118 Works

Data from: Does hybridization drive the transition to asexuality in diploid Boechera?

James Benjamin Beck, Patrick J. Alexander, Loreen Allphin, Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, Catherine Rushworth, C. Donovan Bailey & Michael D. Windham
Gametophytic apomixis is a common form of asexual reproduction in plants. Virtually all gametophytic apomicts are polyploids, and some view polyploidy as a prerequisite for the transition to apomixis. However, any causal link between apomixis and polyploidy is complicated by the fact that most apomictic polyploids are allopolyploids, leading some to speculate that hybridization, rather than polyploidy, enables apomixis. Diploid apomixis presents a rare opportunity to isolate the role of hybridization, and a number of...

Data from: UV photoreceptors and UV-yellow wing pigments in Heliconius butterflies allow a color signal to serve both mimicry and intraspecific communication

Seth M. Bybee, Furong Yuan, Monica D. Ramstetter, Jorge Llorente-Bousquets, Robert D. Reed, Daniel Osorio & Adriana D. Briscoe
Mimetic wing coloration evolves in butterflies in the context of predator confusion. Unless butterfly eyes have adaptations for discriminating mimetic color variation, mimicry also carries a risk of confusion for the butterflies themselves. Heliconius butterfly eyes, which express recently duplicated UV opsins, have such an adaptation. To examine bird and butterfly color vision as sources of selection on butterfly coloration we studied yellow wing pigmentation in the tribe Heliconiini. We confirmed using reflectance and mass...

Data from: MycoDB, a global database of plant response to mycorrhizal fungi

V. Bala Chaudhary, Megan A. Rúa, Anita Antoninka, James D. Bever, Jeffery Cannon, Ashley Craig, Jessica Duchicela, Alicia Frame, Monique Gardes, Catherine Gehring, Michelle Ha, Miranda Hart, Jacob Hopkins, Baoming Ji, Nancy Collins Johnson, Wittaya Kaonongbua, Justine Karst, Roger T. Koide, Louis J. Lamit, James Meadow, Brook G. Milligan, John C. Moore, , Bridget Piculell, Blake Ramsby … & Jason D. Hoeksema
Plants form belowground associations with mycorrhizal fungi in one of the most common symbioses on Earth. However, few large-scale generalizations exist for the structure and function of mycorrhizal symbioses, as the nature of this relationship varies from mutualistic to parasitic and is largely context-dependent. We announce the public release of MycoDB, a database of 4,010 studies (from 438 unique publications) to aid in multi-factor meta-analyses elucidating the ecological and evolutionary context in which mycorrhizal fungi...

Data from: Do freshwater ecoregions and continental shelf width predict patterns of historical gene flow in the freshwater fish Poecilia butleri?

J. Jaime Zúñiga-Vega, Spencer J. Ingley, Peter J. Unmack & Jerald B. Johnson
We examined historical patterns of gene flow in the freshwater fish Poecilia butleri in western Mexico. We tested the hypothesis that the boundaries between four freshwater ecological communities (ecoregions) might have limited the movement of P. butleri because changes in species compositions might restrict establishment between adjacent ecoregions, even in situations where a physical barrier is absent. Hence, we predicted that boundaries between ecoregions should correspond to phylogeographical breaks in P. butleri. We also tested...

Data from: Phylogenetic relationships within the lizard clade Xantusiidae: using trees and divergence times to address evolutionary questions at multiple levels

Brice P. Noonan, Jennifer B. Pramuk, Robert L. Bezy, Elizabeth A. Sinclair, Kevin De Queiroz, & Jack W. Sites
Xantusiidae (night lizards) is a clade of small-bodied, cryptic lizards endemic to the New World. The clade is characterized by several features that would benefit from interpretation in a phylogenetic context, including: (1) monophyletic status of extant taxa Cricosaura, Lepidophyma, and Xantusia; (2) a species endemic to Cuba (Cricosaura typica) of disputed age; (3) origins of the parthenogenetic species of Lepidophyma; (4) pronounced micro-habitat differences accompanied by distinct morphologies in both Xantusia and Lepidophyma; and...

Episodic occurrence of favorable weather constrains recovery of a cold desert shrubland after fire

Alexandra Urza, Peter Weisberg, David Board, Jeanne Chambers, Stanley Kitchen & Bruce Roundy
1. Key to the long-term resilience of dryland ecosystems is the recovery of foundation plant species following disturbance. In ecosystems with high interannual weather variability, understanding the influence of short-term environmental conditions on establishment of foundation species is essential for identifying vulnerable landscapes and developing restoration strategies. We asked how annual environmental conditions affect post-fire establishment of Artemisia tridentata, a shrub species that dominates landscapes across much of the western United States, and evaluated the...

Herbicide effects on the establishment of a native bunchgrass in annual grass invaded areas: Indaziflam vs. imazapic

Tyson Terry, Matthew Madsen, Samuel St Clair, Val Anderson & Richard Gill
Annual grass invasion is transforming the western US and driving a need for restoration techniques that can both reduce exotic annual grass abundance and allow revegetation of native species. Pre-emergent herbicides can provide control of annual grasses, but when applied concurrently with direct seeding efforts, the herbicide can also impact seeded species. Indaziflam is a relatively new herbicide that may provide extended control of exotic annual grasses, but little is known about its effects when...

Summer land surface temperature from MODIS Aqua and Terra satellites for Houston in 2014 and Phoenix in 2003 at 1km resolution

Gavin Collins, Leiqiu Hu & Matthew Heaton
Satellite remote-sensing is used to collect important atmospheric and geophysical data at various spatial resolutions, providing insight into spatiotemporal surface and climate variability globally. These observations are often plagued with missing spatial and temporal information of Earth’s surface due to (1) cloud cover at the time of a satellite passing and (2) infrequent passing of polar-orbiting satellites. While many methods are available to model missing data in space and time, in the case of land...

Artificial nightlight alters the predator-prey dynamics of an apex carnivore

Mark Ditmer, David Stoner, Clinton D. Francis, Jesse Barber, James Forester, David Choate, Kirsten Ironside, Kathleen Longshore, Kent Hersey, Randy Larsen, Brock McMillan, Daniel Olson, Alyson Andreasen, Jon Beckmann, Brandon Holton, Terry Messmer & Neil Carter
Artificial nightlight is increasingly recognized as an important environmental disturbance that influences the habitats and fitness of numerous species. However, its effects on wide-ranging vertebrates and their interactions remain unclear. Light pollution has the potential to amplify land-use change, and as such, answering the question of how this sensory stimulant affects behavior and habitat use of species valued for their ecological roles and economic impacts is critical for conservation and land-use planning. Here, we combined...

Carpophiline-ID: An interactive matrix-based key to the carpophiline sap beetles (Coleoptera, Nitidulidae) of Eastern North America

Courtney DiLorenzo, Gareth Powell, Andrew Cline & Joseph McHugh
We present Carpophiline-ID, a matrix-based LucidTM key, for the adult stage of the known species of Carpophilinae (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae) of North America, east of the Mississippi River. We provide an overview of the features and technical specifications used to build the key. The list of terminal taxa used in the key represents the most current regional account for Carpophilinae, a beetle subfamily of agricultural and ecological importance. We discuss the value of matrix-based, free access...

Nematode parasites of rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and cod (Gadus spp.) from waters near Kodiak Island Alaska, USA

Mark Belk, Mehmet Oguz, Samuel Bennett & Andrea Campbell
Distribution and abundance of common parasitic nematodes in marine fishes is not well documented in many geographic regions. Understanding the influence of large-scale environmental changes on infection rates of fish by nematodes requires quantitative assessments of parasite abundance for multiple host species. We collected samples of two species of cod and eight species of rockfish (total of 232 specimens) from waters near Kodiak Island, Alaska, USA during Spring and Summer of 2015, and dissected and...

Reproductive allocation in Nicrophorus maliger and Nicrophorus guttula

Mark Belk, Peter Meyers & J. Curtis Creighton
Abstract: The cost of reproduction hypothesis suggests that allocation to current reproduction constrains future reproduction. How organisms accrue reproductive costs and allocate energy across their lifetime may differ among species adapted to different resource types. We test this by comparing lifetime reproductive output, patterns of reproductive allocation, and senescence between two species of burying beetles, Nicrophorus marginatus and N. guttula, that differ in body size, across a range of carcass sizes. These two species of...

Data from: Species boundaries in the messy middle – testing the hypothesis of micro-endemism in a recently diverged lineage of coastal fog desert lichen fungi

Steven Leavitt
Species delimitation among closely related species is challenging because traditional phenotype-based approaches, e.g., morphology, ecological, or chemical characteristics, often produce conflicting results. With the advent of high-throughput sequencing, it has become increasingly cost-effective to acquire genome-scale data which can resolve previously ambiguous species boundaries. As the availability of genome-scale data has increased, numerous species delimitation analyses, such as BPP and SNAPP+Bayes factor delimitation (BFD*), have been developed to delimit species boundaries. However, even empirical molecular...

Data from: Biogeography of the livebearing fish Poecilia gillii in Costa Rica: are phylogeographic breaks congruent with fish community boundaries?

Jared Lee & Jerald Johnson
One of the original goals of phylogeography was to use genetic data to identify historical events that might contribute to breaks among communities. In this study, we examine the phylogeography of a common livebearing fish (Poecilia gillii) from Costa Rica. Our goal was to determine if phylogeographic breaks in this species were congruent with previously-defined boundaries among four fish community provinces. We hypothesized that if abiotic factors influence both community boundaries and genetic structuring in...

Data from: Sampling strategies for delimiting species: genes, individuals, and populations in the Liolaemus elongatus-kriegi complex (Squamata: Liolaemidae) in Andean-Patagonian South America

Mariana Morando, Luciano J. Avila & Jack W Sites
Recovery of evolutionary history and delimiting species boundaries in widely distributed, poorly-known groups requires extensive geographic sampling, but this is difficult to design a priori because evolutionary diversity is often "hidden" by an inadequate taxonomy. Large data sets are needed, and these provide unique challenges for analysis when they span intra and inter-specific levels of divergence. Protocols have been designed to combine methods of analysis for DNA sequences that exhibit both very shallow and relatively...

Data from: UV photoreceptors and UV-yellow wing pigments in Heliconius butterflies allow a color signal to serve both mimicry and intraspecific communication

Seth M. Bybee, Furong Yuan, Monica D. Ramstetter, Jorge Llorente-Bousquets, Robert D. Reed, Daniel Osorio & Adriana D. Briscoe
Mimetic wing coloration evolves in butterflies in the context of predator confusion. Unless butterfly eyes have adaptations for discriminating mimetic color variation, mimicry also carries a risk of confusion for the butterflies themselves. Heliconius butterfly eyes, which express recently duplicated UV opsins, have such an adaptation. To examine bird and butterfly color vision as sources of selection on butterfly coloration we studied yellow wing pigmentation in the tribe Heliconiini. We confirmed using reflectance and mass...

Data from: Does hybridization drive the transition to asexuality in diploid Boechera?

James Benjamin Beck, Patrick J. Alexander, Loreen Allphin, Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz, Catherine Rushworth, C. Donovan Bailey & Michael D. Windham
Gametophytic apomixis is a common form of asexual reproduction in plants. Virtually all gametophytic apomicts are polyploids, and some view polyploidy as a prerequisite for the transition to apomixis. However, any causal link between apomixis and polyploidy is complicated by the fact that most apomictic polyploids are allopolyploids, leading some to speculate that hybridization, rather than polyploidy, enables apomixis. Diploid apomixis presents a rare opportunity to isolate the role of hybridization, and a number of...

Data from: Phylogeography of the catfish Hatcheria macraei reveals a negligible role of drainage divides in structuring populations

Peter J. Unmack, Juan P. Barriga, Miguel A. Battini, Evelyn M. Habit & Jerald B. Johnson
Southern South America provides a set of unusual geographic features that make it particularly interesting for studying phylogeography. The Andes Mountains run along a north-to-south axis and act as a barrier to gene flow for much of the biota of this region, with southern portions experiencing extensive historic glaciation. Geological data reveal a series of drainage reversals, shifting from Pacific Ocean outlets to Atlantic Ocean outlets due to glacier formation that dammed and reversed rivers....

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