201 Works

Data from: Bee phenology is predicted by climatic variation and functional traits

Michael Stemkovski, Will Pearse, Sean Griffin, Gabriella Pardee, Jason Gibbs, Terry Griswold, John Neff, Ryan Oram, Molly RightMyer, Cory Sheffield, Karen Wright, Brian Inouye, David Inouye & Rebecca Irwin
Climate change is shifting the environmental cues that determine the phenology of interacting species. Plant-pollinator systems may be susceptible to temporal mismatch if bees and flowering plants differ in their phenological responses to warming temperatures. While the cues that trigger flowering are well-understood, little is known about what determines bee phenology. Using Generalized Additive Models, we analyzed time-series data representing 67 bee species collected over nine years in the Colorado Rocky Mountains to perform the...

Post-copulatory sexual selection is associated with sperm aggregate quality in Peromyscus mice

Heidi Fisher, Kristin Hook & William David Weber
In some species, sperm form coordinated groups that are hypothesized to improve their swimming performance in competitive contexts or to navigate through the viscous fluids of the female reproductive tract. Here we investigate sperm aggregation across closely-related species of Peromyscus mice that naturally vary by mating system to test the predictions that sperm aggregates (1) are faster than solitary sperm in species that females mate multiply to aid cells in sperm competition, and (2) outperform...

Reproduction Materials for: Anthropogenic Climate Change Has Slowed Global Agricultural Productivity Growth

Ariel Ortiz-Bobea, Toby R. Ault, Carlos M. Carrillo, Robert G. Chambers & David B. Lobell
Agricultural research has fostered productivity growth, but the historical influence of anthropogenic climate change on that growth has not been quantified. We develop a robust econometric model of weather effects on global agricultural total factor productivity (TFP) and combine this model with counterfactual climate scenarios to evaluate impacts of past climate trends on TFP. Our baseline model indicates that anthropogenic climate change has reduced global agricultural TFP by about 21% since 1961, a slowdown that...

Flowering time advances since the 1970s in a sagebrush steppe community: implications for management and restoration

Trevor Bloom, Donal O'Leary & Corinna Riginos
Climate change is widely known to affect plant phenology, but little is known about how these impacts manifest in the widespread sagebrush ecosystem of the Western US which supports a number of wildlife species of concern. Shifts in plant phenology can trigger consequences for the plants themselves as well as the communities of consumers that depend upon them. We assembled historical observations of first flowering dates for 51 species collected in the 1970 and 80s...

Data on monitoring the formation of chemical cocktails in urban streams in response to Freshwater Salinization Syndrome

Sujay Kaushal
Data include the concentration of base cations and nutrients over time and over space in urban streams near the University of Maryland campus in College Park, Maryland, USA. Data were collected longitudinally along streams and over 24-hour time periods. Data on the retention and release of base cations and trace elements were also collected through incubation experiments.

Encoding laboratory testing data: Case studies of the national implementation of HHS requirements and related standards in five laboratories

Raja Cholan, Gregory Pappas, Greg Rehwoldt, Andrew Sills, Elizabeth Korte, I. Khalil Appleton, Natalie Scott, Wendy Rubinstein, Sara Brenner, Riki Merrick, Wilbur Hadden, Keith Campbell & Michael Waters
OBJECTIVE: Assess the effectiveness of providing Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC®)-to-In Vitro Diagnostic (LIVD) coding specification, required by the Department of Health and Human Services for SARS-CoV-2 reporting, in medical center laboratories, and utilize findings to inform future Food and Drug Administration policy on the use of real-world evidence in regulatory decisions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared gaps and similarities between diagnostic test manufacturers’ recommended LOINC® codes and the LOINC® codes used in...

New Ultrahigh Affinity Host−Guest Complexes of Cucurbit[7]uril with Bicyclo[2.2.2]octane and Adamantane Guests: Thermodynamic Analysis and Evaluation of M2 Affinity Calculations

Sarvin Moghaddam, Cheng Yang, Mikhail Rekharsky, Young Ho Ko, Kimoon Kim, Yoshihisa Inoue & Michael K. Gilson
A dicationic ferrocene derivative has previously been shown to bind cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7]) in water with ultrahigh affinity (ΔGo = −21 kcal/mol). Here, we describe new compounds that bind aqueous CB[7] equally well, validating our prior suggestion that they, too, would be ultrahigh affinity CB[7] guests. The present guests, which are based upon either a bicyclo[2.2.2]octane or adamantane core, have no metal atoms, so these results also confirm that the remarkably high affinities of the ferrocene-based...

The Cucurbit[n]uril Family:  Prime Components for Self-Sorting Systems

Simin Liu, Christian Ruspic, Pritam Mukhopadhyay, Sriparna Chakrabarti, Peter Y. Zavalij & Lyle Isaacs
We determined the values of Ka for a wide range of host−guest complexes of cucurbit[n]uril (CB[n]), where n = 6−8, using 1H NMR competition experiments referenced to absolute binding constants measured by UV/vis titration. We find that the larger homologuesCB[7] and CB[8]individually maintain the size, shape, and functional group selectivity that typifies the recognition behavior of CB[6]. The cavity of CB[7] is found to effectively host trimethylsilyl groups. Remarkably, the values of Ka for the...

Data from: Limited pollen dispersal, small genetic neighborhoods, and biparental inbreeding in Vallisneria americana Michx. (Hydrocharitaceae)

Michael Warren Lloyd, Hayley R. Tumas & Maile C. Neel
Premise of the study: Pollen dispersal is a key process that influences ecological and evolutionary dynamics of plant populations by facilitating sexual reproduction and gene flow. Habitat loss and fragmentation have the potential to reduce pollen dispersal within and among habitat patches. We assessed aquatic pollen dispersal and mating system characteristics in Vallisneria americana -- a water-pollinated plant with a distribution that has been reduced from historic levels. Methods: We examined pollen neighborhood size, biparental...

Data from: Food sharing in vampire bats: reciprocal help predicts donations more than relatedness or harassment

Gerald G. Carter & Gerald S. Wilkinson
Common vampire bats often regurgitate food to roost-mates that fail to feed. The original explanation for this costly helping behaviour invoked both direct and indirect fitness benefits. Several authors have since suggested that food sharing is maintained solely by indirect fitness because non-kin food sharing could have resulted from kin recognition errors, indiscriminate altruism within groups, or harassment. To test these alternatives, we examined predictors of food-sharing decisions under controlled conditions of mixed relatedness and...

Data from: Neighborhood defense gene similarity effects on tree performance: a community transcriptomic approach

Jenny Zambrano, Yoshiko Iida, Robert Howe, Luxiang Lin, Maria Natalia Umana, Amy Wolf, Samantha J. Worthy & Nathan G. Swenson
The structure and dynamics of ecological communities are ultimately the outcome of the differential demographic rates of individuals. Individual growth and mortality rates largely result from the interaction between an organism's phenotype and the abiotic and biotic environment. Functional traits have been used extensively over the past decade to elucidate links among phenotypes, demography and community dynamics. A fundamental weakness of most functional trait approaches is the use of ‘soft’ traits associated with resource acquisition...

Data from: Differentiating the evolution of female song and male-female duets in the New World blackbirds: can tropical natural history traits explain duet evolution?

Karan J. Odom, Kevin E. Omland & J. Jordan Price
Female bird song and combined vocal duets of mated pairs are both frequently associated with tropical, monogamous, sedentary natural histories. Little is known, however, about what selects for duetting behavior versus female song. Female song likely preceded duet evolution and could drive apparent relationships between duets and these natural histories. We compared the evolution of female song and male-female duets in the New World blackbirds (Icteridae) by investigating patterns of gains and losses of both...

Data from: Trophic niche flexibility in Glossophaga soricina: how a nectar seeker sneaks an insect snack

Elizabeth L. Clare, Holger R. Goerlitz, Violaine A. Drapeau, Marc W. Holderied, Amanda M. Adams, Juliet Nagel, Elizabeth R. Dumont, Paul D. N. Hebert & M. Brock Fenton
Omnivory enables animals to fill more than one trophic niche, providing access to a wider variety of food resources with potentially higher nutrient value, particularly when resources become scarce. Animals can achieve omnivory using different strategies, for example opportunistic foraging, or switching between multiple trophic niches. The Neotropical bat Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766) is a common and widespread species known for nectar-feeding, but it also eats fruit and insects. Approaching stationary objects (flowers and fruits)...

Data from: An auditory illusion reveals the role of streaming in the temporal misallocation of perceptual objects

Anahita H. Mehta, Nori Jacoby, Ifat Yasin, Andrew J. Oxenham & Shihab A. Shamma
This study investigates the neural correlates and processes underlying the ambiguous percept produced by a stimulus similar to Deutsch's ‘octave illusion’, in which each ear is presented with a sequence of alternating pure tones of low and high frequencies. The same sequence is presented to each ear, but in opposite phase, such that the left and right ears receive a high–low–high … and a low–high–low … pattern, respectively. Listeners generally report hearing the illusion of...

Data from: Year-round spatiotemporal distribution of harbour porpoises within and around the Maryland wind energy area

Jessica E. Wingfield, Michael O'Brien, Vyacheslav Lyubchich, Jason J. Roberts, Patrick N. Halpin, Aaron N. Rice, Helen Bailey & Michael O’Brien
Offshore windfarms provide renewable energy, but activities during the construction phase can affect marine mammals. To understand how the construction of an offshore windfarm in the Maryland Wind Energy Area (WEA) off Maryland, USA, might impact harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena), it is essential to determine their poorly understood year-round distribution. Although habitat-based models can help predict the occurrence of species in areas with limited or no sampling, they require validation to determine the accuracy of...

Data from: Target enrichment of ultraconserved elements from arthropods provides a genomic perspective on relationships among Hymenoptera

Brant C. Faircloth, Michael G. Branstetter, Noor D. White & Séan G. Brady
Gaining a genomic perspective on phylogeny requires the collection of data from many putatively independent loci across the genome. Among insects, an increasingly common approach to collecting this class of data involves transcriptome sequencing, because few insects have high-quality genome sequences available; assembling new genomes remains a limiting factor; the transcribed portion of the genome is a reasonable, reduced subset of the genome to target; and the data collected from transcribed portions of the genome...

Data from: Cherry-picking by trialists and meta-analysts can drive conclusions about intervention efficacy

Evan Mayo-Wilson, Tianjing Li, Nicole Fusco, Lorenzo Bertizzolo, Joseph K. Canner, Terrie Cowley, Peter Doshi, Jeffrey Ehmsen, Gillian Gresham, Nan Guo, Jennifer A. Haythornthwaite, James Heyward, Hwanhee Hong, Diana Pham, Jennifer L. Payne, Lori Rosman, Elizabeth A. Stuart, Catalina Suarez-Cuervo, Elizabeth Tolbert, Claire Twose, Swaroop Vedula & Kay Dickersin
PLEASE NOTE, THESE DATA ARE ALSO REFERRED TO IN SUBSEQUENT PUBLICATIONS. PLEASE SEE http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2017.05.007 FOR MORE INFORMATION. Objectives The objective of this study was to determine whether disagreements among multiple data sources affect systematic reviews of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Study Design and Setting Eligible RCTs examined gabapentin for neuropathic pain and quetiapine for bipolar depression, reported in public (e.g., journal articles) and nonpublic sources (clinical study reports [CSRs] and individual participant data [IPD]). Results...

Data from: Polyandry and polygyny in a social rodent: an integrative perspective based on social organization, copulations, and genetics

John L. Hoogland, Regina Trott & Stephen R. Keller
Animal mating systems have fascinated biologists for thousands of years. Ways to describe amating systeminclude determining social organization, observing copulations, or using genetics to assign parentage. Social organization can be difficult to quantify, however, documentation of copulations is often challenging, many copulations do not produce offspring, and genetic variation is sometimes minimal. Here we use data from a 7-year study of wild white-tailed prairie dogs (WTPDs, Cynomys leucurus) living in Colorado USA to estimate the...

Data from: A comprehensive analysis of autocorrelation and bias in home range estimation

Michael J. Noonan, Marlee A. Tucker, Christen H. Fleming, Tom S. Akre, Susan C. Alberts, Abdullahi H. Ali, Jeanne Altmann, Pamela C. Antunes, Jerrold L. Belant, Dean Beyer, Niels Blaum, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, , Rogerio De Paula Cunha, Jasja Dekker, Jonathan Drescher-Lehman, Nina Farwig, Claudia Fichtel, Christina Fischer, Adam T. Ford, Jacob R. Goheen, René Janssen, Florian Jeltsch, Matthew Kauffman, Peter M. Kappeler … & Justin M. Calabrese
Home range estimation is routine practice in ecological research. While advances in animal tracking technology have increased our capacity to collect data to support home range analysis, these same advances have also resulted in increasingly autocorrelated data. Consequently, the question of which home range estimator to use on modern, highly autocorrelated tracking data remains open. This question is particularly relevant given that most estimators assume independently sampled data. Here, we provide a comprehensive evaluation of...

Data from: The incidence and pattern of co-pollinator diversification in dioecious and monoecious figs

Li Yuan Yang, Carlos A. Machado, Xiao-Dong Dang, Yan-Qiong Peng, Da-Rong Yang, Wan-Jin Liao, Da-Yong Zhang & Li-Yuan Yang
Differences in breeding system are associated with correlated ecological and morphological changes in plants. In Ficus, dioecy and monoecy are strongly associated with different suites of traits (tree height, population density, fruiting frequency, pollinator dispersal ecology). Although ~30% of fig species are pollinated by multiple species of fig-pollinating wasps it has been suggested that co-pollinators are rare in dioecious figs. Here we test whether there is a connection between fig breeding system and co-pollinator incidence...

Data from: Phylogenomic analyses support traditional relationships within Cnidaria

Felipe Zapata, Freya E. Goetz, Stephen A. Smith, Mark Howison, Stefan Siebert, Samuel H. Church, Steven M. Sanders, Cheryl Lewis Ames, Catherine S. McFadden, Scott C. France, Marymegan Daly, Allen G. Collins, Steven H. D. Haddock, Casey W. Dunn & Paulyn Cartwright
Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is the most diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages. Phylogenetic analyses...

Data from: Quantifying hummingbird preference for floral trait combinations: the role of selection on trait interactions in the evolution of pollination syndromes

Charles B. Fenster, Richard J. Reynolds, Christopher W. Williams, Robert Makowsky & Michele R. Dudash
Darwin recognized the flower's importance for the study of adaptation and emphasized that the flower's functionality reflects the coordinated action of multiple traits. Here we use a multi-trait manipulative approach to quantify the potential role of selection acting on floral trait combinations underlying the divergence and maintenance of three related North American species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae). We artificially generated 48 plant phenotypes corresponding to all combinations of key attractive traits differing among the three Silene...

Data from: Challenges in the conservation of wide-ranging nomadic species

Dejid Nandintsetseg, Chloe Bracis, Kirk A. Olson, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Justin M. Calabrese, Buyanaa Chimeddorj, William F. Fagan, Christen H. Fleming, Michael Heiner, Petra Kaczensky, Peter Leimgruber, Dalannast Munkhnast, Theresa Stratmann & Thomas Mueller
1. Conservation of nomadic ungulates presents significant conservation challenges because of unpredictability in their movements and space use. Long-term studies on nomadic ungulates offering insights into the variability in space use within and between years are largely missing but are necessary to develop effective conservation strategies. 2. We examined the temporal variability in space-use of 22 Mongolian gazelle, tracked for one to three years with GPS and used the resulting movement patterns to evaluate conservation...

Data from: How topography induces reproductive asynchrony and alters gypsy moth invasion dynamics

Jonathan A. Walter, Marcia S. Meixler, Thomas Mueller, William F. Fagan, Patrick C. Tobin & Kyle J. Haynes
1. Reproductive asynchrony, a temporal mismatch in reproductive maturation between an individual and potential mates, may contribute to mate-finding failure and Allee effects that influence the establishment and spread of invasive species. Variation in elevation is likely to promote variability in maturation times for species with temperature-dependent development, but it is not known how strongly this influences reproductive asynchrony or the population growth of invasive species. 2. We examined whether spatial variation in reproductive asynchrony,...

Data from: \"Genome-wide microsatellite marker development from next-generation sequencing of two non-model bat species impacted by wind turbine mortality: Lasiurus borealis and L. cinereus (Vespertilionidae)\" in Genomic Resources Notes accepted 1 October 2013 to 30 November 2013

Stephen R. Keller, Regina Trott, Cortney Pylant, David N. Nelson & Scott R. Santos
Tree-roosting bats in the genus Lasiurus are widespread, migratory species that have not been well characterized for population genetic diversity and structure due to a lack of genetic resources. Generating genetic resources in Lasiurus is made pressing by the need for conservation genetic assessments of demographic trends in this genus, which comprise a large percentage of bat mortalities at wind turbine sites across North America. We report on marker development from whole-genome Illumina sequencing of...

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