595 Works

Data from: Fine scale genetic correlates to condition and migration in a wild Cervid

Joseph M. Northrup, Aaron B. A. Shafer, , David W. Coltman, George Wittemyer & Charles R. Anderson
The relationship between genetic variation and phenotypic traits is fundamental to the study and management of natural populations. Such relationships often are investigated by assessing correlations between phenotypic traits and heterozygosity or genetic differentiation. Using an extensive data set compiled from free-ranging mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), we combined genetic and ecological data to (i) examine correlations between genetic differentiation and migration timing, (ii) screen for mitochondrial haplotypes associated with migration timing, and (iii) test whether...

Data from: Female responses to experimental removal of sexual selection in Drosophila melanogaster

Paolo Innocenti, Ilona Flis & Edward H. Morrow
Background: Despite the common assumption that multiple mating should in general be favored in males, but not in females, to date there is no consensus on the general impact of multiple mating on female fitness. Notably, very little is known about the genetic and physiological features underlying the female response to sexual selection pressures. By combining an experimental evolution approach with genomic techniques, we investigated the effects of single and multiple matings on female fecundity...

Data from: Worldwide patterns of ancestry, divergence, and admixture in domesticated cattle

Jared Egan Decker, Stephanie D. McKay, Megan M. Rolf, JaeWoo Kim, Antonio Molina Alcalá, Tad S. Sonstegard, Olivier Hanotte, Anders Götherström, Christopher M. Seabury, Lisa Praharani, Masroor Ellahi Babar, Luciana Correia De Almieda Regitano, Mehmet Ali Yildiz, Michael P. Heaton, Wan-Sheng Liu, Chu-Zhao Lei, James M. Reecy, Muhammad Saif-Ur-Rehman, Robert D. Schnabel & Jeremy F. Taylor
The domestication and development of cattle has considerably impacted human societies, but the histories of cattle breeds have been poorly understood especially for African, Asian, and American breeds. Using genotypes from 43,043 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphism markers scored in 1,543 animals, we evaluate the population structure of 134 domesticated bovid breeds. Regardless of the analytical method or sample subset, the three major groups of Asian indicine, Eurasian taurine, and African taurine were consistently observed. Patterns...

Data from: The role of pleiotropy and linkage in genes affecting a sexual ornament and bone allocation in the chicken

Martin Johnsson, Carl-Johan Rubin, Andrey Höglund, Anna-Stina Sahlqvist, Kenneth B. Jonsson, Susanne Kerje, Olov Ekwall, Olle Kämpe, Leif Andersson, Per Jensen & Dominic Wright
Sexual selection and the ornaments that inform such choices have been extensively studied, particularly from a phenotypic perspective. Although more is being revealed about the genetic architecture of sexual ornaments, much still remains to be discovered. The comb of the chicken is one of the most widely recognized sexual ornaments, which has been shown to be correlated with both fecundity and bone allocation. In this study we use a combination of multiple intercrosses between White...

Data from: Effects of the demographic transition on the genetic variances and covariances of human life history traits

Elisabeth Bolund, Adam Hayward, Jenni E. Pettay & Virpi Lummaa
The recent demographic transitions to lower mortality and fertility rates in most human societies have led to changes and even quick reversals in phenotypic selection pressures. This can only result in evolutionary change if the affected traits are heritable, but changes in environmental conditions may also lead to subsequent changes in the genetic variance and covariance (the G matrix) of traits. It currently remains unclear if there have been concomitant changes in the G matrix...

Data from: Heterozygosity-fitness correlations in zebra finches: microsatellite markers can be better than their reputation

Wolfgang Forstmeier, Holger Schielzeth, Jakob C. Mueller, Hans Ellegren & Bart Kempenaers
Numerous studies have reported associations between heterozygosity in microsatellite markers and fitness-related traits (heterozygosity-fitness correlations, HFCs). However, it has often been questioned whether HFCs reflect general inbreeding depression, because a small panel of microsatellite markers does not reflect very well an individual’s inbreeding coefficient (F) as calculated from a pedigree. Here we challenge this prevailing view. Due to chance events during Mendelian segregation, an individual’s realized proportion of the genome that is identical by descent...

Data from: MHC diversity, malaria and lifetime reproductive success in collared flycatchers

Jacek Radwan, Wieslaw Babik, Magdalena Zagalska-Neubauer, Lars Gustavsson, Mariusz Cichoń, Katarzyna Kulma & Joanna Sendecka
Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes encode proteins involved in the recognition of parasite-derived antigens. Their extreme polymorphism is presumed to be driven by coevolution with parasites. Host-parasite coevolution was also hypothesised to optimize within-individual MHC diversity at the intermediate level. Here, we use unique data on lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of female collared flycatchers to test whether LRS is associated with within-individual MHC class II diversity. We also examined the association between MHC and infection...

Data from: Selection in a fluctuating environment and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus

Lára R. Hallsson & Mats Björklund
Temperature changes in the environment, which realistically include environmental fluctuations, can create both plastic and evolutionary responses of traits. Sexes might differ in either or both of these responses for homologous traits, which in turn has consequences for sexual dimorphism and its evolution. Here we investigate both immediate changes in and the evolution of sexual dimorphism in response to a changing environment (with and without fluctuations) using the seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. We investigate sex...

Data from: Reliability assessment of null allele detection: inconsistencies between and within different methods

Michal J. Dąbrowski, Malgorzata Pilot, Marcin Kruczyk, Michal Żmihorski, Husen M. Umer & Joanna Gliwicz
Microsatellite loci are widely used in population genetic studies, but the presence of null alleles may lead to biased results. Here, we assessed five methods that indirectly detect null alleles and found large inconsistencies among them. Our analysis was based on 20 microsatellite loci genotyped in a natural population of Microtus oeconomus sampled during 8 years, together with 1200 simulated populations without null alleles, but experiencing bottlenecks of varying duration and intensity, and 120 simulated...

Data from: Sex ratio and density affect sexual selection in a sex-role reversed fish

Tonje Aronsen, Anders Berglund, Kenyon B. Mobley, Irja Ida Ratikainen & Gunilla Rosenqvist
Understanding how demographic processes influence mating systems is important to decode ecological influences on sexual selection in nature. We manipulated sex ratio and density in experimental populations of the sex-role reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle. We quantified sexual selection using the Bateman gradient (ß′ss), the opportunity for selection (I), and sexual selection (Is), and the maximum standardized sexual selection differential (s′max). We also measured selection on body length using standardized selection differentials (s′) and mating differentials...

Data from: Environmental factors influence both abundance and genetic diversity in a widespread bird species

Yang Liu, Simone Webber, Katharine Bowgen, Lucie Schmaltz, Katharine Bradley, Peter Halvarsson, Mohanad Abdelgadir & Michael Griesser
Genetic diversity is one of the key evolutionary variables that correlate with population size, being of critical importance for population viability and the persistence of species. Genetic diversity can also have important ecological consequences within populations, and in turn, ecological factors may drive patterns of genetic diversity. However, the relationship between the genetic diversity of a population and how this interacts with ecological processes has so far only been investigated in a few studies. Here,...

Data from: Origin and demographic history of the endemic Taiwan spruce (Picea morrisonicola)

Sofia Bodare, Michael Stocks, Jeng-Chuann Yang & Martin Lascoux
Taiwan spruce (Picea morrisonicola) is a vulnerable conifer species endemic to the island of Taiwan. A warming climate and competition from subtropical tree species has limited the range of Taiwan spruce to the higher altitudes of the island. Using seeds sampled from an area in the central mountain range of Taiwan, 15 nuclear loci were sequenced in order to measure genetic variation and to assess the long-term genetic stability of the species. Genetic diversity is...

Data from: Habitat variation and wing coloration affects wing shape evolution in dragonflies

David Outomuro, Klaas-Douwe B. Dijkstra, Frank Johansson & K.-D. B. Dijkstra
Habitats are spatially and temporally variable, and organisms must be able to track these changes. One potential mechanism for this is dispersal by flight. Therefore, we would expect flying animals to show adaptations in wing shape related to habitat variation. In this work, we explored variation in wing shape in relation to preferred water body (flowing water or standing water with tolerance for temporary conditions) and landscape (forested to open) using 32 species of dragonflies...

Data from: The influence of mitonuclear genetic variation on personality in seed beetles

Hanne Løvlie, Elina Immonen, Emil Gustavsson, Erem Kazancioğlu, Göran Arnqvist & H. Lovlie
There is a growing awareness of the influence of mitochondrial genetic variation on life-history phenotypes, particularly via epistatic interactions with nuclear genes. Owing to their direct effect on traits such as metabolic and growth rates, mitonuclear interactions may also affect variation in behavioural types or personalities (i.e. behavioural variation that is consistent within individuals, but differs among individuals). However, this possibility is largely unexplored. We used mitonuclear introgression lines, where three mitochondrial genomes were introgressed...

Data from: Proxy comparison in ancient peat sediments: pollen, macrofossil and plant DNA

Laura Parducci, Minna Väliranta, J. Sakari Salonen, Tiina Ronkainen, Irina Matetovici, Sonia L. Fontana, Tiina Eskola, Pertti Sarala & Yoshihisa Suyama
We compared DNA, pollen and macrofossil data obtained from Weichselian interstadial and Holocene (maximum age 8400 cal yr BP) peat sediments from northern Europe and used them to reconstruct contemporary floristic compositions at two sites. The majority of the samples provided plant DNA sequences of good quality with success amplification rates depending on age. DNA and sequencing analysis provided five plant taxa from the older site and nine taxa from the younger site, corresponding to...

Data from: The HypoMethylated Partial Restriction (HMPR) method reduces the repetitive content of genomic libraries in Norway spruce (Picea abies)

Hanna Larsson, Emanuele De Paoli, Michele Morgante, Martin Lascoux & Niclas Gyllenstrand
To evaluate the usefulness of Reduced Representation Libraries (RRL) in species with large and highly repetitive genomes such as conifers, we employed Hypomethylated Partial Restriction (HMPR) on the genome of Norway spruce (Picea abies). The HMPR method preferentially removes the repetitive fraction of the genome, which is commonly hypermethylated. Hence, RRLs should be enriched for the hypomethylated gene space. For comparison a standard shotgun library was constructed and samples of the respective libraries were obtained...

Data from: Evaluating the postcopulatory sexual selection hypothesis for genital evolution reveals evidence for pleiotropic harm exerted by the male genital spines of Drosophila ananassae

Karl Grieshop, Michal Polack & M. Polak
The contemporary explanation for the rapid evolutionary diversification of animal genitalia is that such traits evolve by post-copulatory sexual selection. Here, we test the hypothesis that the male genital spines of Drosophila ananassae play an adaptive role in post-copulatory sexual selection. Whereas previous work on two Drosophila species shows that these spines function in precopulatory sexual selection to initiate genital coupling and promote male competitive copulation success, further research is needed to evaluate the potential...

Data from: QTL linkage mapping of wing length in zebra finch using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms markers

Holger Schielzeth, Wolfgang Forstmeier, Bart Kempenaers & Hans Ellegren
Avian wing length is an important trait that covaries with the ecology and migratory behaviour of a species and tends to change rapidly when the conditions are altered. Long-distance migrants typically have longer wings than short-distance migrants and sedentary species, and long-winged species also tend to be more dispersive. Although the substantial heritability of avian wing length is well established, the identification of causal genes has remained elusive. Based on large-scale genotyping of 1404 informative...

Data from: Cytoplasmic DNA variation and biogeography of Larix Mill. in Northeast Asia

Maria Polezhaeva, Martin Lascoux & Vladimir Semerikov
Range-wide variation in 54 populations of Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii) and related taxa in Northeast Asia was assessed with four mitochondrial PCR-RFLP and five chloroplast SSR markers. Eleven mitotypes and 115 chlorotypes were detected. The highest diversity was observed in the southern Russian Far East where hybrids of L. gmelinii, L. olgensis and L. kamtschatica are distributed. In contrast, only two mitotypes occurred in L. cajanderi and L. gmelinii. The Japanese larch (L. kaempferi) was...

Data from: Positive feedback between ecological and reproductive character displacement in a young avian hybrid zone

Niclas Vallin, Amber M. Rice, Richard I. Bailey, Arild Husby & Anna Qvarnström
Character displacement can reduce costly interspecific interactions between young species. We investigated the mechanisms behind divergence in three key traits - breeding habitat choice, timing of breeding and plumage coloration - in Ficedula flycatchers. We found that male pied flycatchers became expelled from the preferred deciduous habitat into mixed forest as the superior competitor, collared flycatchers, increased in numbers. The peak in food abundance differs between habitats, and the spatial segregation was paralleled by an...

Data from: Inferring the demographic history of European Ficedula flycatcher populations

Niclas Backström, Glenn-Peter Sætre & Hans Ellegren
Background: Inference of population and species histories and population stratification using genetic data is important for discriminating between different speciation scenarios and for correct interpretation of genome scans for signs of adaptive evolution and trait association. Here we use data from 24 intronic loci re-sequenced in population samples of two closely related species, the pied flycatcher and the collared flycatcher. Results: We applied Isolation-Migration models, assignment analyses and estimated the genetic differentiation and diversity between...

Data from: Phylogeography of willow grouse (Lagopus lagopus) in the Arctic: taxonomic discordance as inferred from molecular data

Jacob Höglund, Biao Wang, Thomas Axelsson & María Quintela
Using independently segregating nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mitochondrial control region sequences, we found an east–west division among sampled willow grouse Lagopus lagopus subspecies. This division cut across the range of the subspecies with the largest distribution (lagopus) and thus contradicted existing taxonomic classifications. Russian Lagopus lagopus lagopus tended to cluster with North American willow grouse partly classified as other subspecies. Scandinavian willow grouse (L. l. lagopus) clustered with red grouse from Britain and...

Data from: Quantitative genetic divergence and standing genetic (co)variance in thermal reaction norms along latitude

David Berger, Erik Postma, Wolf Blanckenhorn, Richard John Walters & Wolf U. Blanckenhorn
Although the potential to adapt to warmer climate is constrained by genetic trade-offs, our understanding of how selection and mutation shape genetic (co)variances in thermal reaction norms is poor. Using 71 isofemale lines of the fly Sepsis punctum, originating from northern, central and southern European climates, we tested for divergence in juvenile development rate across latitude at five experimental temperatures. To investigate effects of evolutionary history in different climates on standing genetic variation in reaction...

Data from: Low fertility of wild hybrid male flycatchers despite recent divergence

Murielle Ålund, Simone Immler, Amber M. Rice, Anna Qvarnström, M. Alund & A. Qvarnstrom
Postzygotic isolation may be important for maintaining species boundaries, particularly when premating barriers are incomplete. Little is known about the course of events leading from minor environmental mismatches affecting hybrid fitness to severe genetic incompatibilities causing sterility or inviability. We investigated whether reduced reproductive success of hybrid males was caused by suboptimal sperm traits or by more severe genetic incompatibilities in a hybrid zone of pied (Ficedula hypoleuca) and collared flycatchers (F. albicollis) on the...

Data from: Marked host specificity and lack of phylogeographic population structure of Campylobacter jejuni in wild birds

Petra Griekspoor, Frances M. Colles, Noel D. McCarthy, Philip M. Hansbro, Chris Ashhurst-Smith, Björn Olsen, Dennis Hasselquist, Martin C. J. Maiden & Jonas Waldenström
Zoonotic pathogens often infect several animal species, and gene flow among populations infecting different host species may affect the biological traits of the pathogen including host specificity, transmissibility and virulence. The bacterium Campylobacter jejuni is a widespread zoonotic multihost pathogen, which frequently causes gastroenteritis in humans. Poultry products are important transmission vehicles to humans, but the bacterium is common in other domestic and wild animals, particularly birds, which are a potential infection source. Population genetic...

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