364 Works

Anatomical studies of leaflets of species from the plant subfamily Tribuloideae (Zygophyllaceae)

Maximilian Lauterbach & Gudrun Kadereit
Leaflets of 26 accessions of species from subfamily Tribuloideae (Zygophyllaceae), using herbarium material, were sectioned after chemical fixation and embedding. For each section, the area of the mesophyll (M) tissue, bundle sheath (BS) tissue, and vascular tissue were measured, as well as the BS area, BS distance, and interveinal distance. The ratio of BS to M areas was also calculated. With a molecular phylogeny as a guide, these leaf anatomical traits, which are typically altered...

Amborella pangenome and supplementary tables v3

Ricky Hu , , , , , , , , &

Banana pangenome supplementary data

Habib Rijzaani, Philipp Bayer, Mathieu Rouard, Jaroslav Doležel, Jacqueline Batley & David Edwards

Cross-cultural Alcohol and Non-alcohol (CAN) Image Stimuli Set

Henry Austin & Lies Notebaert

Identification of seminal proteins related to the inhibition of mate searching in female crickets

Joe Moschilla
In response to the reduction in fitness associated with sperm competition, males are expected to evolve tactics that hinder female remating. For example, females often display a post-mating reduction in their sexual receptivity that has been shown to be mediated by proteins contained in a male’s seminal fluid (sfps). However, although there has been comprehensive research on sfps in genetically well characterized species, few non-model species have been studied in such detail. We initially confirm...

A survey on understanding preferences for irrigation pumps in West Bengal

Sophie Lountain, Bethany Cooper & Michael Burton

Data from: Herbicide resistance-endowing ACCase gene mutations in hexaploid wild oat (Avena fatua): Insights into resistance evolution in a hexaploid species

Stephen Powles, Qin Yu, M. S. Ahmad-Hamdani, Heping Han & Michael Christoffers
Many herbicide-resistant weed species are polyploids, but far too little about the evolution of resistance mutations in polyploids is understood. Hexaploid wild oat (Avena fatua) is a global crop weed and many populations have evolved herbicide resistance. We studied plastidic acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase)-inhibiting herbicide resistance in hexaploid wild oat and revealed that resistant individuals can express one, two or three different plastidic ACCase gene resistance mutations (Ile-1781-Leu, Asp-2078-Gly and Cys-2088-Arg). Using ACCase resistance mutations...

Data from: Quantitative genetic insights into the coevolutionary dynamics of male and female genitalia

Jonathan P. Evans, Emile Van Lieshout & Clelia Gasparini
The spectacular variability that typically characterizes male genital traits has largely been attributed to the role of sexual selection. Among the evolutionary mechanisms proposed to account for this diversity, two processes in particular have generated considerable interest. On the one hand, females may exploit postcopulatory mechanisms of selection to favour males with preferred genital traits (cryptic female choice; CFC), while on the other hand females may evolve structures or behaviours that mitigate the direct costs...

Data from: Experimental evidence that even minor livestock trampling has severe effects on land snail communities in forest remnants

Lisa H. Denmead, Gary M. Barker, Rachel J. Standish & Raphael K. Didham
1. Land-use intensification is increasing dramatically in production systems world-wide. Livestock production is an important component of production land use, and increases in livestock densities have had a wide range of negative consequences. The off-site effects of livestock grazing and trampling on native vegetation adjacent to pastoral land have received less attention than on-farm effects. Moreover, where significant ecological effects of livestock spillover have been identified, the mechanistic determinants of these effects have not typically...

Data from: Genetic isolation between coastal and fishery-impacted, offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations

Simon J. Allen, Kate A. Bryant, Robert H. S. Kraus, Neil R. Loneragan, Anna M. Kopps, Alexander M. Brown, Livia Gerber & Michael Krützen
The identification of species and population boundaries is important in both evolutionary and conservation biology. In recent years, new population genetic and computational methods for estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses in a quantitative manner have emerged. Using a Bayesian framework and a quantitative model-testing approach, we evaluated the species status and genetic connectedness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations off remote northwestern Australia, with a focus on pelagic 'offshore' dolphins subject to incidental capture...

Data from: Marine plastic pollution in waters around Australia: characteristics, concentrations, and pathways

Julia Reisser, Jeremy Shaw, Chris Wilcox, Britta Denise Hardesty, Maira Proietti, Michele Thums & Charitha Pattiaratchi
Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways are still poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments (“microplastics”, median length = 2.8 mm, mean length = 4.9 mm) resulting from...

Data from: Genetic diversity and drivers of dwarfism in extinct island emu populations

Vicki A. Thomson, Kieren J. Mitchell, Rolan Eberhard, Joe Dortch, Jeremy J. Austin & Alan Cooper
Australia’s iconic emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae novaehollandiae) is the only living representative of its genus, but fossil evidence and reports from early European explorers suggest that three island forms (at least two of which were dwarfs) became extinct during the 19th century. While one of these - the King Island emu - has been found to be conspecific with Australian mainland emus, little is known about how the other two forms - Kangaroo Island and Tasmanian...

Data from: Genetic diversity loss in a biodiversity hotspot: ancient DNA quantifies genetic decline and former connectivity in a critically endangered marsupial.

Carlo Pacioni, Helen Hunt, Morten E. Allentoft, Timothy G. Vaughan, Adrian F. Wayne, Alexander Baynes, Dalal Haouchar, Joe Dortch & Michael Bunce
The extent of genetic diversity loss and former connectivity between fragmented populations are often unknown factors when studying endangered species. While genetic techniques are commonly applied in extant populations to assess temporal and spatial demographic changes, it is no substitute for directly measuring past diversity using ancient DNA (aDNA). We analysed both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear microsatellite loci from 64 historical fossil and skin samples of the critically endangered Western Australian woylie (Bettongia penicillata...

Data from: Macronutrients and micronutrients drive trade-offs between male pre- and post-mating sexual traits

Soon Hwee Ng, Stephen J. Simpson & Leigh W. Simmons
Nutrition fundamentally affects growth and reproduction, and identifying how nutrient intakes are linked to the expression of these life-history traits can advance understanding of the mechanisms underlying life history trade-offs. Males are thought to face trade-offs between the allocation of resources to pre-mating secondary sexual traits for gaining access to females and allocation to post-mating traits such as ejaculate quality that affects their fertility. We used the Geometric Framework for nutrition to examine the effects...

Data from: Regime shifts shorten food chains for mesopredators with potential sublethal effects

Tessa N. Hempson, Nicholas A.J. Graham, Aaron M. MacNeil, Nathalie Bodin, Shaun K. Wilson & Nicholas A. J. Graham
1. Predator populations are in decline globally. Exploitation, as well as habitat degradation and associated changes in prey availability are key drivers of this process of trophic downgrading. In the short term, longevity and dietary adaptability of large-bodied consumers can mask potential sub-lethal effects of a changing prey base, producing a delayed effect that may be difficult to detect. 2. In coral reef ecosystems, regime shifts from coral- to algae-dominated states caused by coral bleaching...

Data from: Deep phylogeographic structuring of populations of the trapdoor spider Moggridgea tingle (Migidae) from southwestern Australia: evidence for long-term refugia within refugia

Steven J.B. Cooper, Mark S. Harvey, Kathleen M. Saint & Barbara Y. Main
Southwestern Australia has been recognized as a biodiversity hotspot of global significance, and it is particularly well known for its considerable diversity of flowering plant species. Questions of interest are how this region became so diverse and whether its fauna show similarly diverse patterns of speciation. Here we have carried out a phylogeographic study of trapdoor spiders (Migidae: Moggridgea), a presumed Gondwanan lineage found in wet forest localities across southwestern Australia. Phylogenetic, molecular clock and...

Data from: Investigating the genetic architecture of conditional strategies using the environmental threshold model

Bruno Buzatto, Mathieu Buoro, Wade Hazel, Joseph Tomkins, Bruno A. Buzatto, Joseph L. Tomkins & Wade N. Hazel
The threshold expression of dichotomous phenotypes that are environmentally cued or induced comprise the vast majority of phenotypic dimorphisms in color, morphology, behavior, and life history. Modeled as conditional strategies under the framework of evolutionary game theory, the quantitative genetic basis of these traits is a challenge to estimate. The challenge exists firstly because the phenotypic expression of the trait is dichotomous and secondly because the apparent environmental cue is separate from the biological signal...

Xylomelum occidentale (Proteaceae) accesses relatively mobile soil organic phosphorus without releasing carboxylates

Hongtao Zhong, Jun Zhou, Azrul Azmi, André Arruda, Ashlea Doolette, Ronald Smernik & Hans Lambers
1. Hundreds of Proteaceae species in Australia and South Africa typically grow on phosphorus (P)-impoverished soils, exhibiting a carboxylate-releasing P-mobilising strategy. In the Southwest Australian Biodiversity Hotspot, two Xylomelum (Proteaceae) species are widely distributed, but restricted within that distribution. 2. We grew X. occidentale in hydroponics at 1 μM P. Leaves, seeds, rhizosheath and bulk soil were collected in natural habitats. 3. Xylomelum occidentale did not produce functional cluster roots and occupied soils that are...

Vellozioid roots allow for habitat specialisation among rock- and soil-dwelling Velloziaceae in campos rupestres

Anna Abrahão, Patrícia De Britto Costa, Grazielle Sales Teodoro, Hans Lambers, Diego L. Nascimento, Sara A. L. De Andrade, Megan H. Ryan & Rafael S. Oliveira
1. Plant growth on harsh substrates (habitat specialisation) requires specific traits to cope with stressful conditions. 2. We tested whether traits related to nutrient acquisition (root colonisation by fungal symbionts, and plant morphological and physiological specialisations), and nutrient use (leaf nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and N- and P-remobilisation efficiency), were related to habitat specialisation for 27 species of Velloziaceae growing either in soil or on rocks in extremely P-impoverished campos rupestres habitats. If...

Data from: Males evolve to be more harmful under increased sexual conflict intensity in a seed beetle

Kathryn McNamara, Nadia Sloan, Sian Kershaw, Emile Van Lieshout & Leigh Simmons
One conspicuous manifestation of sexual conflict is traumatic mating, in which male genitalia damage the female during copulation. The penis of the seed beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus, is covered in spines that damage the female reproductive tract. Females kick males ostensibly to shorten these harmful copulations. How these iconic conflict behaviours coevolve in response to sexual conflict intensity can provide insight into the economics of these traits. We examined whether male harm and female resistance coevolved...

Egg-induced changes to sperm phenotypes shape patterns of multivariate selection on ejaculates

Jessica Hadlow, Jonathan Evans & Rowan Lymbery
Ejaculates exhibit extraordinary phenotypic diversity and rapid rates of evolution, yet the adaptive value of most sperm traits remains equivocal. Recent findings suggest that to understand how selection targets ejaculates we must recognize that female-imposed physiological conditions often alter ejaculate phenotypes. These phenotypic changes to ejaculates may influence the relationships among sperm traits and their association with fitness. Here, we show that chemical substances released by eggs (known to modify sperm physiology and behavior) alter...

Acoustic coordination by allied male dolphins in a cooperative context

Bronte Moore, Richard Connor, Simon Allen, Michael Krützen & Stephanie King
Synchronous displays are hallmarks of many animal societies, ranging from the pulsing flashes of fireflies, to military marching in humans. Such displays are known to facilitate mate attraction or signal relationship quality. Across many taxa, synchronous male displays appear to be driven by competition, while synchronous displays in humans are thought to be unique in that they serve a cooperative function. Indeed, it is well established that human synchrony promotes cooperative endeavours and increases success...

Processes at the soil-root interface determine the different responses of nutrient limitation and metal toxicity in forbs and grasses to nitrogen enrichment

Wen-Hao Zhang, Qiuying Tian, Peng Lu, Pengfei Ma, Huirong Zhou, Ming Yang, Xiufeng Zhai, Mengmeng Chen, Hong Wang, Wenchao Li, Wenming Bai & Hans Lambers
Nutrient limitation and metal toxicity have been implicated in changes of grassland communities by nitrogen (N) deposition. Belowground processes, especially those at the soil-root interface, play important roles in determining variation in nutrient concentrations in plants. However, few studies have specifically focused on the roles of these processes in mineral-element acquisition in grassland plants in response to N enrichment. Here we investigated the contributions of belowground processes at the soil-root interface to the differential acquisition...

Phylogenomics and species delimitation for effective conservation of manta and devil rays

Emily Humble, Jane Hosegood, Rob Ogden, Mark De Bruyn, Simon Creer, Guy Stevens, Mohammed Abudaya, Kim Bassos-Hull, Ramon Bonfil, Daniel Fernando, Andrew Foote, Helen Hipperson, Rima Jabado, Jenny Kaden, Muhammad Moazzam, Lauren Peel, Stephen Pollett, Alessandro Ponzo, Marloes Poortvliet, Jehad Salah, Helen Senn, Joshua Stewart, Sabine Wintner & Gary Carvalho
Practical biodiversity conservation relies on delineation of biologically meaningful units. Manta and devil rays (Mobulidae) are threatened worldwide, yet morphological similarities and a succession of recent taxonomic changes impede the development of an effective conservation strategy. Here, we generate genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data from a geographically and taxonomically representative set of manta and devil ray samples to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and evaluate species boundaries under the general lineage concept. We show that nominal...

Data from: It’s not all black and white: investigating colour polymorphism in manta rays across Indo-Pacific populations

Stephanie Venables, Andrea Marshall, Elitza Germanov, Robert Perryman, Ricardo Tapilatu, I. Gede Hendrawan, Anna Flam, Mike Van Keulen, Joseph Tomkins & Jason Kennington
Intraspecific colour polymorphisms have been the focus of numerous studies, yet processes affecting melanism in the marine environment remain poorly understood. Arguably the most prominent example of melanism in marine species occurs in manta rays (Mobula birostris and M. alfredi). Here, we use photo identification catalogues to document the frequency variation of melanism across Indo-Pacific manta ray populations and test for evidence of selection by predation acting on colour morph variants. We use mark-recapture modeling...

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