79 Works

Functional miscibility and thermomechanical properties enhancement of substituted phthalic acetylated modified chitin filler in biopolymer composite

Niyi Olaiya, O.S. Obaseki, Gaber A.M. Mersal, Mohamed M. Ibrahim, Mahmoud M. Hessien, Funmilayo Olaiya, Asif Afzal, Taslima Khanam & Ahmad Rashedi
The miscibility between hydrophobic and hydrophilic biopolymers has been of significant challenge. This study used a novel simplified chitin modification method to produce phthalic - chitin using phthalic anhydride in a substitution reaction. The FT-IR functional group analysis was used to confirm the substitution reaction. The modified chitin was used as compatibiliser in PLA/starch biocomposite to enhance its properties. The biocomposite was prepared using melt extrusion and compression moulding technique. The biocomposite's morphological, thermomechanical, and...

Data from: Nuclear and mitochondrial patterns of population structure in North Pacific false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens)

Karen K. Martien, Susan J. Chivers, Robin W. Baird, Frederick I. Archer, Antoinette M. Gorgone, Brittany L. Hancock-Hanser, David Mattila, Daniel J. McSweeney, Erin M. Oleson, Carol Palmer, Victoria L. Pease, Kelly M. Robertson, Gregory S. Schorr, Mark B. Schultz, Daniel L. Webster & Barbara L. Taylor
False killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) are large Delphinids typically found in deep water far offshore. However, in the Hawaiian Archipelago there are two resident island-associated populations of false killer whales, one in the waters around the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) and one in the waters around the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). We use mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences and genotypes from 16 nuclear (nucDNA) microsatellite loci from 206 individuals to examine levels of differentiation...

Four Decades of Seagrass Spatial Data from Torres Strait and Gulf of Carpentaria (NESP MaC Project 1.13, TropWATER JCU)

Alex Carter, Skye McKenna, Rob Coles, Michael Rasheed, Helen Taylor, Chris Van de Wetering, Katie Chartrand, Carissa Reason, Catherine Collier, Lloyd Shepherd, Jane Mellors, Len McKenzie, Anthony Roelofs, Neil Smit, Rachel Groom, David Barret, Shaun Evans, Roland Pitcher, Norm Duke, Moni Carlisle, Madeina David, Stan Lui, Laura Pearson, Troy Laza & Aaron Bon

Data from: Isolated in an ocean of grass: low levels of gene flow between termite subpopulations

Anna M. Schmidt, Peter Jacklyn & Judith Korb
Habitat fragmentation is one of the most important causes of biodiversity loss, but many species are distributed in naturally patchy habitats. Such species are often organized in highly dynamic metapopulations or in patchy populations with high gene flow between subpopulations. Yet, there are also species that exist in stable patchy habitats with small subpopulations and presumably low dispersal rates. Here, we present population genetic data for the ‘magnetic’ termite Amitermes meridionalis, which show that short...

Data from: Stretched to the limit; can a short pelagic larval duration connect adult populations of an Indo-Pacific diadromous fish (Kuhlia rupestris)?

Pierre Feutry, Alan Vergnes, Damien Broderick, Josie Lambourdière, Philippe Keith & Jennifer R. Ovenden
Freshwater species on tropical islands face localized extinction and the loss of genetic diversity. Their habitats can be ephemeral due to variability in freshwater run-off and erosion. Even worse, anthropogenic effects on these ecosystems are intense. Most of these species are amphidromous or catadromous (i.e. their life cycle includes a marine larval phase), which buffers them against many of these effects. A long pelagic larval duration (PLD) was thought to be critical to ensure the...

Data from: High-throughput monitoring of wild bee diversity and abundance via mitogenomics

Min Tang, Chloe J. Hardman, Yinqiu Ji, Guanliang Meng, Shanlin Liu, Meihua Tang, Shenzhou Yang, Ellen D. Moss, Jiaxin Wang, Chenxue Yang, Catharine Bruce, Tim Nevard, Simon G. Potts, Xin Zhou, Douglas W. Yu & Meihua Tan
1. Bee populations and other pollinators face multiple, synergistically acting threats, which have led to population declines, loss of local species richness and pollination services, and extinctions. However, our understanding of the degree, distribution and causes of declines is patchy, in part due to inadequate monitoring systems, with the challenge of taxonomic identification posing a major logistical barrier. Pollinator conservation would benefit from a high-throughput identification pipeline. 2. We show that the metagenomic mining and...

Data from: Prescribed burning protects endangered tropical heathlands of the Arnhem Plateau, northern Australia

Brett P. Murphy, Mark A. Cochrane & Jeremy Russell-Smith
1. There are concerns that frequent intense fires are reducing biodiversity on the Arnhem Plateau within Kakadu National Park, northern Australia. Since the 1980s, prescribed burning in the early dry season has aimed to reduce the extent of late dry season wildfires. A programme of more strategic prescribed burning has been undertaken since 2007, aiming to increase intervals between fires affecting heathland and rain forest communities. 2. We assess the effectiveness of prescribed burning in...

Data from: The relationship between poverty and healthcare seeking among patients hospitalized with acute febrile illnesses in Chittagong, Bangladesh

Michael Trent Herdman, Richard James Maude, , Hugh W. F. Kingston, Atthanee Jeeyapant, Rasheda Samad, Rezaul Karim, Arjen M. Dondorp &
Delays in seeking appropriate healthcare can increase the case fatality of acute febrile illnesses, and circuitous routes of care-seeking can have a catastrophic financial impact upon patients in low-income settings. To investigate the relationship between poverty and pre-hospital delays for patients with acute febrile illnesses, we recruited a cross-sectional, convenience sample of 527 acutely ill adults and children aged over 6 months, with a documented fever ≥38.0°C and symptoms of up to 14 days’ duration,...

Tiwi Island native mammal live-trapping 2019

Hugh Davies
This data was collected as part of the National Environmental Science Program's Threatened Species Recovery Hub (Project 1.1.12 - Mitigating cat impacts on the brush-tailed rabbit-rat). This dataset includes all live captures of native mammals recorded on the Tiwi Islands (Melville and Bathurst) in 2019. Live-trapping was conducted at four locations (Cape Fourcroy, Ranku, Pickertaramoor and Cache Point). At each of these sites, a grid of 300 live-traps (225 Sherman traps and 75 cage traps)...

Data from: Ants as ecological indicators of rainforest restoration: community convergence and the development of an Ant Forest Indicator Index in the Australian wet tropics

Michael J. Lawes, Anthony M. Moore, Alan N. Andersen, Noel D. Preece & Donald C. Franklin
Ecosystem restoration can help reverse biodiversity loss, but whether faunal communities of forests undergoing restoration converge with those of primary forest over time remains contentious. There is a need to develop faunal indicators of restoration success that more comprehensively reflect changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function. Ants are an ecologically dominant faunal group and are widely advocated as ecological indicators. We examine ant species and functional group responses on a chronosequence of rainforest restoration in...

Data from: Biomass consumption by surface fires across Earth's most fire prone continent

Brett P. Murphy, Lynda D. Prior, Mark A. Cochrane, Grant J. Williamson & David M. J. S. Bowman
Landscape fire is a key but poorly understood component of the global carbon cycle. Predicting biomass consumption by fire at large spatial scales is essential to understanding carbon dynamics and hence how fire management can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase ecosystem carbon storage. An Australia‐wide field‐based survey (at 113 locations) across large‐scale macroecological gradients (climate, productivity and fire regimes) enabled estimation of how biomass combustion by surface fire directly affects continental‐scale carbon budgets. In...

Data from: Isolation, marine transgression, and translocation of the bare-nosed wombat (Vombatus ursinus)

Alynn M. Martin, Scott Carver, Kirstin Proft, Tamieka A. Fraser, Adam Polkinghorne, Sam Banks & Christopher P. Burridge
Island populations can represent genetically distinct and evolutionarily important lineages relative to mainland conspecifics. However, phenotypic divergence of island populations does not necessarily reflect genetic divergence, particularly for lineages inhabiting islands periodically connected during Pleistocene low sea stands. Marine barriers may also not be solely responsible for any divergence that is observed. Here, we investigated genetic divergence among and within the three phenotypically-distinct subspecies of bare-nosed wombats (Vombatus ursinus) in southeast Australia that are presently—but...

Data from: Human disturbance promotes herbivory by leaf-cutting ants in the Caatinga dry forest

Felipe F. S. Siqueira, José Domingos Ribeiro-Neto, Marcelo Tabarelli, Alan N. Andersen, Rainer Wirth & Inara R. Leal
Anthropogenic disturbances are known to modify plant-animal interactions such as those involving the leaf-cutting ants, the most voracious and proliferating herbivore across human-modified landscapes in the Neotropics. Here we evaluate the effect of chronic anthropogenic disturbance (e.g. firewood collection, livestock grazing) and vegetation seasonality on foraging area, foliage availability in the foraging area, leaf consumption, and herbivory rate of the leaf-cutting ant Atta opaciceps in the semi-arid Caatinga, a mosaic of dry forest and scrub...

Data from: Accuracy of identifications of mammal species from camera trap images: a northern Australian case study

Larissa C. Potter, Christopher J. Brady & Brett P. Murphy
Camera traps are a powerful and increasingly popular tool for mammal research, but like all survey methods, they have limitations. Identifying animal species from images is a critical component of camera trap studies, yet while researchers recognize constraints with experimental design or camera technology, image misidentification is still not well understood. We evaluated the effects of a species’ attributes (body mass and distinctiveness) and individual observer variables (experience and confidence) on the accuracy of mammal...

Data from: Insular biogeographic origins and high phylogenetic distinctiveness for a recently depleted lizard fauna from Christmas Island, Australia

Paul M. Oliver, Mozes P.K. Blom, Harold G. Cogger, Robert N. Fisher, Jonathan Q. Richmond, John C.Z. Woinarski & John C. Z. Woinarski
Striking faunal turnover across Asia and Australasia, most famously along the eastern edge of the Sunda Shelf or ‘Wallace’s Line’, has been a focus of biogeographic research for over 150 years. Here we investigate the origins of a highly threatened endemic lizard fauna (4 species) on Christmas Island. Despite occurring less 350 km south of the Sunda Shelf, this fauna mostly comprises species from clades centred on the more distant regions of Wallacea, the Pacific...

Patterns of niche contraction identify vital refuge areas for declining mammals

Brenton Von Takach
Aim Investigation of realised niche contraction in declining species can help us understand how and where threats are being either mediated or tolerated across landscapes. It also provides insights into species’ sensitivity to environmental change that are unable to be identified through analysis of declines in range size or abundance alone. Here, we apply the recently proposed ‘niche reduction hypothesis’ to investigate relationships between trends in niche breadth and geographic distribution of declining species. Location...

Does rapid utilisation of elevated nutrient availability allow eucalypts to dominate in the tropical savannas of Australia?

Harinandanan Paramjyothi, Brett Murphy, Michael Lawes, Natalie Rossitet-Rachor & Anna Richards
Northern Australia's savannas are amongst the most fire-prone biomes on Earth, and are dominated by eucalypts (Eucalyptus and Corymbia spp.). It is not clear what processes allows this group to dominate under such extreme fire frequencies and if a superior ability to compete for nutrients and water might play a role. There is evidence that eucalypts are adapted to frequent fires; juvenile eucalypts escape the fire trap by growing rapidly in height between fires. However,...

Data from: Dynamics of bird assemblages in response to temporally and spatially variable resources in arid Australia

Christine Schlesinger & Bruce Pascoe
Bird assemblages in arid Australia are often characterised as being highly variable through time in response to boom and bust dynamics, although the importance of habitat in structuring assemblages at a local scale is also recognised. We use a novel approach to investigate the importance of rainfall variability in structuring bird assemblages in a resource-limited environment. Monthly bird surveys were conducted at ten plots for eight years at a botanical and zoological park in central...

Additional file 2 of Low-abundance populations distinguish microbiome performance in plant cell wall deconstruction

Lauren M. Tom, Martina Aulitto, Yu-Wei Wu, Kai Deng, Yu Gao, Naijia Xiao, Beatrice Garcia Rodriguez, Clifford Louime, Trent R. Northen, Aymerick Eudes, Jenny C. Mortimer, Paul D. Adams, Henrik V. Scheller, Blake A. Simmons, Javier A. Ceja-Navarro & Steven W. Singer
Additional file 2: Supplementary Table S1. MG_FC_annotations. Table with data for contigs, predicted genes, and feature count values for genes in the metagenomes. MG_metadata. Metadata for sequenced metagenomes. MT_FC_annotations. Table with data for contigs, predicted genes, and feature count values for genes in the metatranscriptomes. MT_metadata. Metadata for sequenced metatranscriptomes.

Designing augmentative and alternative communication systems with Aboriginal Australians: vocabulary representation, layout, and access

Rebecca Amery, Julie Gungungbuy Wunungmurra, Gurimaŋu Bukuḻatjpi, Rachel Dikul Baker, Farrah Gumbula, Elah Yunupingu, Parimala Raghavendra, Ruth Barker, Deborah Theodoros, Howard Amery, Libby Massey & Anne Lowell
Yolŋu (Aboriginal Australians of northeast Arnhem Land) are interested in developing augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems in their own languages to support communication opportunities and participation for their family members living with Machado–Joseph disease. Designing AAC systems in Aboriginal languages requires consideration of unique linguistic and cultural elements. Participatory action research in strength-based communication contexts was carried out by Yolŋu and Balanda (the Yolŋu word for non-Aboriginal people) researchers working together through a collaborative...

Identification of microRNA hsa-miR-30c-5p as an inhibitory factor in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma and investigation of its regulatory network via comprehensive analysis

Shangshang Hu, Jinyan Zhang, Xiaoyu Fang, Guoqing Guo, Jing Dai, Zhiyong Sheng, Dongdong Li, Jiasheng Chen, Li Zhang, Chuanmiao Liu & Yu Gao
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary liver cancer with high morbidity and mortality. An increasing number of abnormal gene expressions were identified to be associated with the progression of HCC. Previous studies showed that the hsa-miR-30 c-5p (miR-30 c), one of the miR-30 family members, might play a role in suppressing tumor progression in a variety of tumors. The present study aims to examine miR-30 c effects in the development of HCC. The role of...

Data from: Recent rapid speciation and ecomorph divergence in Indo-Australian sea snakes

Kate L. Sanders, Arne R. Rasmussen, , Johan Elmberg, Anslem De Silva, Michael L. Guinea, Michael S.Y. Lee & Michael S. Y. Lee
The viviparous sea snakes (Hydrophiinae) are a young radiation of at least 62 species that display spectacular morphological diversity and high levels of local sympatry. To shed light on the mechanisms underlying sea snake diversification, we investigated recent speciation and eco-morphological differentiation in a clade of four nominal species with overlapping ranges in Southeast Asia and Australia. Analyses of morphology and stomach contents identified the presence of two distinct ecomorphs: a ‘macrocephalic’ ecomorph that reaches...

Data from: Body condition indices predict reproductive success but not survival in a sedentary, tropical bird

Olga Milenkaya, Daniel H. Catlin, Sarah Legge & Jeffrey R. Walters
Body condition may predict individual fitness because those in better condition have more resources to allocate towards improving their fitness. However, the hypothesis that condition indices are meaningful proxies for fitness has been questioned. Here, we ask if intraspecific variation in condition indices predicts annual reproductive success and survival. We monitored a population of Neochmia phaeton (crimson finch), a sedentary, tropical passerine, for reproductive success and survival over four breeding seasons, and sampled them for...

Data from: Using citizen-collected wildlife sightings to predict traffic strike hotspots for threatened species: a case study on the southern cassowary

Hamish A. Campbell, Luke Carpenter-Bundhoo, Ross G. Dwyer & Craig E. Franklin
Assessing the causal factors underpinning the distribution and abundance of wildlife road-induced mortality can be challenging. This is particularly ubiquitous for rare or elusive species, because traffic strikes occur infrequently for these populations and information about localized abundance, distribution, and movements are generally lacking. Here we assessed if citizen-collected sightings data may serve as a low cost and efficient means of gathering long-term animal road-side presence and road crossing information, which could then be used...

Data from: Patterns and drivers of aquatic invertebrate diversity across an arid biome

Jenny Davis, Lien Sim, Ross M. Thompson, Adrian Pinder, Jayne Brim Box, Nick P. Murphy, Fran Sheldon, Alejandra Morán-Ordóñez, Paul Sunnucks & Nicholas P. Murphy
Managing and restoring faunal diversity across large areas requires an understanding of the roles of connectivity and dispersal in driving community patterns. We sought to determine the influence of connectivity, water regime, water source, geographical location, and dispersal traits on patterns of aquatic invertebrate diversity across a continent-wide arid biome. We compiled data on freshwater invertebrate assemblages from sites spanning the breadth of arid Australia. Univariate analyses (analysis of variance and rarefaction) revealed that alpha...

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