118 Works

Data from: Ontogenetic shape trajectory of Trichomycterus areolatus varies in response to water velocity environment

Peter Searle, Margaret Mercer, Evelyn Habit & Mark Belk
Body and head shape among fishes both vary between environments influenced by water velocity and across ontogeny. Although the shape changes associated with variation in average water velocity and ontogeny are well documented, few studies have tested for the interaction between these two variables (i.e., does ontogenetic shape variation differ between velocity environments). We use geometric morphometrics to characterize shape differences in Trichomycterus areolatus, a freshwater catfish found in high and low-velocity environments in Chile....

Data from: Molecular phylogeny and phylogeography of the Australian freshwater fish genus Galaxiella, with an emphasis on dwarf Galaxias (G. pusilla)

Peter J. Unmack, Justin C. Bagley, Mark Adams, Michael P. Hammer & Jerald B. Johnson
The freshwater fauna of Southern Australia is primarily restricted to the southwestern and southeastern corners of the continent, and is separated by a large, arid region that is inhospitable to this biota. This geographic phenomenon has attracted considerable interest from biogeographers looking to explain evolutionary diversification in this region. Here, we employed phylogenetic and phylogeographic approaches to evaluate the effect of this barrier on a group of four galaxiid fish species (Galaxiella) endemic to temperate...

Data from: Decoupled responses of soil bacteria and their invertebrate consumer to warming, but not freeze-thaw cycles, in the Antarctic Dry Valleys

Matthew A. Knox, Walter S. Andriuzzi, Heather N. Buelow, Cristina Takacs-Vesbach, Byron J. Adams & Diana H. Wall
Altered temperature profiles resulting in increased warming and freeze–thaw cycle (FTC) frequency pose great ecological challenges to organisms in alpine and polar ecosystems. We performed a laboratory microcosm experiment to investigate how temperature variability affects soil bacterial cell numbers, and abundance and traits of soil microfauna (the microbivorous nematode Scottnema lindsayae) from McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica. FTCs and constant freezing shifted nematode body size distribution towards large individuals, driven by higher mortality among smaller individuals....

Data from: Hybridization could be a common phenomenon within the highly diverse lizard genus Liolaemus

Melisa Olave, Luciano J. Avila, , Mariana Morando & Jack W. Sites
Hybridization is likely to occur more often between closely related taxa that have had insufficient time to diverge to the point of reproductive incompatibility; hybridization between deeply divergent lineages is rare. In squamate reptiles, hybridization has been proposed as a possible explanation for the extensive paraphyly observed in mitochondrial gene trees in several species complexes of the South American lizard genus Liolaemus. One of the best-documented cases is within the L. boulengeri and L. rothi...

Data from: Residency time as an indicator of reproductive restraint in male burying beetles

Ashlee N. Smith, Mark C. Belk & J. Curtis Creighton
The cost of reproduction theory posits that there are trade-offs between current and future reproduction because resources that are allocated to current offspring cannot be used for future reproductive opportunities. Two adaptive reproductive strategies have been hypothesized to offset the costs of reproduction and maximize lifetime fitness. The terminal investment hypothesis predicts that as individuals age they will allocate more resources to current reproduction as a response to decreasing residual reproductive value. The reproductive restraint...

Data from: Testes mass in the livebearing fish Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora (Poeciliidae) varies hypoallometrically with body size but not between predation environments

Haley N. Brown, Brittany Herrod Gale, Jerald B. Johnson & Mark C. Belk
In this study, we considered potential causes of variation in testis size in the livebearing fish Brachyrhaphis rhabdophora. We evaluated variation in testes mass among individual males and among populations that occupy different selective environments. First, we predicted that small males should allocate more to testes mass than large males (i.e., hypoallometric pattern) based on a sperm competition argument. Second, based on life history theory and associated differences in mortality rates between populations that co-exist...

Data from: Divergence and diversification in North American Psoraleeae (Fabaceae) due to climate change

Ashley N. Egan & Keith A. Crandall
BACKGROUND: Past studies in the legume family (Fabaceae) have uncovered several evolutionary trends including differential mutation and diversification rates across varying taxonomic levels. The legume tribe Psoraleeae is shown herein to exemplify these trends at the generic and species levels. This group includes a sizable diversification within North America dated at approximately 6.3 million years ago with skewed species distribution to the most recently derived genus, Pediomelum, suggesting a diversification rate shift. We estimate divergence...

Data from: Climate oscillations, glacial refugia, and dispersal ability: factors influencing the genetic structure of the least salmonfly, Pteronarcella badia (Plecoptera), in Western North America

John S. Sproul, Derek D. Houston, C. Riley Nelson, R. Paul Evans, Keith A. Crandall & Dennis K. Shiozawa
Background: Phylogeographic studies of aquatic insects provide valuable insights into mechanisms that shape the genetic structure of communities, yet studies that include broad geographic areas are uncommon for this group. We conducted a broad scale phylogeographic analysis of the least salmonfly Pteronarcella badia (Plecoptera) across western North America. We tested hypotheses related to mode of dispersal and the influence of historic climate oscillations on population genetic structure. In order to generate a larger mitochondrial data...

Data from: Sampling strategies for delimiting species: genes, individuals, and populations in the Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex (Squamata: Liolaemidae) in Andean-Patagonian South America

Mariana Morando, Luciano J. Avila & Jack W Sites
Recovery of evolutionary history and delimiting species boundaries in widely distributed, poorly-known groups requires extensive geographic sampling, but this is difficult to design a priori because evolutionary diversity is often "hidden" by an inadequate taxonomy. Large data sets are needed, and these provide unique challenges for analysis when they span intra and inter-specific levels of divergence. Protocols have been designed to combine methods of analysis for DNA sequences that exhibit both very shallow and relatively...

Data from: Sympatry predicts spot pigmentation patterns and female association behavior in the livebearing fish Poeciliopsis baenschi

Andrea J. Roth-Monzón, Laura E. Scott, Ashley A. Camargo, Eliza I. Clark, Eric E. Schott & Jerald B. Johnson
In this study, we explored the possibility that differences in pigmentation patterns among populations of the fish Poeciliopsis baenschi were associated with the presence or absence of the closely related species P. turneri. If reproductive character displacement is responsible, spotting patterns in these two species should diverge in sympatry, but not allopatry. We predicted that female P. baenschi from sympatric sites should show a preference for associating with conspecifics vs. heterospecific males, but females from...

Data from: An artificial habitat facilitates a climate-mediated range expansion into a suboptimal novel ecosystem

Zachary J. Cannizzo & Blaine D. Griffen
Distribution Survey DataPresence/absence of A. pisonii during distribution surveysCrab Size DataSizes of all A. pisonii measured throughout study.Cold Tolerance DataData from cold tolerance experiment including temperature of death of each crab.Relative Abundance DataData from relative abundance study. Relative abundance of A. pisonii are expressed in Catch per Unit Effort (CPUE) in crabs caught per minute.Lethal Temperature Logger DataThermal logger data used to determine the number of days and hours spent under the lethal temperature 50...

Data from: The emergence of the lobsters: phylogenetic relationships, morphological evolution and divergence time comparisons of an ancient group (Decapoda: Achelata, Astacidea, Glypheidea, Polychelida)

Heather D. Bracken-Grissom, Shane T. Ahyong, Richard D. Wilkinson, Rodney M. Felmann, Carrie E. Schweitzer, Jesse W. Breinholt, Matthew Bendall, Ferran Palero, Tin-Yam Chan, Darryl L. Felder, Rafael Robles, Ka-Hou Chu, Ling-Ming Tsang, Dohyup Kim, Joel W. Martin, Keith A. Crandall & Rodney M. Feldmann
Lobsters are a ubiquitous and economically important group of decapod crustaceans that includes the infraorders Polychelida, Glypheidea, Astacidea and Achelata. They include familiar forms such as the spiny, slipper, clawed lobsters and crayfish and unfamiliar forms such as the deep-sea and “living fossil” species. The high degree of morphological diversity among these infraorders has led to a dynamic classification and conflicting hypotheses of evolutionary relationships. In this study, we estimated phylogenetic relationships amongst the major...

Data from: Assessing species boundaries using multilocus species delimitation in a morphologically conserved group of Neotropical freshwater fishes, the Poecilia sphenops species complex (Poeciliidae)

Justin C. Bagley, Fernando Alda, Maria Florencia Breitman, Eldredge Bermingham, Eric P. Van Den Berghe & Jerald B. Johnson
Accurately delimiting species is fundamentally important for understanding species diversity and distributions and devising effective strategies to conserve biodiversity. However, species delimitation is problematic in many taxa, including ‘non-adaptive radiations’ containing morphologically cryptic lineages. Fortunately, coalescent-based species delimitation methods hold promise for objectively estimating species limits in such radiations, using multilocus genetic data. Using coalescent-based approaches, we delimit species and infer evolutionary relationships in a morphologically conserved group of Central American freshwater fishes, the Poecilia...

Data from: Integrated analyses resolve conflicts over squamate reptile phylogeny and reveal unexpected placements for fossil taxa

Tod W. Reeder, Ted M. Townsend, Daniel G. Mulcahy, Brice P. Noonan, Perry L. Wood, , John J. Wiens & Jack W. Sites
Squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) are a pivotal group whose relationships have become increasingly controversial. Squamates include >9000 species, making them the second largest group of terrestrial vertebrates. They are important medicinally and as model systems for ecological and evolutionary research. However, studies of squamate biology are hindered by uncertainty over their relationships, and some consider squamate phylogeny unresolved, given recent conflicts between molecular and morphological results. To resolve these conflicts, we expand existing morphological...

Data from: Increased land use by Chukchi Sea polar bears in relation to changing sea ice conditions

Karyn D. Rode, Ryan R. Wilson, Eric V. Regehr, Michelle St. Martin, David C. Douglas & Jay Olson
Recent observations suggest that polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are increasingly using land habitats in some parts of their range, where they have minimal access to their preferred prey, likely in response to loss of their sea ice habitat associated with climatic warming. We used location data from female polar bears fit with satellite radio collars to compare land use patterns in the Chukchi Sea between two periods (1986–1995 and 2008–2013) when substantial summer sea-ice loss...

Data from: Conflicting evolutionary patterns due to mitochondrial introgression and multilocus phylogeography of the Patagonian freshwater crab Aegla neuquensis

Brian R. Barber, Jiawu Xu, Marcos Pérez-Losada, Carlos G. Jara & Keith A. Crandall
BACKGROUND: Multiple loci and population genetic methods were employed to study the phylogeographic history of the Patagonian freshwater crab Aegla neuquensis (Aeglidae: Decopoda). This taxon occurs in two large river systems in the Patagonian Steppe, from the foothills of the Andes Mountains east to the Atlantic Ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A nuclear phylogeny and multilocus nested clade phylogeographic analysis detected a fragmentation event between the Negro and Chico-Chubut river systems. This event occurred approximately 137 thousand...

Data from: Influence of introgression and geological processes on phylogenetic relationships of western North American mountain suckers (Pantosteus, Catostomidae)

Peter J. Unmack, Thomas E. Dowling, Nina J. Laitinen, Carol L. Secor, Richard L. Mayden, Dennis K. Shiozawa & Gerald R. Smith
Intense geological activity caused major topographic changes in Western North America over the past 15 million years. Major rivers here are composites of different ancient rivers, resulting in isolation and mixing episodes between river basins over time. This history influenced the diversification of most of the aquatic fauna. The genus Pantosteus is one of several clades centered in this tectonically active region. The eight recognized Pantosteus species are widespread and common across southwestern Canada, western...

Data from: Cross-biome metagenomic analyses of soil microbial communities and their functional attributes

Noah Fierer, Jonathan W. Leff, Byron J. Adams, Uffe N. Nielsen, Scott Thomas Bates, Christian L. Lauber, Sarah Owens, Jack A. Gilbert, Diana H. Wall & J. Gregory Caporaso
For centuries ecologists have studied how the diversity and functional traits of plant and animal communities vary across biomes. In contrast, we have only just begun exploring similar questions for soil microbial communities despite soil microbes being the dominant engines of biogeochemical cycles and a major pool of living biomass in terrestrial ecosystems. We used metagenomic sequencing to compare the composition and functional attributes of 16 soil microbial communities collected from cold deserts, hot deserts,...

Data from: Increased primary production from an exotic invader does not subsidize native rodents

Jacob E. Lucero, Phil S. Allen & Brock R. McMillan
Invasive plants have tremendous potential to enrich native food webs by subsidizing net primary productivity. Here, we explored how a potential food subsidy, seeds produced by the aggressive invader cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), is utilized by an important guild of native consumers – granivorous small mammals – in the Great Basin Desert, USA. In a series of field experiments we examined 1) how cheatgrass invasion affects the density and biomass of seed rain at the ecosystem-level;...

Data from: Loss of biotic resistance and high propagule pressure promote invasive grass-fire cycles

Sam B. St. Clair & Tara B.B. Bishop
1. The spread of invasive grasses across Earth are modifying fire cycles resulting in state changes in arid ecosystems. Disturbance, biotic resistance of native biological communities and propagule pressure, are likely important factors influencing the spread of invasive grasses and their influence on changing fire regimes. 2. Over a five-year period (2011-2016), we tested how the potential loss of biotic resistance of native plant and native rodent communities related to fire and rodent exclusion treatments,...

Data from: Plant uptake offsets silica release from a large Arctic tundra wildfire

Joanna C. Carey, Benjamin W. Abbott & Adrian V. Rocha
Rapid climate change at high latitudes is projected to increase wildfire extent in tundra ecosystems by up to five-fold by the end of the century. Tundra wildfire could alter terrestrial silica (SiO2) cycling by restructuring surface vegetation and by deepening the seasonally-thawed active layer. These changes could influence the availability of silica in terrestrial permafrost ecosystems and alter lateral exports to downstream marine waters, where silica is often a limiting nutrient. In this context, we...

Data from: Species delimitation with ABC and other coalescent-based methods: a test of accuracy with simulations and an empirical example with lizards of the Liolaemus darwinii complex (Squamata: Liolaemidae)

Arley Camargo, Mariana Morando, Luciano Javier Avila &
Species delimitation is a major research focus in evolutionary biology because accurate species boundaries are a prerequisite for the study of speciation. New species delimitation methods (SDMs) can accommodate non-monophyletic species and gene tree discordance as a result of incomplete lineage sorting via the coalescent model, but do not explicitly accommodate gene flow after divergence. Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) can incorporate gene flow and estimate other relevant parameters of the speciation process while testing alternative...

Data from: Quaternary range and demographic expansion of Liolaemus darwinii (Squamata: Liolaemidae) in the Monte Desert of Central Argentina using Bayesian phylogeography and ecological niche modelling

Arley Camargo, Fernanda P. Werneck, Mariana Morando, , Luciano J. Avila & Jack W. Sites
Until recently, most phylogeographic approaches have been unable to distinguish between demographic and range expansion processes, making it difficult to test for the possibility of range expansion without population growth and vice versa. In this study, we applied a Bayesian phylogeographic approach to reconstruct both demographic and range expansion in the lizard Liolaemus darwinii of the Monte Desert in Central Argentina, during the Late Quaternary. Based on analysis of 14 anonymous nuclear loci and the...

Data from: Selection is stronger in early-versus-late stages of divergence in a Neotropical livebearing fish

Spencer J. Ingley & Jerald B. Johnson
How selection acts to drive trait evolution at different stages of divergence is of fundamental importance in our understanding of the origins of biodiversity. Yet, most studies have focused on a single point along an evolutionary trajectory. Here, we provide a case study evaluating the strength of divergent selection acting on life-history traits at early-versus-late stages of divergence in Brachyrhaphis fishes. We find that the difference in selection is stronger in the early-diverged population than...

Data from: Why does it take two to tango? lifetime fitness consequences of parental care in a burying beetle

Ashlee N. Smith, J. Curtis Creighton & Mark C. Belk
In species that require parental care, each parent can either care for their offspring or leave them in the care of the other parent. For each parent this creates three possible parental care strategies: biparental care, uniparental (male or female) care, and uniparental desertion by either the male or female. The burying beetle, Nicrophorus orbicollis, typically exhibits biparental care of offspring, and thus provides a unique system that allows us to compare the fitness benefits...

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  • Brigham Young University
  • Chinese Academy of Sciences
  • National Evolutionary Synthesis Center
  • University of Adelaide
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  • National Autonomous University of Mexico
  • University of South Carolina
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  • University of Kansas
  • New Mexico State University