53 Works

Neutral and adaptive loci reveal fine-scale population structure in Eleginops maclovinus from North Patagonia

Cristian B. Canales-Aguirre, Wesley A. Larson, Garret J. McKinney, C. Eliza Claure, J. Dellis Rocha, Santiago G. Ceballos, Maria I. Cádiz, José M. Yáñez & Daniel Gómez-Uchida
Patagonia is an understudied area, especially when it comes to population genomic studies with relevance to fishery management. However, the dynamic and heterogeneous landscape in this area can harbor important but cryptic genetic population structure. Once such information is revealed, it can be integrated into the management of infrequently investigated species. Eleginops maclovinus is a protandrous hermaphrodite species with economic importance for local communities that is currently managed as a single genetic unit. In this...

Data from: Genomic predictions and genome-wide association study of resistance against Piscirickettsia salmonis in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) using ddRAD sequencing

Agustin Barría, Kris A. Christensen, Grazyella M. Yoshida, Katharina Correa, Ana Jedlicki, Jean Paul Lhorente, William S. Davidson & José Manuel Yáñez
Piscirickettsia salmonis is one of the main infectious diseases affecting coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) farming, and current treatments have been ineffective for the control of this disease. Genetic improvement for P. salmonis resistance has been proposed as a feasible alternative for the control of this infectious disease in farmed fish. Genotyping by sequencing (GBS) strategies allow genotyping of hundreds of individuals with thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which can be used to perform genome...

Data from: A comprehensive transcriptome of early development in yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi)

Alok Patel, Phillip Dettleff, Eric Hernández, Victor Martinez & E. Hernandez
Seriola lalandi is an ecologically and economically important species that is globally distributed in temperate and subtropical marine waters. The aim of this study was to identify large numbers of genic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and differential gene expression (DGE) related to the early development of normal and deformed S. lalandi larvae using high-throughput RNA-seq data. A de novo assembly of reads generated 40 066 genes ranging from 300 bases to 64 799 bases with...

Data from: Differences in endophyte communities of introduced trees depend on the phylogenetic relatedness of the receiving forest

Michael J. Gundale, Juan P. Almeida, Håkan Wallander, David A. Wardle, Paul Kardol, Marie-Charlotte Nilsson Hegethorn, Alex Fajardo, Anibal Pauchard, Duane A. Peltzer, Seppo Ruotsalainen, Bill Mason, Nicholas Rosenstock & Marie-Charlotte Nilsson
Plant species sometimes perform extraordinarily well when introduced to new environments, through achieving higher growth rates, individual biomasses or higher densities in their receiving communities compared to their native range communities. One hypothesis proposed to explain enhanced performance in species’ new environments is that their soil microbial communities may be different and provide greater benefit than microbial communities encountered in species’ native environments. However, detailed descriptions of soil biota associated with species in both their...

Data from: The influence of the arid Andean high plateau on the phylogeography and population genetics of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) in South America

Juan Carlos Marín, Benito A. Gonzalez, Elie Poulin, Ciara S. Casey & Warren E. Johnson
A comprehensive study of the phylogeography and population genetics of the largest wild artiodactyl in the arid and cold-temperate South American environments, the guanaco (Lama guanicoe), was conducted to detail patterns of molecular genetic structure related with phylogeographic history, barriers to gene flow, to describe and contrast the evolutionary history and patterns of gene flow among populations. Analyses of 514 bp of mtDNA sequence and 14 biparentally-inherited microsatellite markers of 314 individuals from 17 localities...

Data from: Variation in fine-scale genetic structure and local dispersal patterns between peripheral populations of a South American passerine bird

Esteban Botero-Delgadillo, Verónica Quirici, Yanina Poblete, Élfego Cuevas, Sylvia Kuhn, Alexander Girg, Kim Teltscher, Elie Poulin, Bart Kempenaers & Rodrigo A. Vasquez
The distribution of suitable habitat influences natal and breeding dispersal at small spatial scales, resulting in strong micro-geographic genetic structure. Although environmental variation can promote inter-population differences in dispersal behavior and local spatial patterns, the effects of distinct ecological conditions on within-species variation in dispersal strategies and in fine-scale genetic structure remain poorly understood. We studied local dispersal and fine-scale genetic structure in the thorn-tailed rayadito (Aphrastura spinicauda), a South American bird that breeds along...

Data from: Evolutionary diversity in tropical tree communities peaks at intermediate precipitation

Danilo M. Neves, Kyle G. Dexter, Timothy R. Baker, Fernanda Coelho De Souza, Ary T. Oliveira-Filho, Luciano P. Queiroz, Haroldo C. Lima, Marcelo F. Simon, Gwilym P. Lewis, Ricardo A. Segovia, Luzmila Arroyo, Carlos Reynel, José L. Marcelo-Peña, Isau Huamantupa-Chuquimaco, Daniel Villarroel, G. Alexander Parada, Aniceto Daza, Reynaldo Linares-Palomino, Leandro V. Ferreira, Rafael P. Salomão, Geovane S. Siqueira, Marcelo T. Nascimento, Claudio N. Fraga & R. Toby Pennington
Global patterns of species and evolutionary diversity in plants are primarily determined by a temperature gradient, but precipitation gradients may be more important within the tropics, where plant species richness is positively associated with the amount of rainfall. The impact of precipitation on the distribution of evolutionary diversity, however, is largely unexplored. Here we detail how evolutionary diversity varies along precipitation gradients by bringing together a comprehensive database on the composition of angiosperm tree communities...

Data from: Scale-dependent responses of pollination and seed dispersal mutualisms in a habitat transformation scenario

Francisco E. Fontúrbel, Pedro Jordano & Rodrigo Medel
Transformed habitats are the result of deliberate replacement of native species by an exotic monoculture, involving changes in biotic and abiotic conditions. Despite this, transformed habitats are becoming more common and constitute a major biodiversity change driver, little is known about the scale-dependent responses of plant-animal mutualisms. Aiming to test the multi-scale responses of pollination and seed dispersal in a habitat transformation scenario, we examined a gradient of native and transformed habitats at three spatial...

Data from: Extinction and recolonization of maritime Antarctica in the limpet Nacella concinna (Strebel, 1908) during the last glacial cycle: toward a model of Quaternary biogeography in shallow Antarctic invertebrates

Claudio A. González-Wevar, Thomas Saucède, Simon A. Morley, Steven L. Chown & Elie Poulin
Quaternary glaciations in Antarctica drastically modified geographical ranges and population sizes of marine benthic invertebrates and thus affected the amount and distribution of intraspecific genetic variation. Here, we present new genetic information in the Antarctic limpet Nacella concinna, a dominant Antarctic benthic species along shallow ice-free rocky ecosystems. We examined the patterns of genetic diversity and structure in this broadcast spawner along maritime Antarctica and from the peri-Antarctic island of South Georgia. Genetic analyses showed...

Data from: Plastic responses contribute to explaining altitudinal and temporal variation in potential flower longevity in high Andean Rhodolirion montanum

Diego Andrés Pacheco, Leah S. Dudley, Josefina Cabezas, Lohengrin A. Cavieres & Mary T. K. Arroyo
The tendency for flower longevity to increase with altitude is believed by many alpine ecologists to play an important role in compensating for low pollination rates at high altitudes due to cold and variable weather conditions. However, current studies documenting an altitudinal increase in flower longevity in the alpine habitat derive principally from studies on open-pollinated flowers where lower pollinator visitation rates at higher altitudes will tend to lead to flower senescence later in the...

Data from: Decoupled evolution of foliar freezing resistance, temperature-niche and morphological leaf traits in Chilean Myrceugenia

Fernanda Pérez, Luis Felipe Hinojosa, Carmen Gloria Ossa, Francisa Campano & Francisca Campano
1. Phylogenetic conservatism of tolerance to freezing temperatures has been cited to explain the tendency of plant lineages to grow in similar climates. However there is little information about whether or not freezing resistance is conserved across phylogenies, and whether conservatism of physiological traits could explain conservatism of realized climatic niches. Here we compared the phylogenetical lability of realized climatic niche, foliar freezing resistance, and four morphological leaf traits that are generally considered adaptations to...

Data from: Complementarity of statistical treatments to reconstruct worldwide routes of invasion: the case of the Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis

Eric Lombaert, Thomas Guillemaud, Jonathan Lundgren, Robert Koch, Benoît Facon, Audrey Grez, Antoon Loomans, Thibaut Malausa, Oldrich Nedved, Emma Rhule, Arnstein Staverlokk, Tove Steenberg & Arnaud Estoup
Inferences about introduction histories of invasive species remain challenging because of the stochastic demographic processes involved. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) can help to overcome these problems, but such method requires a prior understanding of population structure over the study area, necessitating the use of alternative methods and an intense sampling design. In this study, we made inferences about the worldwide invasion history of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis by various population genetics statistical methods, using a...

Data from: Comparing genomic signatures of domestication in two Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) populations with different geographical origins

Maria E. Lopez, Laura Benestan, Jean-Sebastien Moore, Charles Perrier, John Gilbey, Alex Di Genova, Alejandro Maass, Diego Díaz, Jean-Paul Lhorente, Katharina Correa, Roberto Neira, Louis Bernatchez & José M. Yáñez
Selective breeding and genetic improvement have left detectable signatures on the genomes of domestic species. The elucidation of such signatures is fundamental for detecting genomic regions of biological relevance to domestication and improving management practices. In aquaculture, domestication was carried out independently in different locations worldwide, which provides opportunities to study the parallel effects of domestication on the genome of individuals that have been selected for similar traits. In the present study, we aimed to...

Data from: Assessing the effects of human activities on the foraging opportunities of migratory shorebirds in Austral high-latitude bays

Juan G. Navedo, Claudio Verdugo, Ignacio Rodríguez-Jorquera, Jose M. Abad-Gómez, Cristián G. Suazo, Luis E. Castañeda, Valeria Araya, Jorge Ruiz & Jorge S. Gutiérrez
Human presence at intertidal areas could impact coastal biodiversity, including migratory waterbird species and the ecosystem services they provide. Assessing this impact is therefore essential to develop management measures compatible with migratory processes and associated biodiversity. Here, we assess the effects of human presence on the foraging opportunities of Hudsonian godwits (Limosa haemastica, a trans-hemispheric migratory shorebird) during their non-breeding season on Chiloé Island, southern Chile. We compared bird density and time spent foraging in...

Influence of the haemosporidian Leucocytozoon spp. over reproductive output in a wild Neotropical passerine, the Thorn-tailed Rayadito Aphrastura spinicauda

Elfego Cuevas, Carolina Orellana-Peñailillo, Esteban Botero-Delgadillo, Pamela Espíndola-Hernández, Rodrigo A. Vásquez & Verónica Quirici
Life-history theory predicts that hosts may adjust the costs of parasites by altering their reproductive effort. Haemosporidian parasites can affect the reproductive output of wild birds in multiple ways. Thorn-tailed Rayaditos Aphrastura spinicauda breeding in Navarino Island, Southern Chile (55°-40° S) experience high prevalence of the haemosporidian Leucocytozoon spp., which opens the possibility of exploring how these parasites may affect reproductive output in a Neotropical bird species. We compared several variables describing reproductive output (laying...

Socioeconomic status affects the incidence of COVID-19 in Chilean multiple sclerosis patients

Carlos Guevara
Objective: To investigate the frequency of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in patients with multiple sclerosis (pwMSs) living in a high socioeconomic vulnerability area in Chile. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, we compared the frequency of COVID-19 in 52 Chilean pwMSs on disease-modifying treatments (DMTs), living in urban municipalities with low-income/high-poverty levels, with that previously reported in pwMSs living in municipalities with high-income/low-poverty rates in Santiago, Chile. Demographic and clinical features of the pwMSs were obtained...

Data from: The oldest, slowest forests in the world? Exceptional biomass and slow carbon dynamics of Fitzroya cupressoides temperate rainforests in southern Chile

Rocio B. Urrutia-Jalabert, Yadvinder Malhi, Antonio Lara & Rocio Urrutia-Jalabert
Old-growth temperate rainforests are, per unit area, the largest and most long-lived stores of carbon in the terrestrial biosphere, but their carbon dynamics have rarely been described. The endangered Fitzroya cupressoides forests of southern South America include stands that are probably the oldest dense forest stands in the world, with long-lived trees and high standing biomass. We assess and compare aboveground biomass, and provide the first estimates of net primary productivity (NPP), carbon allocation and...

Data from: The most effective pollinator principle applies to new invasive pollinators

Rodrigo Medel, Catalina Gonzalez-Browne, Daniela Salazar, Pedro Ferrer & Mildred Ehrenfeld
G.L. Stebbins’ most effective pollinator principle states that when pollinators are not limiting, plants are expected to specialize and adapt to the more abundant and effective pollinator species available. In this study, we quantify the effectiveness of bees, hummingbirds and hawkmoths in a Chilean population of Erythranthe lutea (Phrymaceae), and examine whether flower traits are subject to pollinator-mediated selection by the most effective pollinator species during two consecutive years. Unlike most species in the pollinator...

Data from: An integrative approach to understanding the evolution and diversity of Copiapoa (Cactaceae), a threatened endemic Chilean genus from the Atacama Desert

Isabel Larridon, Helmut E. Walter, Pablo C. Guerrero, Milén Duarte, Mauricio A. Cisternas, Carol Peña Hernández, Kenneth Bauters, Pieter Asselman, Paul Goetghebeur & Marie-Stéphanie Samain
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Species of the endemic Chilean cactus genus Copiapoa have cylindrical or (sub)globose stems that are solitary or form (large) clusters and typically yellow flowers. Many species are threatened with extinction. Despite being icons of the Atacama Desert and well loved by cactus enthusiasts, the evolution and diversity of Copiapoa has not yet been studied using a molecular approach. METHODS: Sequence data of three plastid DNA markers (rpl32-trnL, trnH-psbA, ycf1) of 39...

Data from: Thorson’s rule, life history evolution and diversification of benthic octopuses (Cephalopoda: Octopodoidea)

Christian M. Ibáñez, Enrico L. Rezende, Roger D. Sepúlveda, Jorge Avaria-Llautureo, Cristián E. Hernández, Javier Sellanes, Elie Poulin & María Cecilia Pardo-Gandarillas
Here we evaluate the so-called Thorson’s rule, which posits that direct-development and larger eggs are favored towards the poles in marine organisms and whose validity been the subject of considerable debate in the literature, combining an expanded phenotypic dataset encompassing 60 species of benthic octopuses with a new molecular phylogeny. Phylogenetic reconstruction shows two clades: clade 1 including species of the families Eledonidae, Megaleledonidae, Bathypolypodidae and Enteroctopodidae, and clade 2 including species of Octopodidae. Egg...

Data from: Unveiling current guanaco distribution in Chile based upon niche structure of phylogeographic lineages: Andean puna to subpolar forests

Benito A. González, Horacio Samaniego, Juan Carlos Marín & Cristián F. Estades
Niche description and differentiation at broad geographic scales have been recent major topics in ecology and evolution. Describing the environmental niche structure of sister taxa with known evolutionary trajectories stands out as a useful exercise in understanding niche requirements. Here we model the environmental niche structure and distribution of the recently resolved phylogeography of guanaco (Lama guanicoe) lineages on the western slope of the southern Andes. Using a maximum entropy framework, field data, and information...

Data from: Coordinated species importation policies are needed to reduce serious invasions globally: the case of alien bumblebees in South America

Marcelo A. Aizen, Cecilia Smith-Ramirez, Carolina L. Morales, Lorena Vieli, Agustín Sáez, Rodrigo M. Barahona-Segovia, Marina P. Arbetman, José Montalva, Lucas A. Garibaldi, David W. Inouye & Lawrence D. Harder
The global trade of species promotes diverse human activities but also facilitates the introduction of potentially invasive species into new environments. As species ignore national boundaries, unilateral national decisions concerning species trade set the stage for transnational species invasion with significant conservation, economic and political consequences. The need for a coordinated approach to species importation policies is demonstrated by the introduction of two bumblebee species into Chile for crop pollination, despite Argentina banning commercial importation...

Data from: Testing the effects of heterozygosity on growth rate plasticity in the seaweed Gracilaria chilensis (Rhodophyta)

Cristobal F. Gallegos Sanchez, Jessica Beltrán, Verónica Flores, Alejandra V. González & Bernabé Santelices
Heterozygosity has been positively associated with fitness and population survival. However, the relationship between heterozygosity and adaptive phenotypic plasticity (i.e., plasticity which results in fitness homeostasis or improvement in changing environments), is unclear and has been poorly explored in seaweeds. In this study, we explored this relationship in the clonal red seaweed, Gracilaria chilensis by conducting three growth rate plasticity experiments under contrasting salinity conditions and by measuring heterozygosity with five microsatellite DNA markers. Firstly,...

Data from: Resolving the Northern Hemisphere source region for the long-distance dispersal event that gave rise to the South American endemic dung moss Tetraplodon fuegianus

Lily Lewis, Elisabeth M. Biersma, Sarah B. Carey, Kent Holsinger, Stuart F. McDaniel, Ricardo Rozzi, Bernard Goffinet & Lily R. Lewis
Premise of the study—American bipolar plant distributions characterize taxa at various taxonomic ranks but are most common in the bryophytes at infraspecific and infrageneric levels. A previous study on the bipolar disjunction in the dung moss genus Tetraplodon found that direct long-distance dispersal from North to South in the Miocene - Pleistocene accounted for the origin of the Southern American endemic Tetraplodon fuegianus, congruent with other molecular studies on bipolar bryophytes. The previous study, however,...

Data from: Ovule bet‐hedging at high elevation in the South American Andes: evidence from a phylogenetically‐controlled multispecies study

Mary T. K. Arroyo, Fernanda Perez, Paola Jara-Arancio, Diego Pacheco, Paula Vidal & María Francisca Flores
1. How animal‐pollinated plants support low and stochastic pollination in the high alpine is a key question in plant ecology. The ovule bet‐hedging hypothesis proposes compensation for stochastic pollination via ovule oversupply ín flowers allowing the benefits of windfall pollination events to be reaped. Under this hypothesis, ovule number is expected to increase from treeline upward on high mountains characterized by steep declines in flower visitation rates and increasingly more variable pollination. 2. Ovule/floret number...

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