In bacteria and archaea, viruses are the primary infectious agents, acting as virulent, often deadly pathogens. A form of adaptive immune defense known as CRISPR-Cas enables microbial cells to acquire immunity to viral pathogens by recognizing specific sequences encoded in viral genomes. The unique biology of this system results in evolutionary dynamics of host and viral diversity that cannot be fully explained by the traditional models used to describe microbe-virus coevolutionary dynamics. Here, we show...
Data from: Variability in potential to exploit different soil organic phosphorus compounds among tropical montane tree speciesBrian S. Steidinger, Benjamin L. Turner, Adriana Osorio, James W. Dalling & Adriana Corrales
We hypothesized that tropical plant species with different mycorrhizal associations reduce competition for soil phosphorus (P) by specializing to exploit different soil organic P compounds. We assayed the activity of root/mycorrhizal phosphatase enzymes of four tree species with contrasting root symbiotic relationships–arbuscular mycorrhizal (angiosperm and conifer), ectomycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal–collected from one of three soil sites within a montane tropical forest. We also measured growth and foliar P of these seedlings in an experiment with P...
Data from: Evolution of tolerance in an invasive weed after reassociation with its specialist herbivoreTania Jogesh, Margaret C. Stanley & May R. Berenbaum
The interaction between the European wild parsnip Pastinaca sativa and its coevolved florivore the parsnip webworm Depressaria pastinacella, established in North America for over 150 years, has resulted in evolution of local chemical phenotype matching. The recent invasion of New Zealand by webworms, exposing parsnips there to florivore selection for the first time, provided an opportunity to assess rates of adaptive response in a real-time experiment. We planted reciprocal common gardens in the USA and...
Data from: Population signatures of large-scale, long-term disjunction and small-scale, short-term habitat fragmentation in an Afromontane forest birdJan Christian Habel, Luc Lens, Martin Husemann, Ronald K. Mulwa, Luca Borghesio, Franz Gassert, Dennis Rödder & Werner Ulrich
The Eastern Afromontane cloud forests occur as geographically distinct mountain exclaves. The conditions of these forests range from large to small and from fairly intact to strongly degraded. For this study, we sampled individuals of the forest bird species, the Montane White-eye Zosterops poliogaster from 16 sites and four mountain archipelagos. We analysed 12 polymorphic microsatellites and three phenotypic traits, and calculated Species Distribution Models (SDMs) to project past distributions and predict potential future range...
Data from: An in vivo three-dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging-based averaged brain collection of the neonatal piglet (Sus scrofa)Matthew S. Conrad, Bradley P. Sutton, Ryan N. Dilger & Rodney W. Johnson
Due to the fact that morphology and perinatal growth of the piglet brain is similar to humans, use of the piglet as a translational animal model for neurodevelopmental studies is increasing. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be a powerful tool to study neurodevelopment in piglets, but many of the MRI resources have been produced for adult humans. Here, we present an average in vivo MRI-based atlas specific for the 4-week-old piglet. In addition, we have...
Data from: Global phylogenetic structure of the hyperdiverse ant genus Pheidole reveals the repeated evolution of macroecological patternsEvan P. Economo, Pavel Klimov, Eli M. Sarnat, Benoit Guénard, Michael D. Weiser, Beatrice Lecroq, L. Lacey Knowles & B. Guenard
Adaptive radiations are of particular interest owing to what they reveal about the ecological and evolutionary regulation of biodiversity. This applies to localized island radiations such as Darwin's finches, and also to rapid radiations occurring on a global scale. Here we analyse the macroevolution and macroecology of Pheidole, a famously hyperdiverse and ecologically dominant ant genus. We generate and analyse four novel datasets: (i) a robust global phylogeny including 285 Pheidole species, (ii) a global...
Data from: Global invasion history of the Tropical Fire Ant: a stowaway on the first global trade routesDietrich Gotzek, Heather Axen, Andrew Suarez, Sara Helms Cahan, D. DeWayne Shoemaker, Andrew V. Suarez & Heather J. Axen
Biological invasions are largely thought to be contemporary, having recently increased sharply in the wake of globalization. However, human commerce had already become global by the mid-16th century when the Spanish connected the New World with Europe and Asia via their Manila galleon and West Indies trade routes. We use genetic data to trace the global invasion of one of the world's most widespread and invasive pest ants, the Tropical Fire Ant, Solenopsis geminata. Our...
Motivation: 16S rDNA hypervariable tag sequencing has become the de facto method for accessing microbial diversity. Illumina paired-end sequencing, which produces two separate reads for each DNA fragment, has become the platform of choice for this application. However, when the two reads do not overlap, existing computational pipelines analyze data from read separately and underutilize the information contained in the paired-end reads. Results: We created a workflow known as Illinois Mayo Taxon Organization from RNA...
How plants mitigate damage by animal herbivores is a fundamental ecological and evolutionary question of plant-animal interactions. Some plants can increase their fitness when damaged in a phenomenon termed “overcompensation.” Despite overcompensation being observed in a variety of plant species, its mechanistic basis remains elusive. Recent research has shown that the Arabidopsis thaliana genotype Columbia-4 employs endoreduplication, the replication of the genome without mitosis, following damage and that it overcompensates for seed yield. The related...
Data from: Task shifting interventions for cardiovascular risk reduction in low-and middle-income countries: a systematic review of randomized controlled trialsJoyce Gyamfi, Gbenga Ogedegbe, Jacob Plange-Rhule, Alisa Surkis, Diana Margot Rosenthal, Collins Airhihenbuwa, Juliet Iwelunmor & Richard Cooper
Objective: To evaluate evidence from published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for the use of task-shifting strategies for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Design: Systematic review of RCTs that utilised a task-shifting strategy in the management of CVD in LMICs. Data Sources: We searched the following databases for relevant RCTs: PubMed from the 1940s, EMBASE from 1974, Global Health from 1910, Ovid Health Star from 1966, Web of Knowledge from...
In many animals, including humans, interactions with caring parents can have long-lasting effects on offspring sensitivity to stressors. However, whether these parental effects impact offspring fitness in nature is often unclear. In addition, despite evidence that maternal care can influence offspring behaviour via epigenetic alterations to the genome, it remains unclear whether paternal care has similar effects. Here, we show in three-spined sticklebacks, a fish in which fathers are the sole provider of offspring care,...
Apiaceae (Umbelliferae) is a large angiosperm family that includes many medicinally important species. The ability to identify these species and their adulterants is important, yet difficult to do so because of their subtle fruit morphological differences and often lack of diagnostic features in preserved specimens. Moreover, dried roots are often the official medical organs, making visual identification to species almost impossible. DNA barcoding has been proposed as a powerful taxonomic tool for species identification. The...
University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign12
University of Illinois System2
New York University Langone Medical Center1
Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology1
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor1
Nicolaus Copernicus University1
University of Vermont1
United States Department of Agriculture1
Georgia Institute of Technology1