480 Works

Antiviral, antibiotics and decongestants in wastewater treatment plants and receiving rivers in the Thames catchment

A.C. Singer, Järhult, R. Grabic, G.A. Khan, R.H. Lindberg, G. Fedorova, J. Fick, M.J. Bowes, B. Olsen & H. Söderström
This dataset contains the concentration of eleven antibiotics (trimethoprim, oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, azithromycin, cefotaxime, doxycycline, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, clarithromycin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin), three decongestants (naphazoline, oxymetazoline, xylometazoline) and the antiviral drug oseltamivir's active metabolite, oseltamivir carboxylate, measured at 21 locations within the River Thames catchment in England. The measurements were taken weekly during November 2009, once in March 2010 and once in May 2011, with the aim to quantify pharmaceutical usage during the influenza pandemic of 2009 and...

Experimentally induced intrasexual mating competition and sex-specific evolution in female and male nematodes

Josefine Stångberg, Elina Immonen, Pilar Puimedon Moreno & Elisabeth Bolund
Sexual dimorphism in life history traits and their trade-offs is widespread among sexually reproducing animals, and is strongly influenced by the differences in reproductive strategies between the sexes. We investigated how intrasexual competition (pre- and postcopulatory) acted on specific life history traits, important to fitness, and their trade-offs in the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis remanei. Here, we imposed strong sex-specific selection through experimental evolution with increased potential for intrasexual competition by skewing the adult sex ratio...

Raw fitness data (offspring number and weight), main dataset for manuscript: Female-specific resource limitation does not make the opportunity for selection more female biased

Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Elina Immonen & Johanna L. Rönn
The present dataset contains the entirety of the raw empirical data used in the manuscript entitled: "Female-specific resource limitation does not make the opportunity for selection more female biased". This data is composed of offspring count and weight, which represent proxys of fitness. Fitness was assessed for males and females independently, and across three different experimental treatments. These fitness measures are used to calculate the opportunity for selection, as the variance in realtive fitness. Detailed...

Genomic variation data for the wagtail hybrid zone

Georgy Semenov, Ethan Link, Erik Enbody, Rebecca Harris, David Khaydarov, Per Alström, Leif Andersson & Scott Taylor
Genome-wide variation in introgression rates across hybrid zones offers a powerful opportunity for studying population differentiation. One poorly understood pattern of introgression is the geographic displacement of a trait implicated in lineage divergence from genome-wide population boundaries. While difficult to interpret, this pattern can facilitate the dissection of trait genetic architecture because traits become uncoupled from their ancestral genomic background. We studied an example of trait displacement generated by the introgression of head plumage coloration...

Data from: Trade-off between somatic and germline repair in a vertebrate supports the expensive germ line hypothesis

Simone Immler, Hwei-Yen Chen, Kasparas Bublys, Cecile Jolly & Daniel Marcu
The disposable soma theory is a central tenet of the biology of aging where germline immortality comes at the cost of an aging soma [T. B. L. Kirkwood, Nature 270, 301–304 (1977); T. B. L. Kirkwood, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B Biol. Sci. 205, 531–546 (1979); T. B. L. Kirkwood, S. N. Austad, Nature 408, 233–238 (2000)]. Limited resources and a possible trade-off between the repair and maintenance of the germ cells and growth and...

Data from: Small Carbonaceous Fossils (SCFs) from North Greenland: new light on metazoan diversity in early Cambrian shelf environments

Elise Wallet, Ben Slater, Sebastian Willman & John Peel
The Sirius Passet Lagerstätte of North Greenland provides one of the oldest records of soft-bodied metazoan-dominated ecosystems from within the early Cambrian. The Lagerstätte site itself is restricted to just a single ~1 km-long outcrop located offshore from the shelf margin, in an area that has been affected by metamorphic alteration during the Ellesmerian Orogeny (Devonian–Early Carboniferous). The recent recovery of Small Carbonaceous Fossils (SCFs) to the south in areas that have escaped the effects...

Data from: Regulation of fatty acid composition related to ontogenetic changes and niche differentiation of a common aquatic consumer

Fernando Chaguaceda, Scharnweber Kristin & Peter Eklöv
Fatty acids (FAs) are key nutrients for fitness which take part in multiple physiological processes over the ontogeny of organisms. Yet, we lack evidence on how FA nutrition mediates life-history trade-offs and ontogenetic niche shifts in natural populations. In a field study, we analyzed ontogenetic changes in the FAs of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis L.), a widespread fish that goes through ontogenetic niche shifts and can have high individual niche specialization. Diet explained most of...

Supplemental materials of: Ignored biodiversity in acid soil islands in karst areas, South China: Impatiens longlinensis (Balsaminaceae), a new critically endangered species

Tian-Tian Xue, Chang-Ying Xia, Magnus Lidén, Wei-Bin Xu, Zhao-Cen Lu, Hai-Ling Chen, Shu-Wan Li & Sheng-Xiang Yu
The karst area in South China is notable for its fragile vegetation and unique flora with many narrow endemics, and is one of the most threatened biodiversity hotspots in the world. However, the biodiversity of acid soil areas scattered in the karst area have previously been underestimated. With a recent increase of new discoveries of plants and animals, the conservation of biodiversity in these acid soil areas has become urgent. This study deals with a...

High variation in last male sperm precedence and genital morphology in the emerald damselfly Lestes sponsa

Frank Johansson, David Berger, Jacob Höglund, Yvonne Meyer-Lucht, Patrik Rödin-Mörch, Szymon Sniegula & Phillip Watts
In organisms where individuals mate multiply, knowledge on the proportion of offspring sired by the last male to mate (P2) under field conditions is important for a thorough understanding of how sexual selection works in nature. In many insect groups, pronounced intraspecific variation in P2 is commonplace. Interestingly, however, in stark contrast to these observations, compilation of P2 data in dragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) indicate that a high P2, seldom below 0.95, is a feature...

Data from: Algal affinity and possible life cycle of the early Cambrian acritarch Yurtusia uniformis from South China

Xiaodong Shang, Pengju Liu, Małgorzata Moczydłowska & Ben Yang
Abundant, well-preserved specimens of spheroidal organic-walled microfossil Yurtusia uniformis are reported from the basal Cambrian Yanjiahe Formation in the Changyang area of Hubei Province, South China. Thin and hollow processes extend between the double walls of the vesicle. The single to multiple internal bodies within the vesicle cavity are observed in the genus for the first time, representing reproductive structures (dividing daughter cells). A small circular perforation may occur on the vesicle wall to release...

Data from: Scented nectar and the challenge of measuring honest signals in pollination

Amy Parachnowitsch, Rosalie Burdon, Rob Raguso, Robert Gegear, Ellen Pierce & André Kessler
1. Nectar scents are thought to function as honest signals of reward used by pollinators, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested. 2. Using Penstemon digitalis, we examined honest signalling of the nectar volatile (S)-(+)-linalool and pollinator responses to linalool in both field and laboratory settings. Because our previous work showed that linalool emission was associated with higher female fitness and that nectar is scented with linalool, we hypothesized that linalool was an honest signal...

French (F) and Swedish (S) Founder (P) and Mutation Accumulation Line (MA) performance in France and Sweden

Charles Fenster, Mao-Lun Weng, Jon Agren, Henning Nottebrock, Eric Imbert & Matthew Rutter
Little is empirically known about the contribution of mutations to fitness in natural environments. However, Fisher's Geometric Model (FGM) provides a conceptual foundation to consider the influence of the environment on mutational effects. To quantify mutational properties in the field, we established eight sets of MA lines (7-10 generations) derived from eight founders collected from natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from French and Swedish sites, representing the range margins of the species in Europe. We...

Scripts and files for \"Small-scale population divergence is driven by local larval environment in a temperate amphibian\"

Patrik Rödin Mörch, Hugo Palejowski, Maria Cortazar-Chinarro, Simon Kärvemo, Alex Richter-Boix, Jacob Höglund & Anssi Laurila
Genomic variation within and among populations is shaped by the interplay between natural selection and the effects of genetic drift and gene flow. Adaptive divergence can be found in small scale natural systems even when population sizes are small and the potential for gene flow is high, suggesting that local environments exert selection pressures strong enough to counteract the opposing effects of drift and gene flow. Here, we investigated genomic differentiation in nine moor frog...

Data for: Sexual conflict drives micro- and macroevolution of sexual dimorphism in immunity

David Berger, Basabi Bagchi, Quentin Corbel, Imroze Khan, Ellen Payne, Devshuvam Banerji, Johanna Liljestrand-Rönn, Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Julian Baur, Ahmed Sayadi, Elina Immonen, Göran Arnqvist & Irene Söderhäll
Background: Sexual dimorphism in immunity is believed to reflect sex-differences in reproductive strategies and trade-offs between competing life history demands. Sexual selection can have major effects on mating rates and sex-specific costs of mating and may thereby influence sex-differences in immunity as well as associated host-pathogen dynamics. Yet, experimental evidence linking the mating system to evolved sexual dimorphism in immunity are scarce and the direct effects of mating rate on immunity are not well established....

Data from: Mechanisms of male-male interference during dispersal of orchid pollen

Lawrence Harder, Shane A. Richards, Jon Ågren & Steven D. Johnson
Siring success of flowering plants depends on the fates of male gametophytes, which compete for access to stigmas, stylar resources and ovules. Although rarely considered, pollen may often compete during dispersal, affecting the processes required for export to stigmas; pollen pickup, transport and deposition. We quantified dispersal interference by tracking bee dispersal of stained Anacamptis morio (Orchidaceae) pollen from individual donor flowers and inferred the affected dispersal mechanisms based on the fit of a process-based...

Do genetic differences in growth thermal reaction norms maintain genetic variation in timing of diapause induction?

Erlend Fossen, Joost Raeymaekers & Sigurd Einum
An optimal timing for diapause induction through the sexual production of dormant propagules is expected in organisms with temporary populations. Yet, empirical studies often find high within-population genetic variation in the sexual production of such propagules, suggesting that this is a common feature of such organisms. Here, we hypothesize that genetic variation in the propensity to produce dormant propagules, Pd, is maintained by a genotype-by-environment interaction in clonal reproductive rates, where fast-growing genotypes within an...

Data from: Different DMRT3 genotypes are best adapted for harness racing and riding in Finnhorses

Kim Jäderkvist Fegraeus, Lisa Johansson, Minna Mäenpää, Anna Mykkänen, Lisa S. Andersson, Brandon D. Velie, Leif Andersson, Thorvaldur Árnason & Gabriella Lindgren
Previous studies showed a positive effect of the DMRT3 “gait keeper” mutation on harness racing performance in Standardbreds, French-, and Nordic trotters. The mutation has also been shown to influence riding traits in multiple breeds. This study investigated the effect of the DMRT3 mutation on harness racing performance and riding traits in Finnhorses. Finnhorses used for harness racing (n = 180) and for riding (n = 59) were genotyped for the DMRT3 mutation. For the...

Data from: Evolution under dietary restriction increases male reproductive performance without survival cost

Felix Zajitschek, Susanne R. K. Zajitschek, Cindy Canton, Grigorios Georgolopoulos, Urban Friberg & Alexei A. Maklakov
Dietary restriction (DR), a reduction in nutrient intake without malnutrition, is the most reproducible way to extend lifespan in a wide range of organisms across the tree of life, yet the evolutionary underpinnings of the DR effect on lifespan are still widely debated. The leading theory suggests that this effect is adaptive and results from reallocation of resources from reproduction to somatic maintenance in order to survive periods of famine in nature. However, such response...

Data from: Replicated latitudinal clines in reproductive traits of European and North American yellow dung flies

Stephanie S. Bauerfeind, Martin A. Schäfer, David Berger, Wolf U. Blanckenhorn & Charles W. Fox
Geographic variation in phenotypic traits is commonly correlated with spatial variation in the environment, e.g., seasonality and mean temperature, providing evidence that natural selection generates such patterns. In particular, both body size and egg size of ectothermic animals are commonly larger in northern climates, and temperature induces plastic responses in both traits. Size-independent egg quality can also vary with latitude, though this is rarely investigated. For the widespread yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria; Diptera: Scathophagidae),...

Data from: The consequences of sexual selection in well-adapted and maladapted populations of bean beetles

Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Uroš Savković, Mirko Đorđević, Göran Arnqvist, Biljana Stojkovic & David Berger
Whether sexual selection generally promotes or impedes population persistence remains an open question. Intralocus sexual conflict (IaSC) can render sexual selection in males detrimental to the population by increasing the frequency of alleles with positive effects on male reproductive success but negative effects on female fecundity. Recent modelling based on fitness landscape theory, however, indicates that the relative impact of IaSC may be reduced in maladapted populations and that sexual selection therefore might promote adaptation...

Data from: Flowering time QTL in natural populations of Arabidopsis thaliana and implications for their adaptive value

Emily L. Dittmar, Christopher G. Oakley, Jon Ågren & Douglas W. Schemske
The genetic basis of phenotypic traits is of great interest to evolutionary biologists, but their contribution to adaptation in nature is often unknown. To determine the genetic architecture of flowering time in ecologically relevant conditions, we used a recombinant inbred line population created from two locally adapted populations of Arabidopsis thaliana from Sweden and Italy. Using these RILs, we identified flowering time QTL in growth chambers that mimicked the natural temperature and photoperiod variation across...

Data from: Haploid selection within a single ejaculate increases offspring fitness

Ghazal Alavioon, Cosima Hotzy, Khriezhanuo Nakhro, Sandra Rudolf, Douglas Scofield, Susanne Zajitschek, Alexei Maklakov & Simone Immler
An inescapable consequence of sex in eukaryotes is the evolution of a biphasic life cycle with alternating diploid and haploid phases. The occurrence of selection during the haploid phase can have far-reaching consequences for fundamental evolutionary processes including the rate of adaptation, the extent of inbreeding depression, and the load of deleterious mutations, as well as for applied research into fertilization technology. Although haploid selection is well established in plants, current dogma assumes that in...

Data from: No evidence for nuclear introgression despite complete mtDNA replacement in the Carpathian newt (Lissotriton montandoni)

Piotr Zieliński, Krystyna Nadachowska-Brzyska, Ben Wielstra, Rafał Szkotak, Severus D. Covaciu-Marcov, Dan Cogalniceanu & Wieslaw Babik
Patterns of interspecific introgression may vary geographically, and the distribution of introgressed variants can yield insight into the historical dynamics of genetic interactions between hybridizing species. Urodele amphibians, often characterized by limited mobility, deep intraspecific genetic structuring and vulnerability to climatic changes, constitute suitable models for such historical inferences. Here, we combine an extensive survey of the mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear (15 microsatellites) genomes in the Carpathian newt, Lissotriton montandoni (Lm) with species distribution modelling...

Data from: Identification of Swedish mosquitoes based on molecular barcoding of the COI gene and SNP analysis

Cecilia Engdahl, Pär Larsson, Jonas Näslund, Mayra Bravo, Magnus Evander, Jan O. Lundstrom, Clas Ahlm & Göran Bucht
Mosquito-borne infectious diseases are emerging in many regions of the world. Consequently, surveillance of mosquitoes and concomitant infectious agents is of great importance for prediction and prevention of mosquito-borne infectious diseases. Currently, morphological identification of mosquitoes is the traditional procedure. However, sequencing of specified genes or standard genomic regions, DNA barcoding, has recently been suggested as a global standard for identification and classification of many different species. Our aim was to develop a genetic method...

Data from: The influence of habitat accessibility on the dietary and morphological specialisation of an aquatic predator

Maria H.K. Marklund, Richard Svanbäck, Yinghua Zha, Kristin Scharnweber, Peter Eklov & Maria H. K. Marklund
Individual diet and habitat specialisation are widespread in animal taxa and often related to levels of predation and competition. Mobile consumers such as predatory fish can stabilise lake food webs by ranging over a larger area than their prey, thereby switching between habitats. Although, this switching assumes that the predator has equal preference for the available prey, individual diet specialisation and morphological adaptations to different habitats could potentially prevent individuals from switching between habitats. In...

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