56 Works

Data from: Molecular and morphological diversity of on-farm hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) landraces from southern Europe and their role in the origin and diffusion of cultivated germplasm

P. Boccacci, M. Aramini, N. Valentini, L. Bacchetta, M. Rovira, P. Drogoudi, A. P. Silva, A. Solar, F. Calizzano, V. Erdoğan, V. Cristofori, L. F. Ciarmiello, C. Contessa, J. J. Ferreira, F. P. Marra & R. Botta
Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is a traditional nut crop in southern Europe. Germplasm exploration conducted on-farm in five countries (Portugal, Spain, Italy, Slovenia, and Greece) identified 77 landraces. The present work describes phenotypic variation in nut and husk traits and investigates genetic relationships using 10 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers among these landraces, 57 well-known references cultivars, and 19 wild accessions. Among the 77 landraces, 42 had unique fingerprints while 35 showed a SSR profile...

Data from: Evolutionary changes in pubic orientation in dinosaurs are more strongly correlated with the ventilation system than with herbivory

Loredana Macaluso & Emanuel Tschopp
Among dinosaurs, the pubis has convergently retroverted four times in Maniraptora (Theropoda) and once in Ornithischia. Although a clear correlation has not been demonstrated, it has been previously proposed that two traits were related to pubic retroversion: the reduced importance of cuirassal ventilation, and a herbivorous diet. Here, we analyse the possible influence of these traits on pubis orientation. Cuirassal ventilation was plesiomorphically present as an accessory ventilation mechanism in Dinosauria and was powered by...

Data from: Lock-picks: fungal infection facilitates the intrusion of strangers into ant colonies

Enikő Csata, Natalia Timuș, Magdalena Witek, Luca Pietro Casacci, Christophe Lucas, Anne-Geneviève Bagnères, Anna Sztencel-Jabłonka, Francesca Barbero, Simona Bonelli, László Rákosy & Bálint Marko
Studies investigating host-parasite systems rarely deal with multispecies interactions, and mostly explore impacts on hosts as individuals. Much less is known about the effects at colony level, when parasitism involves host organisms that form societies. We surveyed the effect of an ectoparasitic fungus, Rickia wasmannii, on kin-discrimination abilities of its host ant, Myrmica scabrinodis, identifying potential consequences at social level and subsequent changes in colony infiltration success of other organisms. Analyses of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs),...

Source data for: Presynaptic NMDARs cooperate with local spikes toward GABA release from the reciprocal olfactory bulb granule cell spine

Veronica Egger, Vanessa Lage-Rupprecht, Li Zhou, Gaia Bianchini, S. Sara Aghvami, Balazs Rozsa, Marco Sassoe-Pognetto & Max Mueller
In the rodent olfactory bulb the smooth dendrites of the principal glutamatergic mitral cells (MCs) form reciprocal dendrodendritic synapses with large spines on GABAergic granule cells (GC), where unitary release of glutamate can trigger postsynaptic local activation of voltage-gated Na+-channels (Navs), i.e. a spine spike. Can such single MC input evoke reciprocal release? We find that unitary-like activation via two-photon uncaging of glutamate causes GC spines to release GABA both synchronously and asynchronously onto MC...

Data from: Large-bodied sabre-toothed anchovies reveal unanticipated ecological diversity in early Palaeogene teleosts

Alessio Capobianco, Hermione Beckett, Etienne Steurbaut, Philip Gingerich, Giorgio Carnevale & Matthew Friedman
Many modern groups of marine fishes first appear in the fossil record during the early Palaeogene (66–40 million years ago), including iconic predatory lineages of spiny-rayed fishes that appear to have originated in response to ecological roles left empty after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene extinction. The hypothesis of extinction-mediated ecological release likewise predicts that other fish groups have adopted novel predatory ecologies. Here we report remarkable trophic innovation in early Palaeogene clupeiforms (herrings and allies), a group...

How to render species comparable taxonomic units through deep time: A case study on intraspecific osteological variability in extant and extinct Lacertid lizards

Emanuel Tschopp, James Napoli, Lukardis Wencker, Massimo Delfino & Paul Upchurch
Generally, the species is considered to be the only naturally occurring taxon. However, species recognised and defined using different species delimitation criteria cannot readily be compared, impacting studies of biodiversity through Deep Time. This comparability issue is particularly marked when comparing extant with extinct species, because the only available data for species delimitation in fossils is derived from their preserved morphology, which is generally restricted to osteology in vertebrates. Here, we quantify intraspecific, intrageneric, and...

Environmental filtering and convergent evolution determine the ecological specialisation of subterranean spiders

Stefano Mammola, Miquel Arnedo, Cene Fišer, Pedro Cardoso, Andrea Dejanaz & Marco Isaia
1. Ecological specialisation is an important mechanism enhancing species coexistence within a given community. Yet, unravelling the effect of multiple selective evolutionary and ecological factors leading the process of specialisation remains a key challenge in ecology. Subterranean habitats provide highly replicated experimental arenas in which to disentangle the relative contribution of evolutionary history (convergent evolution vs character displacement) and ecological setting (environmental filtering vs competitive exclusion) in driving community assembly. 2. We tested alternative hypotheses...

The impact of molecular data on the phylogenetic position of the putative oldest crown crocodilian and the age of the clade

Gusatvo Darlim, Michael Lee, Jules Walter & Márton Rabi
The use of molecular data for living groups is vital for interpreting fossils, especially when morphology-only analyses retrieve problematic phylogenies for living forms. These topological discrepancies impact on the inferred phylogenetic position of many fossil taxa. In Crocodylia, morphology-based phylogenetic inferences differ fundamentally in placing Gavialis basal to all other living forms, whereas molecular data consistently unite it with crocodylids. The Cenomanian Portugalosuchus azenhae was recently described as the oldest crown crocodilian, with affinities to...

Data from: Revised Airlie House consensus guidelines for design and implementation of ALS clinical trials

Leonard H Van Den Berg, Eric Sorenson, Gary Gronseth, Eric A. Macklin, Jinsy Andrews, Robert H. Baloh, Michael Benatar, James D. Berry, Adriano Chio, Philippe Corcia, Angela Genge, Amelie K. Gubitz, Catherine Lomen-Hoerth, Christopher J. McDermott, Erik P. Pioro, Jeffrey Rosenfeld, Vincenzo Silani, Martin R. Turner, Markus Weber, Benjamin Rix Brooks, Robert G. Miller & Hiroshi Mitsumoto
Objective: To revise the 1999 Airlie House consensus guidelines for the design and implementation of preclinical therapeutic studies and clinical trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: A consensus committee comprising 140 key members of the international ALS community (ALS researchers, clinicians, patient representatives, research funding representatives, industry and regulatory agencies) addressed nine areas of need within ALS research: 1. Pre-clinical studies; 2. Biological and phenotypic heterogeneity; 3. Outcome measures; 4. Disease-modifying and symptomatic interventions;...

Data from: Re-visiting the phylogeography and demography of European badgers (Meles meles) based on broad sampling, multiple markers and simulations

Alain C. Frantz, Allan D. McDevitt, Lisa C. Pope, Joanna Kochan, John Davison, Chris F. Clements, Morten Elmeros, Guillem Molina-Vacas, Aritz Ruiz-Gonzalez, Alessandro Balestrieri, Koen Van Den Berge, Peter Breyne, Emmanuel Do Linh San, Erik O. Ågren, Franz Suchentrunk, Laurent Schley, Rafał Kowalczyk, Berit I. Kostka, Dusko Ćirović, Nikica Šprem, Marc Colyn, Marco Ghirardi, Venislava Racheva, Christophe Braun, Rita Oliveira … & Terry Burke
Although the phylogeography of European mammals has been extensively investigated since the 1990s, many studies were limited in terms of sampling distribution, the number of molecular markers used and the analytical techniques employed, frequently leading to incomplete postglacial recolonisation scenarios. The broad-scale genetic structure of the European badger (Meles meles) is of interest as it may result from historic restriction to glacial refugia and/or recent anthropogenic impact. However, previous studies were based mostly on samples...

Data from: Mlh3 mutations in baker's yeast alter meiotic recombination outcomes by increasing noncrossover events genome-wide

Najla Al-Sweel, Vandana Raghavan, Abhishek Dutta, V. P. Ajith, Luigi Di Vietro, Nabila Khondakar, Carol M. Manhart, Jennifer Surtees, K. T. Nishant, Eric Alani & Jennifer A. Surtees
Mlh1-Mlh3 is an endonuclease hypothesized to act in meiosis to resolve double Holliday junctions into crossovers. It also plays a minor role in eukaryotic DNA mismatch repair (MMR). To understand how Mlh1-Mlh3 functions in both meiosis and MMR, we analyzed in baker's yeast 60 new mlh3 alleles. Five alleles specifically disrupted MMR, whereas one (mlh3-32) specifically disrupted meiotic crossing over. Mlh1-mlh3 representatives for each class were purified and characterized. Both Mlh1-mlh3-32 (MMR+, crossover-) and Mlh1-mlh3-45...

Data from: Drivers of climate change impacts on bird communities

James W. Pearce-Higgins, Sarah M. Eglington, Blaise Martay & Dan E. Chamberlain
1. Climate change is reported to have caused widespread changes to species’ populations and ecological communities. Warming has been associated with population declines in long-distance migrants and habitat specialists, and increases in southerly distributed species. However, the specific climatic drivers behind these changes remain undescribed. 2. We analysed annual fluctuations in the abundance of 59 breeding bird species in England over 45 years to test the effect of monthly temperature and precipitation means upon population...

Data from: Convergent losses of decay mechanisms and rapid turnover of symbiosis genes in mycorrhizal mutualists

Annegret Kohler, Alan Kuo, Laszlo G. Nagy, Emmanuelle Morin, Kerrie W. Barry, Francois Buscot, Bjorn Canback, Cindy Choi, Nicolas Cichocki, Alicia Clum, Jan Colpaert, Alex Copeland, Mauricio D. Costa, Jeanne Dore, Dimitrios Floudas, Gilles Gay, Mariangela Girlanda, Bernard Henrissat, Sylvie Herrmann, Jaqueline Hess, Nils Hogberg, Tomas Johansson, Hassine-Radhouane Khouja, Kurt LaButti, Urs Lahrmann … & Francis Martin
To elucidate the genetic bases of mycorrhizal lifestyle evolution, we sequenced new fungal genomes, including 13 ectomycorrhizal (ECM), orchid (ORM) and ericoid (ERM) species, and five saprotrophs, which we analyzed along with other fungal genomes. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have a reduced complement of genes encoding plant cell wall–degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), as compared to their ancestral wood decayers. Nevertheless, they have retained a unique array of PCWDEs, thus suggesting that they possess diverse abilities to decompose lignocellulose....

Data from: The earliest baleen whale of the mediterranean: Large-scale implications of an early miocene thalassotherian mysticete from Piedmont, Italy

Michelangelo Bisconti, Piero Damarco, Selina Mao, Marco Pavia & Giorgio Carnevale
The discovery of an Early Miocene chaeomysticete from the Pietra da Cantoni Group in Piedmont (north-western Italy) allowed for the creation of Atlanticetus n. gen. and Atlanticetus lavei n. sp. The new species is represented by a partial skeleton including the earbones and shows anatomical resemblance with Atlanticetus patulus (new combination) from the western North Atlantic. The Early Miocene age of the new specimen supports the view that it represents the oldest record of Chaeomysticeti...

Past, present and future of chamois science

Luca Corlatti, Laura Iacolina, Toni Safner, Marco Apollonio, Elena Buzan, Francesco Ferretti, Sabine Hammer, Juan Herrero, Luca Rossi, Emmanuel Serrano, Mari Cruz Arnal, Francesca Brivio, Roberta Chirichella, Antonella Cotza, Barbara Crestanello, Johan Espunyes, Daniel Fernández De Luco, Saskia Friedrich, Dragan Gačić, Laura Grassi, Stefano Grignolio, Heidi Hauffe, Kresmir Kavčić, Andreas Kinser, Francesca Lioce … & Nikica Šprem
The chamois Rupicapra spp. is the most abundant mountain ungulate of Europe and the Near East, where it occurs as two species, the Northern chamois R. rupicapra and the Southern chamois R. pyrenaica. Here, we provide a state-of-the-art overview of research trends and the most challenging issues in chamois research and conservation, focusing on taxonomy and systematics, genetics, life history, ecology and behavior, physiology and disease, management, and conservation. Research on Rupicapra has a longstanding...

Hazelnut SSR database: genetic profiles of the accessions, list of synonyms, and true-to-type genotypes

Paolo Boccacci, Maria Aramini, Matthew Ordidge, Theo Van Hintum, Daniela Torello Marinoni, Nadia Valentini, Jean-Paul Sarraquigne, Anita Solar, Mercè Rovira, Loretta Bacchetta & Roberto Botta
Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) is one of the most important tree nut crops in Europe. Germplasm accessions are conserved in ex situ repositories, located in countries where hazelnut production occurs. In this work, we used ten simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers as the basis to establish a core collection representative of the hazelnut genetic diversity conserved in different European collections. A total of 480 accessions were used: 430 from ex situ collections and 50 landraces...

Trait data of European and Maghreb butterflies

Joseph Middleton Welling, Leonardo Dapporto Dapporto, Enrique García-Barros, Martin Wiemers, Piotr Nowicki, Elisa Plazio, Simona Bonelli, Michele Zaccagno, Martina Šašić, Jana Lipárová, Oliver Schweiger, Alexander Harpke, Martin Musche, Josef Settele, Reto Schmucki & Tim Shreeve
Trait-based analyses explaining the different responses of species and communities to environmental changes are increasing in frequency. European butterflies are an indicator group that responds rapidly to environmental changes with extensive citizen science contributions to documenting changes of abundance and distribution. Species traits have been used to explain long- and short-term responses to climate, land-use and vegetation changes. Studies are often characterised by limited traits sets being used, with risks that the relative roles of...

Data from: Factors associated with first- versus second-generation long-acting antipsychotics prescribed under ordinary clinical practice in Italy

Giovanni Ostuzzi, Maria Angela Mazzi, Samira Terlizzi, Federico Bertolini, Andrea Aguglia, Francesco Bartoli, Paola Bortolaso, Camilla Callegari, Mariarita Caroleo, Giuseppe Carrà, Mariangela Corbo, Armando D'agostino, Chiara Gastaldon, Claudio Lucii, Fabio Magliocco, Giovanni Martinotti, Michela Nosé, Edoardo Giuseppe Ostinelli, Davide Papola, Marco Piccinelli, Alberto Piccoli, Marianna Purgato, Tommaso Tabacchi, Giulia Turrini, Mirella Ruggeri … & Armando D’Agostino
Background. For many years, long-acting intramuscular (LAI) antipsychotics have been prescribed predominantly to chronic and severe patients, as a last resort when other treatments failed. Recently, a broader and earlier use of LAIs, particularly second-generation LAIs, has been emphasized. To date, few studies attempted to frame how this change in prescribing took place in real-world practice. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the clinical features of patients prescribed with LAIs, and to explore possible prescribing...

Preterm birth is not associated with asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection per se: pre-pregnancy state is what matters

Stefano Cosma, Andrea Roberto Carosso, Jessica Cusato, Fulvio Borella, Marco Carosso, Fiammetta Gervasoni, Ilaria Stura, Mario Preti, Valeria Ghisetti, Giovanni Di Perri & Chiara Benedetto
Evidence for the real impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on preterm birth is unclear, as available series report composite pregnancy outcomes and/or do not stratify patients according to disease severity.The purpose of the research was to determine the real impact of asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection on preterm birth not due to maternal respiratory failure. This case-control study involved women admitted to a hospital for delivery between 20 September 2020 and 9...

Plastic mulch film residues in agriculture: impact on soil suppressiveness, plant growth, and microbial communities

Yueling Qi, Adam Ossowicki, Étienne Yergeau, Gianpiero Vigani, Violette Geissen & Paolina Garbeva
Plastic mulch film residues have been accumulating in agricultural soils for decades, but so far, little is known about its consequences on soil microbial communities and functions. Here, we tested the effects of plastic residues of low-density polyethylene and biodegradable mulch films on soil suppressiveness and microbial community composition. We investigated how plastic residues in a Fusarium culmorum suppressive soil affect the level of disease suppressiveness, plant biomass, nutrient status, and microbial communities in rhizosphere...

Data from: The rise to dominance of lanternfishes (Teleostei, Myctophidae) in the oceanic ecosystems: a paleontological perspective

Werner Schwarzhans & Giorgio Carnevale
Lanternfishes currently represent one of the dominant groups of mesopelagic fishes in terms of abundance, biomass and diversity. Their otolith record dominates pelagic sediments below 200 m in dredges, especially during the entire Neogene. Here we provide an analysis of their diversity and rise to dominance primarily based on their otolith record. The earliest unambiguous fossil myctophids are known based on otoliths from the late Paleocene and early Eocene. During their early evolutionary history myctophids...

Data from: Differential neuropsychological profile of ALS patients with and without C9orf72 mutation

Adriano Chio
Objective. To determine whether the neuropsychological profiles of ALS patients with (ALSC9+) and without (ALSC9-) C9orf72 expansion are different we administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to 741 ALS patients (68 ALSC9+ and 673 ALSC9-) and 129 controls. Methods. The study population includes 741 ALS patients who were consecutively diagnosed at the Turin ALS expert center in the period 2010-2018 and who underwent both cognitive/behavioral and genetic testing. Patients’ neuropsychological patterns were compared (a) at...

Data from: Long live the alien: is high genetic diversity a pivotal aspect of crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) long-lasting and successful invasion?

Emiliano Trucchi, Benoit Facon, Paolo Gratton, Emiliano Mori, Nils Chr. Stenseth & Sissel Jentoft
Studying the evolutionary dynamics of an alien species surviving and continuing to expand after several generations can provide fundamental information on the relevant features of clearly successful invasions. Here, we tackle this task by investigating the dynamics of the genetic diversity in invasive crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) populations, introduced to Italy about 1500 years ago, which are still growing in size, distribution range and ecological niche. Using genome-wide RAD markers, we describe the structure of...

Data from: Population genetic analyses provide insights on the introduction pathway and spread patterns of the North American forest pathogen Heterobasidion irregulare in Italy

Matteo Garbelotto, Fabio Guglielmo, Silvia Mascheretti, Peter J. P. Croucher & Paolo Gonthier
A population genetics approach is used to identify the most likely introduction site and introduction pathway for the North American forest pathogen Heterobasidion irregulare using 101 isolates from six sites in Italy and 34 isolates from five sites in North America. Diversity indices based on sequences from ten loci indicate the highest diversity in Italy is found in Castelfusano/Castelporziano and that diversity progressively decreases with increasing distance from that site. AMOVA, Bayesian clustering and principal...

Disentangling responses to natural stressor and human impact gradients in river ecosystems across Europe

Rachel Stubbington, Romain Sarremejane, Alex Laini, Núria Cid, Zoltán Csabai, Judy England, Antoni Munné, Tom Aspin, Núria Bonada, Daniel Bruno-Collados, Sophie Cauvy-Fraunie, Richard Chadd, Claudia Dienstl, Pau Fortuño, Wolfram Graf, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas, Andy House, Ioannis Karaouzas, Eleana Kazila, Andrés Millán, Maria Morais, Petr Pařil, Alex Pickwell, Marek Polášek, David Sánchez-Fernández … & Thibault Datry
1. Rivers are dynamic ecosystems in which both human impacts and climate-driven drying events are increasingly common. These anthropogenic and natural stressors interact to influence the biodiversity and functioning of river ecosystems. Disentangling ecological responses to these interacting stressors is necessary to guide management actions that support ecosystems adapting to global change. 2. We analysed the independent and interactive effects of human impacts and natural drying on aquatic invertebrate communities—a key biotic group used to...

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