Data from: Not as ubiquitous as we thought: taxonomic crypsis, hidden diversity and cryptic speciation in the cosmopolitan fungus Thelonectria discophora (Nectriaceae, Hypocreales, Ascomycota)Catalina Salgado-Salazar, Amy Y. Rossman & Priscila Chaverri
The distribution of microbial species, including fungi, has long been considered cosmopolitan. Recently, this perception has been challenged by molecular studies in historical biogeography, phylogeny and population genetics. Here we explore this issue using the fungal morphological species Thelonectria discophora, one of the most common species of fungi in the family Nectriaceae, encountered in almost all geographic regions and considered as a cosmopolitan taxon. In order to determine if T. discophora is a single cosmopolitan...
Data from: From cellular characteristics to disease diagnosis: uncovering phenotypes with supercellsJulián Candia, Ryan Maunu, Meghan Driscoll, Angélique Biancotto, Pradeep Dagur, , H. Nida Sen, Lai Wei, Amos Maritan, Kan Cao, Robert B. Nussenblatt, Jayanth R. Banavar, Wolfgang Losert & J. Philip McCoy
Cell heterogeneity and the inherent complexity due to the interplay of multiple molecular processes within the cell pose difficult challenges for current single-cell biology. We introduce an approach that identifies a disease phenotype from multiparameter single-cell measurements, which is based on the concept of “supercell statistics”, a single-cell-based averaging procedure followed by a machine learning classification scheme. We are able to assess the optimal tradeoff between the number of single cells averaged and the number...
The constant darkness of caves and other subterranean habitats imposes sensory constraints that offer a unique opportunity to examine evolution of sensory modalities. Hearing in cavefishes has not been well explored, and here we show that cavefishes in the family Amblyopsidae are not only blind but have also lost a significant portion of their hearing range. Our results showed that cave and surface amblyopsids shared the same audiogram profile at low frequencies but only surface...
Data from: How climate extremes—not means—define a species' geographic range boundary via a demographic tipping pointHeather J. Lynch, Marc Rhainds, Justin M. Calabrese, Stephen Cantrell, Chris Cosner & William F. Fagan
Species’ geographic range limits interest biologists and resource managers alike; however, scientists lack strong mechanistic understanding of the factors that set geographic range limits in the field, especially for animals. There exists a clear need for detailed case studies that link mechanisms to spatial dynamics and boundaries because such mechanisms allow us to predict whether climate change is likely to change a species’ geographic range and, if so, how abundance in marginal populations compares to...
The steps by which isolated populations acquire reproductive incompatibilities remain poorly understood. One potentially important process is postcopulatory sexual selection because it can generate divergence between populations in traits that influence fertilization success after copulation. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of this form of reproductive isolation by conducting reciprocal crosses between variably diverged populations of stalk-eyed flies (Teleopsis dalmanni). First, we measure seven types of reproductive incompatibility between copulation and fertilization. We then compare...
Successful bird migration can depend on individual learning, social learning, and innate navigation programs. Using 8 years of data on migrating whooping cranes, we were able to partition genetic and socially learned aspects of migration. Specifically, we analyzed data from a reintroduced population wherein all birds were captive bred and artificially trained by ultralight aircraft on their first lifetime migration. For subsequent migrations, in which birds fly individually or in groups but without ultralight escort,...
Data from: Comparative analyses of reproductive structures in harvestmen (Opiliones) reveal multiple transitions from courtship to precopulatory antagonismMercedes M. Burns, Marshal Hedin & Jeffrey W. Shultz
Explaining the rapid, species-specific diversification of reproductive structures and behaviors is a long-standing goal of evolutionary biology, with recent research tending to attribute reproductive phenotypes to the evolutionary mechanisms of female mate choice or intersexual conflict. Progress in understanding these and other possible mechanisms depends, in part, on reconstructing the direction, frequency and relative timing of phenotypic evolution of male and female structures in species-rich clades. Here we examine evolution of reproductive structures in the...
Data from: The effects of synthetic estrogen exposure on pre-mating and post-mating episodes of selection in sex-role-reversed Gulf pipefishEmily Rose, Kimberly A. Paczolt & Adam G. Jones
Environmental estrogens have been shown to affect populations of aquatic organisms in devastating ways, including feminization of males, alterations in mating behaviors, and disruption of sexual selection. Studies have shown 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) exposure to induce female-like secondary sexual traits in male Gulf pipefish, changing how females perceive affected males. We aimed to understand the effects of EE2 exposure on the sex-role-reversed mating system and the strength of selection in Gulf pipefish. We used artificial Gulf...
Data from: Estimation of effective population size in continuously distributed populations: there goes the neighborhoodMaile C. Neel, Kevin McKelvey, Robin S. Waples, Nils Ryman, Michael W. Lloyd, Ruth Short Bull, Fred W. Allendorf & Michael K. Schwartz
Use of genetic methods to estimate effective population size (N^e) is rapidly increasing, but all approaches make simplifying assumptions unlikely to be met in real populations. In particular, all assume a single, unstructured population, and none has been evaluated for use with continuously distributed species. We simulated continuous populations with local mating structure, as envisioned by Wright's concept of neighborhood size (NS), and evaluated performance of a single-sample estimator based on linkage disequilibrium (LD), which...
Data from: Reproductive isolation and cryptic introgression in a sky island enclave of Appalachian birdsBrian S. Davidson, Gene D. Sattler, Sara Via & Michael J. Braun
Reproductive isolation is central to the speciation process, and cases where the strength of reproductive isolation varies geographically can inform our understanding of speciation mechanisms. Although generally treated as separate species, Black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) and Carolina chickadees (P. carolinensis) hybridize and undergo genetic introgression in many areas where they come into contact across the eastern United States and in the northern Appalachian Mountains. The Great Smoky Mountains harbor the last large breeding population of...
Data from: Trophic niche flexibility in Glossophaga soricina: how a nectar seeker sneaks an insect snackElizabeth L. Clare, Holger R. Goerlitz, Violaine A. Drapeau, Marc W. Holderied, Amanda M. Adams, Juliet Nagel, Elizabeth R. Dumont, Paul D. N. Hebert & M. Brock Fenton
Omnivory enables animals to fill more than one trophic niche, providing access to a wider variety of food resources with potentially higher nutrient value, particularly when resources become scarce. Animals can achieve omnivory using different strategies, for example opportunistic foraging, or switching between multiple trophic niches. The Neotropical bat Glossophaga soricina (Pallas, 1766) is a common and widespread species known for nectar-feeding, but it also eats fruit and insects. Approaching stationary objects (flowers and fruits)...
Data from: Can RNA-Seq resolve the rapid radiation of advanced moths (Lepidoptera: Apoditrysia)? An exploratory studyAdam L. Bazinet, Michael P. Cummings, Kim T. Mitter & Charles W. Mitter
Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of the insect order Lepidoptera have robustly resolved family-level divergences within most superfamilies, and most divergences among the relatively species-poor early-arising superfamilies. In sharp contrast, relationships among the superfamilies of more advanced moths and butterflies that comprise the mega-diverse clade Apoditrysia (ca. 145,000 spp.) remain mostly poorly supported. This uncertainty, in turn, limits our ability to discern the origins, ages and evolutionary consequences of traits hypothesized to promote the spectacular diversification...
University of Maryland, College Park12
Max Planck Institute for Ornithology1
University of Massachusetts Amherst1
University of Montana1
Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre1
National Institutes of Health1
Texas A&M University1
University of Windsor1
United States Department of Agriculture1