradient in the tropical Andes to investigate (1) signals of deterministic processes driving community assembly and (2) potential mechanisms by which these forces operate (temperature, habitat complexity, fruit and insect availability), while correcting for imperfect detection and modeling species abundances...

Longitudinal white-matter abnormalities in sports-related concussion: a diffusion MRI study of the NCAA-DoD CARE Consortium

Yu-Chien Wu, Jaroslaw Harezlak, Nahla Elsaid, Zikai Lin, Qiuting Wen, Sourajit Mustafi, Larry Riggen, Kevin Koch, Andrew Nencka, Timothy Meier, Andrew Mayer, Yang Wang, Christopher Giza, John DiFiori, Kevin Guskiewicz, Jason Mihalik, Stephen LaConte, Stefan Duma, Steven Broglio, Andrew Saykin, Michael McCrea & Thomas McAllister
Objective To study longitudinal recovery trajectories of white-matter after sports-related concussion (SRC), we performed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) on collegiate athletes who sustained SRC. Methods Collegiate athletes (n=219, 82 concussed athletes, 68 contact-sport controls, and 69 non-contact-sport controls) were included from the Concussion Assessment, Research and Education (CARE) Consortium. The participants completed clinical assessments and DTI at four time points: 24-48-hours post-injury, asymptomatic state, seven days following return-to-play, and six-months post-injury. Tract-based spatial statistics were...

Multi-species occupancy models as robust estimators of community richness

Morgan W. Tingley, Christopher Nadeau & Manette Sandor
1. Understanding patterns of diversity is central to ecology and conservation, yet estimates of diversity are often biased by imperfect detection. In recent years, multi-species occupancy models (MSOM) have been developed as a statistical tool to account for species-specific heterogeneity in detection while estimating true measures of diversity. Although the power of these models has been tested in various ways, their ability to estimate gamma diversity – or true community size, N – is a...

Age and location influence the costs of compensatory and accelerated growth in a hibernating mammal

Sarah Heissenberger, Gabriela Pinho, Julien Martin & Daniel Blumstein
The increase of structural growth rates to compensate for a poor initial body condition, defined as compensatory growth, may have physiological costs, but little is known about its effects on individual fitness in the wild. Yellow-bellied marmots (Marmota flaviventer) are obligate hibernators and depend on fat accumulation acquired during an approximately 4-month summer to survive overwinter. We investigated the costs to survival and longevity of rapid growth in a wild population of yellow-bellied marmots. We...

Vertical Land Displacement Rates and Uncertainty in Hampton Roads, VA [Dataset]

Brett Buzzanga, David P. S. Bekaert, Ben D. Hamlington & Simran S. Sangha
These data contain vertical rates (mm/yr) of surface land displacements and their associated uncertainties from 2015-03-15 to 2019-06-01. They are associated with Buzzanga, B. A., Bekaert, D. P. S., Hamlington, B. D., and Sanga, S. (2020), "Towards Sustained Monitoring of Subsidence at the Coast Using InSAR and GNSS: An Application in Hampton Roads, Virginia submitted to Geophysical Research Letters.

Social norms and cultural diversity in the development of third-party punishment

Bailey House, Patricia Kanngiesser, H. Clark Barrett, Süheyla Yilmaz, Andrew Marcus Smith, Carla Sebastian-Enesco, Alejandro Erut & Joan Silk
Human cooperation is likely supported by our tendency to punish selfishness in others. Social norms play an important role in motivating third-party punishment, and also in explaining societal differences in prosocial behavior. However, there has been little work directly linking social norms to the development of third-party punishment across societies. In this study, we explored the impact of normative information on the development of third-party punishment in 603 children aged 4-14 years, across six diverse...

Relaxed random walks at scale

Alexander Fisher, Xiang Ji, Zhenyu Zhang, Philippe Lemey & Marc Suchard
Relaxed random walk (RRW) models of trait evolution introduce branch-specific rate multipliers to modulate the variance of a standard Brownian diffusion process along a phylogeny and more accurately model overdispersed biological data. Increased taxonomic sampling challenges inference under RRWs as the number of unknown parameters grows with the number of taxa. To solve this problem, we present a scalable method to efficiently fit RRWs and infer this branch-specific variation in a Bayesian framework. We develop...

Registration Year

  • 2020
    61

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    61

Affiliations

  • University of California Los Angeles
    59
  • Stanford University
    4
  • University of Washington
    3
  • Virginia Tech
    3
  • University of Florida
    3
  • University of California, San Francisco
    3
  • Columbia University
    2
  • David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA
    2
  • Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County
    2
  • Indiana University
    2