47 Works

Data from: Regime shifts shorten food chains for mesopredators with potential sublethal effects

Tessa N. Hempson, Nicholas A.J. Graham, Aaron M. MacNeil, Nathalie Bodin, Shaun K. Wilson & Nicholas A. J. Graham
1. Predator populations are in decline globally. Exploitation, as well as habitat degradation and associated changes in prey availability are key drivers of this process of trophic downgrading. In the short term, longevity and dietary adaptability of large-bodied consumers can mask potential sub-lethal effects of a changing prey base, producing a delayed effect that may be difficult to detect. 2. In coral reef ecosystems, regime shifts from coral- to algae-dominated states caused by coral bleaching...

Data from: Predicting ecological responses in a changing ocean: the effects of future climate uncertainty

Jennifer J. Freer, Julian C. Partridge, Geraint A. Tarling, Martin A. Collins & Martin J. Genner
Predicting how species will respond to climate change is a growing field in marine ecology, yet knowledge of how to incorporate the uncertainty from future climate data into these predictions remains a significant challenge. To help overcome it, this review separates climate uncertainty into its three components (scenario uncertainty, model uncertainty, and internal model variability) and identifies four criteria that constitute a thorough interpretation of an ecological response to climate change in relation to these...

Data from: Mixed evidence for the erosion of inter-tactical genetic correlations through intralocus tactical conflict

Kyana N. Pike, Joseph L. Tomkins & Bruno A. Buzatto
Alternative reproductive tactics, whereby members of the same sex use different tactics to secure matings are often associated with conditional intrasexual dimorphisms. Given the different selective pressures on males adopting each mating tactic,, intrasexual dimorphism is more likely to arise if phenotypes are genetically uncoupled and free to evolve towards their phenotypic optima. However, in this context, genetic correlations between male morphs could result in intralocus tactical conflict. We investigated the genetic architecture of male...

Data from: Species richness effects on grassland recovery from drought depend on community productivity in a multisite experiment

Juergen Kreyling, Jürgen Dengler, Julia Walter, Nikolay Velev, Emin Ugurlu, Desislava Sopotlieva, Johannes Ransijn, Catherine Picon-Cochard, Ivan Nijs, Pauline Hernandez, Behlül Güler, Philipp Von Gillhaussen, Hans J. De Boeck, Juliette M. G. Bloor, Sigi Berwaers, Carl Beierkuhnlein, Mohammed A. S. Arfin Khan, Iva Apostolova, Yasin Altan, Michaela Zeiter, Camilla Wellstein, Marcelo Sternberg, Andreas Stampfli, Giandiego Campetella, Sándor Bartha … & Juliette M.G. Bloor
Biodiversity can buffer ecosystem functioning against extreme climatic events, but few experiments have explicitly tested this. Here, we present the first multisite biodiversity × drought manipulation experiment to examine drought resistance and recovery at five temperate and Mediterranean grassland sites. Aboveground biomass production declined by 30% due to experimental drought (standardised local extremity by rainfall exclusion for 72–98 consecutive days). Species richness did not affect resistance but promoted recovery. Recovery was only positively affected by...

Data from: Managing seagrass resilience under cumulative dredging affecting light: predicting risk using dynamic Bayesian networks

Paul Pao-Yen Wu, Kathryn McMahon, Michael A. Rasheed, Gary A. Kendrick, Paul H. York, Kathryn Chartrand, M. Julian Caley & Kerrie Mengersen
Coastal development is contributing to ongoing declines of ecosystems globally. Consequently, understanding the risks posed to these systems, and how they respond to successive disturbances, is paramount for their improved management. We study the cumulative impacts of maintenance dredging on seagrass ecosystems as a canonical example. Maintenance dredging causes disturbances lasting weeks to months, often repeated at yearly intervals. We present a risk-based modelling framework for time varying complex systems centred around a dynamic Bayesian...

Data from: Socially cued seminal fluid gene expression mediates responses in ejaculate quality to sperm competition risk

Leigh W. Simmons & Maxine Lovegrove
There is considerable evidence that males will increase the number of sperm ejaculated in response to sperm competition risk. However, whether they have the capacity to adjust seminal fluid components of the ejaculate has received less attention. Male crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) have been shown to adjust the viability of sperm in their ejaculate in response to sperm competition risk. Here we show that socially mediated plasticity in sperm viability is probably due, at least in...

Data from: Hierarchical multi-taxa models inform riparian vs. hydrologic restoration of urban streams in a permeable landscape

Daniel C. Gwinn, Jennifer A. Middleton, Leah Beesley, Paul Close, Belinda Quinton, Tim Storer, Peter M. Davies & Jen A. Middleton
The degradation of streams caused by urbanization tends to follow predictable patterns; however, there is a growing appreciation for heterogeneity in stream response to urbanization due to the local geoclimatic context. Furthermore, there is building evidence that streams in mildly sloped, permeable landscapes respond uncharacteristically to urban stress calling for a more nuanced approach to restoration. We evaluated the relative influence of local-scale riparian characteristics and catchment-scale imperviousness on the macroinvertebrate assemblages of streams in...

Data from: Evolutionary relationships among pollinators and repeated pollinator sharing in sexually deceptive orchids

Ryan D. Phillips, Graham R. Brown, Kingsley W. Dixon, Christine Hayes, Celeste C. Linde & Rod Peakall
The mechanism of pollinator attraction is predicted to strongly influence both plant diversification and the extent of pollinator sharing between species. Sexually deceptive orchids rely on mimicry of species-specific sex pheromones to attract their insect pollinators. Given that sex pheromones tend to be conserved among related species, we predicted that in sexually deceptive orchids, (i) pollinator sharing is rare, (ii) closely related orchids use closely related pollinators and (iii) there is strong bias in the...

Data from: Processing political misinformation: comprehending the Trump phenomenon

Briony Swire, Adam J. Berinsky, Stephan Lewandowsky & Ullrich K. H. Ecker
This study investigated the cognitive processing of true and false political information. Specifically, it examined the impact of source credibility on the assessment of veracity when information comes from a polarizing source (Experiment 1), and effectiveness of explanations when they come from one's own political party or an opposition party (Experiment 2). These experiments were conducted prior to the 2016 Presidential election. Participants rated their belief in factual and incorrect statements that President Trump made...

Data from: Plant, herbivore and parasitoid community composition in native Nothofagaceae forests vs. exotic pine plantations

Guadalupe Peralta, Carol M. Frost & Raphael K. Didham
1.Converting natural areas into land used for production causes dramatic changes in the configuration of landscapes. Both the loss and fragmentation of native habitats contribute to biodiversity loss worldwide and the consequent creation of artificial edges can have a significant influence on community assembly. The conservation value of plantation forests has been identified for specific species, but it is not clear whether exotic pine plantations can also be used for the preservation of native communities...

Data from: Experimental evolution reveals differences between phenotypic and evolutionary responses to population density

Kathryn B. McNamara & Leigh W. Simmons
Group living can select for increased immunity, given the heightened risk of parasite transmission. Yet, it also may select for increased male reproductive investment, given the elevated risk of female multiple mating. Trade-offs between immunity and reproduction are well documented. Phenotypically, population density mediates both reproductive investment and immune function in the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. However, the evolutionary response of populations to these traits is unknown. We created two replicated populations of P....

Data from: Benefits of polyandry: molecular evidence from field-caught dung beetles

Erin L. McCullough, Bruno A. Buzatto & Leigh W. Simmons
When females mate with multiple males, they set the stage for post-copulatory sexual selection via sperm competition and/or cryptic female choice. Surprisingly little is known about the rates of multiple mating by females in the wild, despite the importance of this information in understanding the potential for post-copulatory sexual selection to drive the evolution of reproductive behavior, morphology, and physiology. Dung beetles in the genus Onthophagus have become a laboratory model for studying pre- and...

Data from: High intra-ocean, but limited inter-ocean genetic connectivity in populations of the deep-water oblique-banded snapper Pristipomoides zonatus (Pisces: Lutjanidae)

W. Jason Kennington, Peter W. Keron, Euan S. Harvey, Corey B. Wakefield, Ashley J. Williams, Tuikolongahau Halafihi & Stephen J. Newman
While many studies have investigated connectivity and subdivision in marine fish occupying tropical, shallow water reef habitats, relatively few have been conducted on commercially important deep-water species in the Indo-Pacific region. Here, we examine spatial and temporal genetic variation in the deep-water oblique-banded snapper Pristipomoides zonatus, collected from eight locations across the Indian and Pacific Oceans. A total of 292 individuals were screened for genetic variation at six nuclear microsatellite loci and the cytochrome c...

Data from: Sperm competition suppresses gene drive among experimentally evolving populations of house mice

Andri Manser, Anna K. Lindholm, Leigh W. Simmons & Renée C. Firman
Drive genes are genetic elements that manipulate the 50% ratio of Mendelian inheritance in their own favour, allowing them to rapidly propagate through populations. The action of drive genes is often hidden, making detection and identification inherently difficult. Yet drive genes can have profound evolutionary consequences for the populations that harbour them: most known drivers are detrimental to organismal gamete development, reproduction and survival. In this study, we identified the presence of a well-known drive...

Data from: Metabolic rate associates with, but does not generate covariation between, behaviours in western stutter-trilling crickets, Gryllus integer

Indrikis A. Krams, Petri T. Niemelä, Giedrius Trakimas, Ronalds Krams, Gordon M. Burghardt, Tatjana Krama, Aare Kuusik, Marika Mand, Markus J. Rantala, Raivo Mand, Jukka Kekäläinen, Ilkka Sirkka, Severi Luoto, Raine Kortet & Indrikis Krams
The causes and consequences of among-individual variation and covariation in behaviours are of substantial interest to behavioural ecology, but the proximate mechanisms underpinning this (co)variation are still unclear. Previous research suggests metabolic rate as a potential proximate mechanism to explain behavioural covariation. We measured the resting metabolic rate (RMR), boldness and exploration in western stutter-trilling crickets, Gryllus integer, selected differentially for short and fast development over two generations. After applying mixed-effects models to reveal the...

Data from: Demonstrating multiple benefits from periodically harvested fisheries closures

Jordan S. Goetze, Joachim Claudet, Fraser Januchowski-Hartley, Timothy J. Langlois, Shaun K. Wilson, Crow White, Rebecca Weeks & Stacy D. Jupiter
1.Periodically harvested closures (PHCs) are one of the most common forms of fisheries management in Melanesia, demonstrating multiple objectives, including sustaining fish stocks and increasing catch efficiency to support small-scale fisheries. No studies have comprehensively assessed their ability to provide short-term fisheries benefits across the entire harvest regime. 2.We present a novel analytical framework to guide a meta-analysis and assist future research in conceptualizing and assessing the potential of PHCs to deliver benefits for multiple...

Data from: Paternal-effects in a terrestrial ectotherm are temperature dependent but no evidence for adaptive effects

Clelia Gasparini, ChuChu Lu, Niels Dingemanse & Cristina Tuni
1. Global rising of average temperatures and increase in extreme climatic events may largely impact animal survival and reproduction. Yet, how variation in temperature may affect male fertility, in particular ejaculate traits, and whether this can in turn affect offspring fitness, is seldom addressed. Paternal effects may be of key importance as they could impact the rate and direction of evolutionary change in response to climate change. 2. We tested the effects of temperature experienced...

Data from: Greater root phosphatase activity in nitrogen-fixing rhizobial but not actinorhizal plants with declining phosphorus availability

Guochen Kenny Png, Benjamin L. Turner, Felipe E. Albornoz, Patrick E. Hayes, Hans Lambers & Etienne Laliberté
1. The abundance of nitrogen (N)-fixing plants in ecosystems where phosphorus (P) limits plant productivity poses a paradox because N fixation entails a high P cost. One explanation for this paradox is that the N-fixing strategy allows greater root phosphatase activity to enhance P acquisition from organic sources, but evidence to support this contention is limited. 2. We measured root phosphomonoesterase (PME) activity of 10 N-fixing species, including rhizobial legumes and actinorhizal Allocasuarina species, and...

Data from: Evidence that fertility trades off with early offspring fitness as males age

Sheri L. Johnson, Sylvia Zellhuber-McMillan, Joanne Gillum, Jessica Dunleavy, Jonathan P. Evans, Shinichi Nakagawa & Neil J. Gemmell
Models of aging predict that sperm function and fertility should decline with age as sperm are exposed to free radical damage and mutation accumulation. However, theory also suggests that mating with older males should be beneficial for females because survival to old age is a demonstration of a male’s high genetic and/or phenotypic quality. Consequently, declines in sperm fitness may be offset by indirect fitness benefits exhibited in offspring. While numerous studies have investigated age-based...

Data from: Males harm females less when competing with familiar relatives

Samuel James Lymbery & Leigh W. Simmons
Sexual conflict occurs when reproductive partners have different fitness optima, and can lead to the evolution of traits in one sex that inflict fitness costs on the opposite sex. Recently, it has been proposed that antagonism by males towards females should be reduced when they compete with relatives, because reducing the future productivity of a female would result in an indirect fitness cost for a harmful male. We tested this prediction in the seed beetle...

Data from: X-ray micro-CT scanning reveals temporal separation of male harm and female kicking during traumatic mating in seed beetles

Liam R. Dougherty & Leigh W. Simmons
In the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus, the male intromittent organ is covered in sharp spines that pierce the female copulatory tract wall during mating. Although the fitness consequences of traumatic mating are well studied in this species, we know much less about how the male and female genitalia interact during mating. This is partly due to the fact that genital interactions occur primarily inside the female, and so are difficult to observe. In this study,...

Data from: Pushing the limits of photoreception in twilight conditions: The rod-like cone retina of the deep-sea pearlsides

Fanny De Busserolles, Fabio Cortesi, Jon Vidar Helvik, Wayne I. L. Davies, Rachel M. Templin, Robert K. P. Sullivan, Craig T. Michell, Jessica K. Mountford, Shaun P. Collin, Xabier Irigoien, Stein Kaartvedt & Justin Marshall
Most vertebrates have a duplex retina comprising two photoreceptor types, rods for dim-light (scotopic) vision and cones for bright-light (photopic) and color vision. However, deep-sea fishes are only active in dim-light conditions; hence, most species have lost their cones in favor of a simplex retina composed exclusively of rods. Although the pearlsides, Maurolicus spp., have such a pure rod retina, their behavior is at odds with this simplex visual system. Contrary to other deep-sea fishes,...

Data from: Soil fertility shapes belowground food webs across a regional climate gradient

Etienne Laliberté, Paul Kardol, Raphael K. Didham, François P. Teste, Benjamin L. Turner & David A. Wardle
Changes in soil fertility during pedogenesis affect the quantity and quality of resources entering the belowground subsystem. Climate governs pedogenesis, yet how climate modulates responses of soil food webs to soil ageing remains unexplored because of the paucity of appropriate model systems. We characterised soil food webs along each of four retrogressive soil chronosequences situated across a strong regional climate gradient to show that belowground communities are predominantly shaped by changes in fertility rather than...

Data from: Possible glimpses into early speciation: the effect of ovarian fluid on sperm velocity accords with post-copulatory isolation between two guppy populations

Alessandro Devigili, John L Fitzpatrick, Clelia Gasparini, Indar W Ramnarine, Andrea Pilastro & Jonathan P Evans
Identifying mechanisms of reproductive isolation is key to understanding speciation. Among the putative mechanisms underlying reproductive isolation, sperm-female interactions (postmating-prezygotic barriers) are arguably the hardest to identify, not least because these are likely to operate at the cellular or molecular level. Yet sperm-female interactions offer great potential to prevent the transfer of genetic information between different populations at the initial stages of speciation. Here we provide a preliminary test for the presence of a putative...

Data from: Quantifying the effects of ecological constraints on trait expression using novel trait-gradient analysis parameters

Gianluigi Ottaviani, James L. Tsakalos, Gunnar Keppel & Ladislav Mucina
1. Complex processes related to biotic and abiotic forces can impose limitations to assembly and composition of plant communities. Quantifying the effects of these constraints on plant functional traits across environmental gradients, and among communities, remains challenging. We define ecological constraint (Ci) as the combined, limiting effect of biotic interactions and environmental filtering on trait expression (i.e., the mean value and range of functional traits). 2. Here we propose a set of novel parameters to...

Registration Year

  • 2017
    47

Resource Types

  • Dataset
    47

Affiliations

  • University of Western Australia
    47
  • University of Otago
    4
  • Curtin University
    4
  • Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
    3
  • James Cook University
    3
  • University of Liverpool
    3
  • University of Padua
    2
  • University of the West Indies
    2
  • University of Eastern Finland
    2
  • University of Montreal
    2