190 Works

Data from: Phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution contribute to advancing flowering phenology in response to climate change

Jill T. Anderson, David W. Inouye, Amy M. McKinney, Robert I. Colautti & Thomas Mitchell-Olds
Anthropogenic climate change has already altered the timing of major life history transitions, such as the initiation of reproduction. Both phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution can underlie rapid phenological shifts in response to climate change but their relative contributions are poorly understood. Here, we combine a continuous 38-year field survey with quantitative genetic field experiments to assess adaptation in the context of climate change. We focused on Boechera stricta (Brassicaeae), a mustard native to the...

Data from: Vegetation structure mediates a shift in predator avoidance behavior in a range-edge population

Cora A. Johnston & Rachel S. Smith
Where organisms encounter novel conditions during range expansion, behavioral changes suited to the new habitat can enhance survival. Behavioral changes that mitigate predation risk are particularly important for the persistence of range-edge populations, especially where plastic responses outpace genetic adaptation. We use a climate-driven spatial mismatch between the arboreal mangrove tree crab (Aratus pisonii) and its primary mangrove habitat to evaluate differences in predator avoidance behavior between populations in range-center mangroves and adjacent range-edge salt...

Data from: The effect of repeated, lethal sampling on wild bee abundance and diversity

Zachariah J. Gezon, Eli S. Wyman, John S. Ascher, David W. Inouye & Rebecca E. Irwin
1. Bee pollinators provide a critical ecosystem service to wild and agricultural plants but are reported to be declining world-wide due to anthropogenic change. Long-term data on bee abundance and diversity are scarce, and the need for additional quantitative sampling using repeatable methods has been emphasized. Recently, monitoring programmes have begun using a standardized method that employs a combination of pan traps and sweep netting, resulting in lethal sampling of bees. This standardized method can...

Data from: Lack of genetic isolation by distance, similar genetic structuring but different demographic histories in a fig-pollinating wasp mutualism

Enwei Tian, John D. Nason, Linna Zheng, Hui Yu, Finn Kjellberg & Carlos A. Machado
Historical abiotic factors such as climatic oscillations and extreme climatic events as well as biotic factors have shaped the structuring of species’ genetic diversity. In obligate species-specific mutualisms, the biogeographic histories of the interacting species are tightly linked. This could be particularly true for nuclear genes in the Ficus-pollinating wasp mutualistic association as the insects disperse pollen from their natal tree. In this study we compare spatial genetic structure of plant and pollinator for the...

Data from: Not as ubiquitous as we thought: taxonomic crypsis, hidden diversity and cryptic speciation in the cosmopolitan fungus Thelonectria discophora (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota)

Catalina Salgado-Salazar, Amy Y. Rossman & Priscila Chaverri
The distribution of microbial species, including fungi, has long been considered cosmopolitan. Recently, this perception has been challenged by molecular studies in historical biogeography, phylogeny and population genetics. Here we explore this issue using the fungal morphological species Thelonectria discophora, one of the most common species of fungi in the family Nectriaceae, encountered in almost all geographic regions and considered as a cosmopolitan taxon. In order to determine if T. discophora is a single cosmopolitan...

Data from: Variable light environments induce plastic spectral tuning by regional opsin coexpression in the African cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra

Brian E. Dalton, Jessica Lu, Jeff Leips, Thomas W. Cronin & Karen L. Carleton
Critical behaviours such as predation and mate choice often depend on vision. Visual systems are sensitive to the spectrum of light in their environment, which can vary extensively both within and among habitats. Evolutionary changes in spectral sensitivity contribute to divergence and speciation. Spectral sensitivity of the retina is primarily determined by visual pigments, which are opsin proteins bound to a chromophore. We recently discovered that photoreceptors in different regions of the retina, which view...

Data from: Bayesian inference of a complex invasion history revealed by nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity in the colonizing plant, Silene latifolia

Stephen R. Keller, Kimberly J. Gilbert, Peter D. Fields & Douglas R. Taylor
Species invading new ranges are subject to a series of demographic events that can strongly shape genetic diversity. Describing this demographic history is important for understanding where invasive species come from and how they spread, and is critical to testing hypotheses of post-invasion adaptation. Here, we analyze nuclear and chloroplast genetic diversity to study the invasion history of the widespread colonizing weed, Silene latifolia (Caryophyllaceae). Bayesian clustering and PCA revealed strong population structure in the...

Data from: Environmental DNA analysis of river herring in Chesapeake Bay: a powerful tool for monitoring threatened keystone species

Louis V. Plough, Matthew B. Ogburn, Gabriella A. Marafino, Kimberly D. Richie, Catherine L. Fitzgerald & Rose Geranio
Environmental DNA (eDNA) sampling has emerged as a powerful tool to detect and quantify species abundance in aquatic environments. However, relatively few studies have compared the performance of eDNA-based abundance estimates to traditional catch or survey approaches in the field. Here, we have developed and field-tested a qPCR assay to detect eDNA from alewife and blueback herring (collectively known as ‘river herring’), comparing eDNA-based presence and abundance data to traditional methods of quantification (ichthyoplankton sampling...

Data from: Dolphins simplify their vocal calls in response to increased ambient noise

Leila Fouda, Jessica E. Wingfield, Amber D. Fandel, Aran Garrod, Kristin B. Hodge, Aaron N. Rice & Helen Bailey
Ocean noise varies spatially and temporally and is driven by natural and anthropogenic processes. Increased ambient noise levels can cause signal masking and communication impairment, affecting fitness and recruitment success. However, the effects of increasing ambient noise levels on marine species, such as marine mammals that primarily rely on sound for communication, are not well understood. We investigated the effects of concurrent ambient noise levels on social whistle calls produced by bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)...

Data from: Foraging strategies of generalist and specialist Old World nectar bats in response to temporally variable floral resources

Alyssa B. Stewart & Michele R. Dudash
Foraging theory predicts that generalist foragers should switch resources more readily, while specialist foragers should remain constant to preferred food resources. Plant-pollinator interactions provide a convenient system to test such predictions because floral resources are often temporally patchy, thus requiring long-lived pollinators to switch resources seasonally. Furthermore, flowering phenologies range from ‘steady-state’ (low-rewarding but highly reliable) to ‘big-bang’ (high-rewarding but ephemeral) plant species. We assessed how nectarivorous Old World bats respond to this temporally variable...

Data from: Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in neotropical forests

Maga Gei, Danaë M. A. Rozendaal, Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, Janet I. Sprent, Mira D. Garner, T. Mitchell Aide, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Pedro H.S. Brancalion, George A. L. Cabral, Ricardo Gomes César, Robin L. Chazdon, Rebecca J. Cole, Gabriel Dalla Colletta, Ben De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mário Marcos Do Espírito Santo, G. Wilson Fernandes, Yule Roberta Ferreira Nunes … & Jennifer S. Powers
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen (N)-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest-inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area...

Data from: Males increase call frequency, not intensity, in response to noise, revealing no Lombard effect in the little torrent frog

Longhui Zhao, Xiaoqian Sun, Qinghua Chen, Yue Yang, Jichao Wang, Jianghong Ran, Steven E. Brauth, Yezhong Tang & Jianguo Cui
Noise is one of the main factors that can influence the processes of sound communication across a wide range of animal groups. Although the effects of ambient noise on animal communication, including anthropogenic noise, have received increasing attention, few studies have examined changes in the fine structure of acoustic signals produced by vocalizing species in constantly noisy environments. Here, we used natural recordings to determine the associations between stream noise and call parameters in the...

Data from: Food-sharing vampire bats are more nepotistic under conditions of perceived risk

Gerald G. Carter, Gerald S. Wilkinson & Rachel A. Page
Cooperative behaviors exist along a spectrum of cost, from no-risk scenarios of mutual benefit to self-sacrificing altruism. Hamilton’s rule predicts that as risk increases, cooperative decisions should become increasingly kin-biased (nepotistic). To manipulate the perceived risks of regurgitated food sharing in captive vampire bats, we created a novel “rescue” condition, which required that donors leave their preferred roosting location, descend to an illuminated spot on the cage floor, and regurgitate food across cage bars to...

Data from: Quantifying ecological and social drivers of ecological surprise

Karen Filbee-Dexter, Celia C. Symons, Kristal Jones, Heather Haig, Jeremy Pittman, Steven M. Alexander, Matthew J. Burke & Heather A. Haig
1. A key challenge facing ecologists and ecosystem managers is understanding what drives unexpected shifts in ecosystems and limits the effectiveness of human interventions during these events. Research that integrates and analyzes data from natural and social systems can provide important insight for unraveling the complexity of these dynamics, and is a critical step towards development of evidence-based, whole systems management approaches. 2. To examine our ability to influence ecosystems that are behaving in unexpected...

Data from: Contemporary evolution of a Lepidopteran species, Heliothis virescens, in response to modern agricultural practices

Megan L. Fritz, Alexandra M. DeYonke, Alexie Papanicolaou, Stephen Micinski, John Westbrook & Fred Gould
Adaptation to human-induced environmental change has the potential to profoundly influence the genomic architecture of affected species. This is particularly true in agricultural ecosystems, where anthropogenic selection pressure is strong. Heliothis virescens primarily feeds on cotton in its larval stages and US populations have been declining since the widespread planting of transgenic cotton, which endogenously expresses proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). No physiological adaptation to Bt toxin has been found in the field, so...

Data from: Flower-visiting bat species contribute unequally toward agricultural pollination ecosystem services in southern Thailand

Alyssa B. Stewart & Michele R. Dudash
The large majority of angiosperm species depend on animals for pollination, including many agricultural crops, and plant-pollinator interactions have been extensively studied. However, not all floral visitors actually transfer pollen, and efforts to distinguish true pollinators from mere visitors are particularly scarce among the bat pollination literature. To determine whether Old World bat species are equally effective pollinators in mixed-agricultural areas of southern Thailand, we examined six night-blooming plant taxa and quantified pollinator importance (PI)...

Data from: Spatial patterns of plant litter in a tidal freshwater marsh and implications for marsh persistence

Andrew James Elmore, Katharina A. M. Engelhardt, Daniel Cadol & Cindy M. Palinkas
The maintenance of marsh platform elevation under conditions of sea level rise is dependent on mineral sediment supply to marsh surfaces and conversion of above- and below-ground plant biomass to soil organic material. These physical and biological processes interact within the tidal zone, resulting in elevation-dependent processes contributing to marsh accretion. Here we explore spatial pattern in a variable related to above-ground biomass, plant litter, to reveal its role in the maintenance of marsh surfaces....

Data from: Joint prediction of multiple quantitative traits using a Bayesian multivariate antedependence model

Jicai Jiang, Qin Zhang, Li Ma, Junya Li, Zhiquan Wang & Jiangfeng Liu
Predicting organismal phenotypes from genotype data is important for preventive and personalized medicine as well as plant and animal breeding. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for complex traits have discovered a large number of trait- and disease-associated variants, phenotype prediction based on associated variants is usually in low accuracy even for a high-heritability trait because these variants can typically account for a limited fraction of total genetic variance. In comparison with GWAS, the whole-genome prediction...

Data from: Rare species contribute disproportionately to the functional structure of species assemblages

Rafael P. Leitão, Jansen Zuanon, Sebastien Villeger, Stephen E. Williams, Christopher Baraloto, Claire Fortunel, Fernando P. Mendonça & David Mouillot
There is broad consensus that the diversity of functional traits within species assemblages drives several ecological processes. It is also widely recognized that rare species are the first to go extinct following human-induced disturbances. Surprisingly, however, the functional importance of rare species is still poorly understood, particularly in tropical species-rich assemblages where the majority of species are rare and the rate of species extinction can be high. Here we investigated the consequences of local and...

Data from: Phenological responses to multiple environmental drivers under climate change: insights from a long-term observational study and a manipulative field experiment

Susana M. Wadgymar, Jane E. Ogilvie, David W. Inouye, Arthur E. Weis & Jill T. Anderson
• Climate change has induced pronounced shifts in the reproductive phenology of plants, yet we know little about which environmental factors contribute to interspecific variation in responses and their effects on fitness. • We integrate data from a 43-year record of first flowering for six species in subalpine Colorado meadows with a 3-year snow manipulation experiment on the perennial forb Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae) from the same site. We analyze shifts in the onset of flowering...

Data from: Landscape genomics provides evidence of climate-associated genetic variation in Mexican populations of Quercus rugosa Nee

Karina Martins, Paul Gugger, Jesus Llanderal-Mendoza, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Sorel T. Fitz-Gibbon, Jian-Li Zhao, Hernando Rodríguez-Correa, Ken Oyama, Victoria L. Sork & Paul F. Gugger
Local adaptation is a critical evolutionary process that allows plants to grow better in their local compared to nonnative habitat and results in species-wide geographic patterns of adaptive genetic variation. For forest tree species with a long generation time, this spatial genetic heterogeneity can shape the ability of trees to respond to rapid climate change. Here, we identify genomic variation that may confer local environmental adaptations and then predict the extent of adaptive mismatch under...

Data from: From cellular characteristics to disease diagnosis: uncovering phenotypes with supercells

Julián Candia, Ryan Maunu, Meghan Driscoll, Angélique Biancotto, Pradeep Dagur, , H. Nida Sen, Lai Wei, Amos Maritan, Kan Cao, Robert B. Nussenblatt, Jayanth R. Banavar, Wolfgang Losert & J. Philip McCoy
Cell heterogeneity and the inherent complexity due to the interplay of multiple molecular processes within the cell pose difficult challenges for current single-cell biology. We introduce an approach that identifies a disease phenotype from multiparameter single-cell measurements, which is based on the concept of “supercell statistics”, a single-cell-based averaging procedure followed by a machine learning classification scheme. We are able to assess the optimal tradeoff between the number of single cells averaged and the number...

Data from: Evidence for hearing loss in amblyopsid cavefishes

Matthew L. Niemiller, Dennis M. Higgs & Daphne Soares
The constant darkness of caves and other subterranean habitats imposes sensory constraints that offer a unique opportunity to examine evolution of sensory modalities. Hearing in cavefishes has not been well explored, and here we show that cavefishes in the family Amblyopsidae are not only blind but have also lost a significant portion of their hearing range. Our results showed that cave and surface amblyopsids shared the same audiogram profile at low frequencies but only surface...

Data from: How climate extremes—not means—define a species' geographic range boundary via a demographic tipping point

Heather J. Lynch, Marc Rhainds, Justin M. Calabrese, Stephen Cantrell, Chris Cosner & William F. Fagan
Species’ geographic range limits interest biologists and resource managers alike; however, scientists lack strong mechanistic understanding of the factors that set geographic range limits in the field, especially for animals. There exists a clear need for detailed case studies that link mechanisms to spatial dynamics and boundaries because such mechanisms allow us to predict whether climate change is likely to change a species’ geographic range and, if so, how abundance in marginal populations compares to...

Data from: A phylum-wide survey reveals multiple independent gains of head regeneration in Nemertea

Eduardo Zattara, Fernando Fernández-Álvarez, Terra Hiebert, Alexa Bely & Jon Norenburg
Animals vary widely in their ability to regenerate, suggesting that regenerative ability has a rich evolutionary history. However, our understanding of this history remains limited because regenerative ability has only been evaluated in a tiny fraction of species. Available comparative regeneration studies have identified losses of regenerative ability, yet clear documentation of gains is lacking. We assessed ability to regenerate heads and tails either through our own experiments or from literature reports for 35 species...

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