201 Works

Data from: Foraging strategies of generalist and specialist Old World nectar bats in response to temporally variable floral resources

Alyssa B. Stewart & Michele R. Dudash
Foraging theory predicts that generalist foragers should switch resources more readily, while specialist foragers should remain constant to preferred food resources. Plant-pollinator interactions provide a convenient system to test such predictions because floral resources are often temporally patchy, thus requiring long-lived pollinators to switch resources seasonally. Furthermore, flowering phenologies range from ‘steady-state’ (low-rewarding but highly reliable) to ‘big-bang’ (high-rewarding but ephemeral) plant species. We assessed how nectarivorous Old World bats respond to this temporally variable...

Data from: Legume abundance along successional and rainfall gradients in neotropical forests

Maga Gei, Danaë M. A. Rozendaal, Lourens Poorter, Frans Bongers, Janet I. Sprent, Mira D. Garner, T. Mitchell Aide, José Luis Andrade, Patricia Balvanera, Justin M. Becknell, Pedro H.S. Brancalion, George A. L. Cabral, Ricardo Gomes César, Robin L. Chazdon, Rebecca J. Cole, Gabriel Dalla Colletta, Ben De Jong, Julie S. Denslow, Daisy H. Dent, Saara J. DeWalt, Juan Manuel Dupuy, Sandra M. Durán, Mário Marcos Do Espírito Santo, G. Wilson Fernandes, Yule Roberta Ferreira Nunes … & Jennifer S. Powers
The nutrient demands of regrowing tropical forests are partly satisfied by nitrogen (N)-fixing legume trees, but our understanding of the abundance of those species is biased towards wet tropical regions. Here we show how the abundance of Leguminosae is affected by both recovery from disturbance and large-scale rainfall gradients through a synthesis of forest-inventory plots from a network of 42 Neotropical forest chronosequences. During the first three decades of natural forest regeneration, legume basal area...

Data from: Males increase call frequency, not intensity, in response to noise, revealing no Lombard effect in the little torrent frog

Longhui Zhao, Xiaoqian Sun, Qinghua Chen, Yue Yang, Jichao Wang, Jianghong Ran, Steven E. Brauth, Yezhong Tang & Jianguo Cui
Noise is one of the main factors that can influence the processes of sound communication across a wide range of animal groups. Although the effects of ambient noise on animal communication, including anthropogenic noise, have received increasing attention, few studies have examined changes in the fine structure of acoustic signals produced by vocalizing species in constantly noisy environments. Here, we used natural recordings to determine the associations between stream noise and call parameters in the...

Data from: Food-sharing vampire bats are more nepotistic under conditions of perceived risk

Gerald G. Carter, Gerald S. Wilkinson & Rachel A. Page
Cooperative behaviors exist along a spectrum of cost, from no-risk scenarios of mutual benefit to self-sacrificing altruism. Hamilton’s rule predicts that as risk increases, cooperative decisions should become increasingly kin-biased (nepotistic). To manipulate the perceived risks of regurgitated food sharing in captive vampire bats, we created a novel “rescue” condition, which required that donors leave their preferred roosting location, descend to an illuminated spot on the cage floor, and regurgitate food across cage bars to...

Data from: Quantifying ecological and social drivers of ecological surprise

Karen Filbee-Dexter, Celia C. Symons, Kristal Jones, Heather Haig, Jeremy Pittman, Steven M. Alexander, Matthew J. Burke & Heather A. Haig
1. A key challenge facing ecologists and ecosystem managers is understanding what drives unexpected shifts in ecosystems and limits the effectiveness of human interventions during these events. Research that integrates and analyzes data from natural and social systems can provide important insight for unraveling the complexity of these dynamics, and is a critical step towards development of evidence-based, whole systems management approaches. 2. To examine our ability to influence ecosystems that are behaving in unexpected...

Data from: Contemporary evolution of a Lepidopteran species, Heliothis virescens, in response to modern agricultural practices

Megan L. Fritz, Alexandra M. DeYonke, Alexie Papanicolaou, Stephen Micinski, John Westbrook & Fred Gould
Adaptation to human-induced environmental change has the potential to profoundly influence the genomic architecture of affected species. This is particularly true in agricultural ecosystems, where anthropogenic selection pressure is strong. Heliothis virescens primarily feeds on cotton in its larval stages and US populations have been declining since the widespread planting of transgenic cotton, which endogenously expresses proteins derived from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). No physiological adaptation to Bt toxin has been found in the field, so...

Data from: Flower-visiting bat species contribute unequally toward agricultural pollination ecosystem services in southern Thailand

Alyssa B. Stewart & Michele R. Dudash
The large majority of angiosperm species depend on animals for pollination, including many agricultural crops, and plant-pollinator interactions have been extensively studied. However, not all floral visitors actually transfer pollen, and efforts to distinguish true pollinators from mere visitors are particularly scarce among the bat pollination literature. To determine whether Old World bat species are equally effective pollinators in mixed-agricultural areas of southern Thailand, we examined six night-blooming plant taxa and quantified pollinator importance (PI)...

Data from: Spatial patterns of plant litter in a tidal freshwater marsh and implications for marsh persistence

Andrew James Elmore, Katharina A. M. Engelhardt, Daniel Cadol & Cindy M. Palinkas
The maintenance of marsh platform elevation under conditions of sea level rise is dependent on mineral sediment supply to marsh surfaces and conversion of above- and below-ground plant biomass to soil organic material. These physical and biological processes interact within the tidal zone, resulting in elevation-dependent processes contributing to marsh accretion. Here we explore spatial pattern in a variable related to above-ground biomass, plant litter, to reveal its role in the maintenance of marsh surfaces....

Data from: Joint prediction of multiple quantitative traits using a Bayesian multivariate antedependence model

Jicai Jiang, Qin Zhang, Li Ma, Junya Li, Zhiquan Wang & Jiangfeng Liu
Predicting organismal phenotypes from genotype data is important for preventive and personalized medicine as well as plant and animal breeding. Although genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for complex traits have discovered a large number of trait- and disease-associated variants, phenotype prediction based on associated variants is usually in low accuracy even for a high-heritability trait because these variants can typically account for a limited fraction of total genetic variance. In comparison with GWAS, the whole-genome prediction...

Data from: Rare species contribute disproportionately to the functional structure of species assemblages

Rafael P. Leitão, Jansen Zuanon, Sebastien Villeger, Stephen E. Williams, Christopher Baraloto, Claire Fortunel, Fernando P. Mendonça & David Mouillot
There is broad consensus that the diversity of functional traits within species assemblages drives several ecological processes. It is also widely recognized that rare species are the first to go extinct following human-induced disturbances. Surprisingly, however, the functional importance of rare species is still poorly understood, particularly in tropical species-rich assemblages where the majority of species are rare and the rate of species extinction can be high. Here we investigated the consequences of local and...

Data from: Phenological responses to multiple environmental drivers under climate change: insights from a long-term observational study and a manipulative field experiment

Susana M. Wadgymar, Jane E. Ogilvie, David W. Inouye, Arthur E. Weis & Jill T. Anderson
• Climate change has induced pronounced shifts in the reproductive phenology of plants, yet we know little about which environmental factors contribute to interspecific variation in responses and their effects on fitness. • We integrate data from a 43-year record of first flowering for six species in subalpine Colorado meadows with a 3-year snow manipulation experiment on the perennial forb Boechera stricta (Brassicaceae) from the same site. We analyze shifts in the onset of flowering...

Data from: Landscape genomics provides evidence of climate-associated genetic variation in Mexican populations of Quercus rugosa Nee

Karina Martins, Paul Gugger, Jesus Llanderal-Mendoza, Antonio González-Rodríguez, Sorel T. Fitz-Gibbon, Jian-Li Zhao, Hernando Rodríguez-Correa, Ken Oyama, Victoria L. Sork & Paul F. Gugger
Local adaptation is a critical evolutionary process that allows plants to grow better in their local compared to nonnative habitat and results in species-wide geographic patterns of adaptive genetic variation. For forest tree species with a long generation time, this spatial genetic heterogeneity can shape the ability of trees to respond to rapid climate change. Here, we identify genomic variation that may confer local environmental adaptations and then predict the extent of adaptive mismatch under...

Data from: From cellular characteristics to disease diagnosis: uncovering phenotypes with supercells

Julián Candia, Ryan Maunu, Meghan Driscoll, Angélique Biancotto, Pradeep Dagur, , H. Nida Sen, Lai Wei, Amos Maritan, Kan Cao, Robert B. Nussenblatt, Jayanth R. Banavar, Wolfgang Losert & J. Philip McCoy
Cell heterogeneity and the inherent complexity due to the interplay of multiple molecular processes within the cell pose difficult challenges for current single-cell biology. We introduce an approach that identifies a disease phenotype from multiparameter single-cell measurements, which is based on the concept of “supercell statistics”, a single-cell-based averaging procedure followed by a machine learning classification scheme. We are able to assess the optimal tradeoff between the number of single cells averaged and the number...

Data from: Evidence for hearing loss in amblyopsid cavefishes

Matthew L. Niemiller, Dennis M. Higgs & Daphne Soares
The constant darkness of caves and other subterranean habitats imposes sensory constraints that offer a unique opportunity to examine evolution of sensory modalities. Hearing in cavefishes has not been well explored, and here we show that cavefishes in the family Amblyopsidae are not only blind but have also lost a significant portion of their hearing range. Our results showed that cave and surface amblyopsids shared the same audiogram profile at low frequencies but only surface...

Data from: How climate extremes—not means—define a species' geographic range boundary via a demographic tipping point

Heather J. Lynch, Marc Rhainds, Justin M. Calabrese, Stephen Cantrell, Chris Cosner & William F. Fagan
Species’ geographic range limits interest biologists and resource managers alike; however, scientists lack strong mechanistic understanding of the factors that set geographic range limits in the field, especially for animals. There exists a clear need for detailed case studies that link mechanisms to spatial dynamics and boundaries because such mechanisms allow us to predict whether climate change is likely to change a species’ geographic range and, if so, how abundance in marginal populations compares to...

Data from: A phylum-wide survey reveals multiple independent gains of head regeneration in Nemertea

Eduardo Zattara, Fernando Fernández-Álvarez, Terra Hiebert, Alexa Bely & Jon Norenburg
Animals vary widely in their ability to regenerate, suggesting that regenerative ability has a rich evolutionary history. However, our understanding of this history remains limited because regenerative ability has only been evaluated in a tiny fraction of species. Available comparative regeneration studies have identified losses of regenerative ability, yet clear documentation of gains is lacking. We assessed ability to regenerate heads and tails either through our own experiments or from literature reports for 35 species...

Data from: Effects of vertical position on trematode parasitism in larval anurans

Jacob R. Jones, Camille L. Steenrod & John A. Marino
Spatial distributions of animals can affect interactions with their natural enemies, such as parasites, and thus have important implications for host-parasite dynamics. While spatial variation in infection risk has been explored in many systems at the landscape scale, less attention has been paid to spatial structure at smaller scales. Here, we explore a hypothesized relationship between a common spatial variable, vertical position, and risk of parasite infection in a model aquatic system, larval frogs (Rana)...

Data from: Extracellular space preservation aids the connectomic analysis of neural circuits

Marta Pallotto, Paul V. Watkins, Boma Fubara, Joshua H. Singer & Kevin L. Briggman
Dense connectomic mapping of neuronal circuits is limited by the time and effort required to analyze 3D electron microscopy (EM) datasets. Algorithms designed to automate image segmentation suffer from substantial error rates and require significant manual error correction. Any improvement in segmentation error rates would therefore directly reduce the time required to analyze 3D EM data. We explored preserving extracellular space (ECS) during chemical tissue fixation to improve the ability to segment neurites and to...

Data from: Controlled comparison of species- and community-level models across novel climates and communities

Kaitlin Clare Maguire, Diego Nieto-Lugilde, Jessica Blois, Matthew Fitzpatrick, John Williams, Simon Ferrier & David Lorenz
Species distribution models (SDMs) assume species exist in isolation and do not influence one another's distributions, thus potentially limiting their ability to predict biodiversity patterns. Community-level models (CLMs) capitalize on species co-occurrences to fit shared environmental responses of species and communities, and therefore may result in more robust and transferable models. Here, we conduct a controlled comparison of five paired SDMs and CLMs across changing climates, using palaeoclimatic simulations and fossil-pollen records of eastern North...

Data from: Contrasting patterns of X-chromosome divergence underlie multiple sex-ratio polymorphisms in stalk-eyed flies

Kimberly A. Paczolt, Josephine A. Reinhardt & Gerald S. Wilkinson
Sex-linked segregation distorters cause offspring sex ratios to differ from equality. Theory predicts that such selfish alleles may either go to fixation and cause extinction, reach a stable polymorphism, or initiate an evolutionary arms race with genetic modifiers. The extent to which a sex ratio distorter follows any of these trajectories in nature is poorly known. Here we used X-linked sequence and simple tandem repeat data for three sympatric species of stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis whitei...

Data from: Process-based simulation of prairie growth

Cody J. Zilverberg, Jimmy Williams, Curtis Jones, Keith Harmoney, Jay Angerer, Loretta J. Metz & William Fox
When field research is cost- or time-prohibitive, models can inform decision-makers regarding the impact of agricultural policy on production and the environment, but process-based models that simulate animal-plant-soil interaction and ecosystem services in grazing lands are rare. In the U.S.A., APEX (Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender) is a model commonly used to inform policy on cropland, but its ability to simulate grazinglands was less robust. Therefore, we enhanced the APEX model’s plant growth module to improve its...

Site-specific impacts of a major hurricane on alpha and beta diversity in tropical forest seedling communities

Samantha Worthy, Vanessa Rubio, Kirstin Staiger, Boris Ngouajio, Jie Yang & Nathan Swenson
Large scale disturbances are known to impact the alpha and beta diversity of communities. However, whether these disturbances increase or decrease diversity is often debated. The goal of this study was to quantify how the diversity of the seedling community was impacted within and across elevation in the El Yunque forest of Puerto Rico following a major hurricane. We tested two alternative hypotheses, that hurricanes are relatively more homogenizing or non-homogenizing forces, by quantifying changes...

Trade-offs in above and belowground biomass allocation influencing seedling growth in a tropical forest

Maria Natalia Umaña, Min Cao, Luxiang Lin, Nathan Swenson & Caicai Zhang
1. Plants allocate biomass to different organs in response to resource variation for maximizing performance, yet we lack a framework that adequately integrates plant responses to the simultaneous variation in above and belowground resources. Although traditionally, the optimal partition theory (OPT) has explained patterns of biomass allocation in response to a single limiting resource, it is well known that in natural communities multiple resources limit growth. We study trade-offs involved in plant biomass allocation patterns...

Data from: Improving predictions of tropical tree survival and growth by incorporating measurements of whole leaf allocation

Nathan G. Swenson, Yoshiko Iida & Vanessa E. Rubio
1. Individual-level demographic outcomes should be predictable upon the basis of traits. However, linking traits to tree performance has proven challenging likely due to a failure to consider physiological traits (i.e., hard-traits) and the failure to integrate organ-level and whole plant-level trait information. 2. Here, we modeled the survival rate and relative growth rate of trees while considering crown allocation, hard-traits, and local-scale biotic interactions, and compared these models to more traditional trait-based models of...

Data from: Intraspecific variation in host plant traits mediates taxonomic and functional composition of local insect herbivore communities

Elske Tielens & Dan Gruner
Host plant phenotypic traits affect the structure of the associated consumer community and mediate species interactions. We compare herbivore assemblages from the canopy of the phenotypically variable tree Metrosideros polymorpha on Hawai‘i Island. Multiple distinct varieties of M. polymorpha frequently co‐occur, with variation in morphological traits. Using this system, we identify host and insect traits that underlie patterns of herbivore abundance and quantify the strength of host‐insect trait interactions. The dataset includes host plant phenotypic...

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