39 Works

Data from: Biomass resilience of Neotropical secondary forests

Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, T. Mitchell Aide, Angélica M. Almeyda Zambrano, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Vanessa Boukili, Pedro H. S. Brancalion, Eben N. Broadbent, Robin L. Chazdon, Dylan Craven, Jarcilene S. De Almeida-Cortez, George A. L. Cabral, Ben H. J. De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan M. Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mario M. Espírito-Santo, María C. Fandino, Ricardo G. César, Jefferson S. Hall, José Luis Hernandez-Stefanoni, Catarina C. Jakovac … & Danaë M. A. Rozendaal
Land-use change occurs nowhere more rapidly than in the tropics, where the imbalance between deforestation and forest regrowth has large consequences for the global carbon cycle1. However, considerable uncertainty remains about the rate of biomass recovery in secondary forests, and how these rates are influenced by climate, landscape, and prior land use2, 3, 4. Here we analyse aboveground biomass recovery during secondary succession in 45 forest sites and about 1,500 forest plots covering the major...

Juggling options: manipulation ease determines primate optimal fruit size choice

Renann H. P. Dias-Silva, Matheus J. Castro Sa, Fabricio B. Baccaro, Pavel Tománek & Adrian A. Barnett
Optimal foraging theory predicts that animals will seek simultaneously to minimize food processing time and maximize energetic gain. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated whether a specialist seed-predator primate forages optimally when choosing among variable-sized thick-husked fruits. Our objects of study were the golden-backed-uacari (Cacajao ouakary, Pitheciidae) and single seeded pods of the macucu tree (Aldina latifolia, Fabaceae). We predicted that golden-backed-uacari will consume fruits of the size class that requires the least time to...

Data from: Individual and interactive effects of chronic anthropogenic disturbance and rainfall on taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic composition and diversity of extrafloral nectary-bearing plants in Brazilian Caatinga

Xavier Arnan, Carlos Silva, Daniela Reis, Fernanda Oliveira, Talita Câmara, Elâine Ribeiro, Alan Andersen & Inara Leal
Chronic anthropogenic disturbance (CAD) and climate change represent two of the major threats to biodiversity globally, but their combined effects are not well understood. Here we investigate the individual and interactive effects of increasing CAD and decreasing rainfall on the composition and taxonomic (TD), functional (FD) and phylogenetic diversity (PD) of plants possessing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) in semi-arid Brazilian Caatinga. EFNs attract ants that protect plants against insect herbivore attack and are extremely prevalent in...

Data from: Anthropogenic disturbance of tropical forests threatens pollination services to açaí palm in the Amazon river delta

Alistair John Campbell, Luísa Gigante Carvalheiro, Marcia Motta Maués, Rodolfo Jaffé, Tereza Cristina Giannini, Madson Antonio Benjamin Freitas, Beatriz Woiski Texeira Coelho & Cristiano Menezes
The açaí palm Euterpe oleracea Mart. in the Amazon river delta has seen rapid expansion to meet increased demand for its fruit. This has been achieved by transforming lowland forest habitats (floodplains) into simplified agroforests and intensive plantation in upland areas. As açaí palm makes an important contribution to the economy and food security of local communities, identifying management approaches that support biodiversity and ecosystem processes that underpin fruit production on açaí farms is essential....

Data from: The roles of geography and environment in divergence within and between two closely related plant species inhabiting an island-like habitat

Artur Maria Wanderley, Isabel Cristina Sobreira Machado, Erton Mendonça De Almeida, Leonardo Pessoa Felix, Leonardo Galetto, Ana Maria Benko-Iseppon, Victoria L. Sork & Artur Maia Wanderley
Aim: In island-like habitats, geographic isolation facilitates population and species divergence by constraining gene flow, while environmental isolation can enhance divergence. We tested the relative contribution of geographic and environmental isolation in genetic and phenotypic divergence within and between two species of the figwort Ameroglossum (Scrophulariaceae) inhabiting spatially isolated habitats, known as inselbergs. Location: Borborema Plateau, north-eastern Brazil. Methods: Multivariate models of redundancy (RDAs) and partial redundancy analyses (pRDAs) were used to partition the geographic...

Data from: Soil-mediated filtering organizes tree assemblages in regenerating tropical forests

Bruno Ximenes Pinho, Felipe Pimentel Lopes De Melo, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Simon Pierce, Madelon Lohbeck & Marcelo Tabarelli
1.Secondary forests are increasingly dominant in human-modified tropical landscapes, but the drivers of forest recovery remain poorly understood. Soil conditions influence plant community composition, and are expected to change over a gradient of succession. However, the role of soil conditions as an environmental filter driving community assembly during forest succession has rarely been explicitly assessed. 2.We evaluated the role of stand basal area and soil conditions on community assembly and its consequences for community functional...

Data from: Chronic anthropogenic disturbance drives the biological impoverishment of the Brazilian Caatinga vegetation

Elâine Maria S. Ribeiro, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Bráulio A. Santos, Marcelo Tabarelli & Inara R. Leal
1. In addition to acute transformations of ecosystems caused by deforestation, old-growth forests worldwide are being increasingly altered by low-intensity but chronic human disturbance. Overgrazing and the continuous extraction of forest products are important drivers of chronic disturbance, which can lead to the gradual local extinction of species and the alteration of vegetation structure. 2. We tested this hypothesis in the Brazilian Caatinga vegetation, one of the most species-rich and populated semi-arid regions of the...

Foraging networks and social tolerance in a cooperatively breeding primate (Callithrix jacchus)

María Fernanda De La Fuente, Cédric Sueur, Paul Garber, Júlio César Bicca-Marques, Antonio Souto & Nicola Schiel
Within-group competition over food resources can be a major cost of social living. In the wild, foragers are confronted with social (e.g. hierarchical rank) and ecological (e.g. food availability and distribution) challenges that affect their foraging decisions and feeding success. Exhibiting prosocial behaviors, such as tolerance at feeding sites, can benefit group members by developing affiliative social relationships, enhancing access to resources and maximizing fitness. We examined social tolerance at feeding sites in Callithrix jacchus,...

Managed logging negatively affects the density and abundance of some dry forest specialist bird species of northeastern Brazil

Jonathan Ribeiro, Flor Ias-Casas, Weber Silva & Luciano Naka
The Caatinga, the largest region of seasonally dry tropical forest in the Neotropics, suffers high rates of deforestation and habitat degradation, mostly due to wood extraction. As an alternative to illegal logging, governments have looked at more sustainable management schemes, allowing natural regeneration after logging through relatively long (~ 25-yr) harvest rotations. We investigated the impacts of forest management at a 1,700-ha privately-owned area located at the Araripe Plateau, in the semi-arid interior of northeastern...

Functional biogeography of Neotropical moist forests: trait-climate relationships and assembly patterns of tree communities

Bruno Pinho, Marcelo Tabarelli, Cajo Ter Braak, S. J. Wright, Victor Arroyo-Rodriguez, Maíra Benchimol, Bettina Engelbrecht, Simon Pierce, Peter Hietz, Bráulio Santos, Carlos Peres, Sandra Müller, Ian Wright, Frans Bongers, Madelon Lohbeck, Ülo Niinemets, Martijn Slot, Steven Jansen, Davi Jamelli, Renato Augusto Ferreira De Lima, Nathan Swenson, Richard Condit, Jos Barlow, Ferry Slik, Manuel Hernández-Ruedas … & Felipe Melo
Aim: Here we examine the functional profile of regional tree species pools across the latitudinal distribution of Neotropical moist forests, and test trait-climate relationships among local communities. We expected opportunistic strategies (acquisitive traits, small seeds) to be overrepresented in species pools further from the equator due to long-term instability, but also in terms of abundance in local communities in currently wetter, warmer and more seasonal climates. Location: Neotropics. Time period: Recent. Major taxa studied: Trees....

Taxonomic and functional compositions and environmental data of 19 seedling assemblages in a Caatinga dry forest

Renato Vanderlei, Maria Fabiola Barros, Inara Leal & Marcelo Tabarelli
We used these information to assess the structure, composition, and diversity of woody seedling assemblages across 19 forest stands in a human-modified landscape of Caatinga dry forest, assessing the role played by rainfall, aboveground biomass, and chronic anthropogenic disturbances (i.e., livestock grazing pressure and wood extraction) as assembly forces. We quantified a large set of community-level attributes including functional traits related to water availability, physical protection, and survival success. We recorded a total of 544...

Data from: Anatomy of a neotropical insect radiation

Isaac Scott Winkler, Sonja J. Scheffer, Matthew L. Lewis, Kristina J. Ottens, Andrew P. Rasmussen, Géssica A. Gomes-Costa, Luz Maria Huerto Santillan, Marty A. Condon & Andrew A. Forbes
Background: Much evolutionary theory predicts that diversity arises via both adaptive radiation (diversification driven by selection against niche-overlap within communities) and divergence of geographically isolated populations. We focus on tropical fruit flies (Blepharoneura, Tephritidae) that reveal unexpected patterns of niche-overlap within local communities. Throughout the Neotropics, multiple sympatric non-interbreeding populations often share the same highly specialized patterns of host use (e.g., flies are specialists on flowers of a single gender of a single species of...

Data from: Human disturbance promotes herbivory by leaf-cutting ants in the Caatinga dry forest

Felipe F. S. Siqueira, José Domingos Ribeiro-Neto, Marcelo Tabarelli, Alan N. Andersen, Rainer Wirth & Inara R. Leal
Anthropogenic disturbances are known to modify plant-animal interactions such as those involving the leaf-cutting ants, the most voracious and proliferating herbivore across human-modified landscapes in the Neotropics. Here we evaluate the effect of chronic anthropogenic disturbance (e.g. firewood collection, livestock grazing) and vegetation seasonality on foraging area, foliage availability in the foraging area, leaf consumption, and herbivory rate of the leaf-cutting ant Atta opaciceps in the semi-arid Caatinga, a mosaic of dry forest and scrub...

Data from: Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map

Peter Hietz, Katrin Wagner, Flavio Nunes Ramos, Juliano Sarmento Cabral, Gerhard Zotz, Claudia Agudelo, Ana Maria Benavides, Manuel Cach Pérez, Catherine Cardelús, Nahelli Chilpa Galván, Lucas Costa, Rodolfo De Paula Oliveiras, Helena Einzmann, Rafael Farias, Valeria Guzmán Jacob, Michael Kessler, Catherine Kirby, Holger Kreft, Thorsten Krömer, Jamie Males, Samuel Monsalve Correa, Maria Moreno, Gunnar Petter, Casandra Reyes, Alfredo Saldaña … & Carrie Woods
Epiphyte trait data for the paper Hietz et al. 2021 Putting vascular epiphytes on the traits map. Journal of Ecology Plant functional traits impact the fitness and environmental niche of plants. Major plant functional types have been characterized by their trait spectrum, and the environmental and phylogenetic imprints on traits have advanced several ecological fields. Yet very few trait data on epiphytes, which represent almost 10% of vascular plants, are available. We collated >80,000 mostly...

Functional organization of woody plant assemblages along precipitation and human disturbance gradients in a seasonally dry tropical forest

Bruno Pinho, Bianca Zorger, Bruno Rosado & Marcelo Tabarelli
Chronic anthropogenic disturbances (CAD) and rainfall are important drivers of plant community assembly, but little is known about the role played by inter and intraspecific trait variation as communities respond to these pervasive forces. Here we examined the hypothesis that lower precipitation and higher CAD reduce both intra and interspecific trait variation in Caatinga dry forests. We sampled woody plants across 15 plots along precipitation and CAD gradients and measured resource-use traits. Effects of precipitation...

Data from: Effects of a major Amazonian river confluence on the distribution of floodplain forest avifauna

Thiago Laranjeiras, Luciano Naka, Gabriel Leite & Mario Cohn-Haft
Aim: Although “river color” or water type is an important determinant of Amazonian floodplain biodiversity, the relevance of mixing distinct water types at river confluences to the distribution of terrestrial floodplain fauna has been largely overlooked. We investigated how the influx of a sediment-rich whitewater tributary affects the floodplain forest avifauna along the world’s largest blackwater river. Location: Northwestern Brazilian Amazon Taxon: Birds Methods: We sampled floodplain avifauna and retrieved estimates of sediment concentration in...

Deep reefs are not refugium for shallow-water fish communities in the southwestern Atlantic

Aline Medeiros, Beatrice Ferreira, Fredy Alvarado, Ricardo Betancur-R, Marcelo Soares & Bráulio Santos
1. The deep reef refugia hypothesis (DRRH) predicts that deep reef ecosystems may act as refugium for the biota of disturbed shallow waters. Because deep reefs are amongst the most understudied habitats on Earth, formal tests of the DRRH remain scarce. If the DRRH is valid at the community level, the diversity of species, functions and lineages of fish communities of shallow reefs should be encapsulated in deep reefs. 2. We tested the DRRH by...

Data from: Tropical forest type influences community assembly processes in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi

Camilla M.R. Pereira, Álvaro López-García, Danielle Karla Alves Da Silva, Leonor C. Maia, Tobias G. Frøslev, Rasmus Kjøller & Søren Rosendahl
Aim: Plant community assembly in tropical rainforest has been shown to be largely governed by stochastic processes, but as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi display limited host preference, they may not follow the same stochastic assembly pattern. Here, we determined the relative importance of environmental and spatial drivers responsible for the community assembly process of AM fungi in two types of tropical rainforest (semideciduous rainforest and dense ombrophilous forests). Location: Atlantic rainforest in northeastern Brazil, South...

Data from: Genetic differentiation associated with host plants and geography among six widespread species of South American Blepharoneura fruit flies (Tephritidae)

Kristina Ottens, Isaac S. Winkler, Matthew L. Lewis, Sonja J. Scheffer, Gessica A. Gomes-Costa, Marty A. Condon & Andrew A. Forbes
Tropical herbivorous insects are astonishingly diverse and many are highly host-specific. Much evidence suggests that herbivorous insect diversity is a function of host-plant diversity; yet, the diversity of some lineages exceeds the diversity of plants. Although most species of herbivorous fruit flies in the Neotropical genus Blepharoneura are strongly host-specific (they deposit their eggs in a single host plant species and flower sex), some species are collected from multiple hosts or flowers and these may...

Support for the habitat amount hypothesis from a global synthesis of species density studies

James Watling, Víctor Arroyo-Rodríguez, Marion Pfeifer, Lander Baeten, Cristina Banks-Leite, Laura Cisneros, Rebecca Fang, Caroli Hamel-Leigue, Thibault Lachat, Inara Leal, Luc Lens, Hugh Possingham, Dinarzarde Raheem, Danilo Ribeiro, Eleanor Slade, Nicolas Urbina-Cardona, Eric Wood & Lenore Fahrig
Decades of research suggest that species richness depends on spatial characteristics of habitat patches, especially their size and isolation. In contrast, the habitat amount hypothesis predicts that: 1) species richness in plots of fixed size (species density) is more strongly and positively related to the amount of habitat around the plot than to patch size or isolation; 2) habitat amount better predicts species density than patch size and isolation combined, 3) there is no effect...

Leaf-cutting ants negatively impact the regeneration of the Caatinga dry forest across abandoned pastures

Clarissa Mendes Knoechelmann, Fernanda M. P. Oliveira, Felipe F. S. Siqueira, Rainer Wirth, Marcelo Tabarelli & Inara R. Leal
The mechanisms affecting forest regeneration in human-modified landscapes are attracting increasing attention as tropical forests have been recognized as key habitats for biodiversity conservation, provision of ecosystem services and human well-being. Here we investigate the effect of the leaf-cutting ants (LCA) Atta opaciceps on regenerating plant assemblages in Caatinga dry forest. Our study encompassed 15 Atta opaciceps colonies located in landscape patches with a gradient of forest cover from 8.7% to 87.8%, where we monitored...

Data from: Analysis of statistical correlations between properties of adaptive walks in fitness landscapes

Sandro M. Reia & Paulo R. A. Campos
The fitness landscape metaphor has been central in our way of thinking about adaptation. In this scenario, adaptive walks are an idealized dynamics that mimics the uphill movement of an evolving population towards a fitness peak of the landscape. Recent works in experimental evolution have demonstrated that the constraints imposed by epistasis are responsible for reducing the number of accessible mutational pathways towards fitness peaks. Here we exhaustively analyze the statistical properties of adaptive walks...

Data from: The evolution of polymorphism in the warning coloration of the Amazonian poison frog Adelphobates galactonotus

Diana Rojas, Paolo Momigliano, Albertina Pimentel Lima, Pedro Ivo Simões, Rachel Y. Dudaniec, Teresa C. S. Avila-Pires, Marinus S. Hoogmoed, Youszef O. C. Bitar, Igor Luis Kaefer, Adolfo Amézquita & Adam Stow
While intraspecific variation in aposematic signals can be selected for by different predatory responses, their evolution is also contingent on other processes shaping genetic variation. We evaluate the relative contributions of selection, geographic isolation and random genetic drift to the evolution of aposematic color polymorphism in the poison frog Adelphobates galactonotus, distributed throughout eastern Brazilian Amazonia. Dorsal coloration was measured for 111 individuals and genetic data were obtained from 220 individuals at two mitochondrial genes...

Data from: Plant protection services mediated by extrafloral nectaries decline with aridity but are not influenced by chronic anthropogenic disturbance in Brazilian Caatinga

Fernanda Oliveira, Talita Câmara, José Israel Durval, Caroline Oliveira, Xavier Arnan, Alan Andersen, Elâine Dos Santos Ribeiro & Inara Leal
1. Most terrestrial species occur in human-modified landscapes that are experiencing climate change. In addition to direct impacts on species, both anthropogenic disturbance and climate change can have important effects through changes in species interactions, including the disruption of ecological services provided by them. 2. Here we investigate how chronic anthropogenic disturbance (CAD) and aridity affect the effectiveness of plant protection services provided by ants to plants bearing extrafloral nectaries (EFNs). 3. The study was...

The influence of biogeographical and evolutionary histories on morphological trait-matching and resource specialization in mutualistic hummingbird-plant networks

Bo Dalsgaard, Pietro Maruyama, Jesper Sonne, Katrine Hansen, Thais Zanata, Stefan Abrahamczyk, Ruben Alarcon, Andréa Araujo, Francielle Araújo, Silvana Buzato, Edgar Chávez-González, Aline Coelho, Pete Cotton, Román Díaz-Valenzuela, Maria Dufke, Paula Enríquez, Manoel Martins Dias Filho, Erich Fischer, Glauco Kohler, Carlos Lara, Flor Maria Las-Casas, Liliana Rosero Lasprilla, Adriana Machado, Caio Machado, Maria Maglianesi … & Ana M. Martín González
Functional traits can determine pairwise species interactions, such as those between plants and pollinators. However, the effects of biogeography and evolutionary history on trait-matching and trait-mediated resource specialization remain poorly understood. We compiled a database of 93 mutualistic hummingbird-plant networks (including 181 hummingbird and 1,256 plant species), complemented by morphological measures of hummingbird bill and floral corolla length. We divided the hummingbirds into their principal clades and used knowledge on hummingbird biogeography to divide the...

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