55 Works

Data from: Many places called home: the adaptive value of seasonal adjustments in range fidelity

Alexandre Lafontaine, Pierre Drapeau, Daniel Fortin & Martin-Hugues St-Laurent
1. The vast majority of animal species display range fidelity, a space-use behaviour enhancing familiarity with local habitat features. While the fitness benefits of this behaviour have been demonstrated in a variety of taxa, some species or populations rather display infidelity, displacing their home range over time. Others, such as many ungulate species, show seasonal adjustments in their range fidelity to accommodate changes in the dominance of limiting factors or in the distribution of resources....

Data from: Impacts of human disturbance on large prey species: do behavioral reactions translate to fitness consequences?

Mathieu Leblond, Christian Dussault & Jean-Pierre Ouellet
Anthropogenic disturbances have been demonstrated to affect animal behavior, distribution, and abundance, but assessment of their impacts on fitness-related traits has received little attention. We hypothesized that human activities and infrastructure cause a decrease in the individual performance of preys because of anthropogenically enhanced predation risk. We evaluated the impacts of commercial logging and road networks on the fitness of a large herbivore known to be sensitive to human disturbance: the forest-dwelling woodland caribou (Rangifer...

Data from: Evolutionary implications of mitochondrial genetic variation: Mitochondrial genetic effects on OXPHOS respiration and mitochondrial quantity change with age and sex in fruit flies

Jonci N. Wolff, Nicolas Pichaud, Maria F. Camus, Geneviève Côté, Pierre U. Blier & Damian K. Dowling
The ancient acquisition of the mitochondrion into the ancestor of modern-day eukaryotes is thought to have been pivotal in facilitating the evolution of complex life. Mitochondria retain their own diminutive genome, with mitochondrial genes encoding core subunits involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Traditionally, it was assumed that there was little scope for genetic variation to accumulate and be maintained within the mitochondrial genome. However, in the past decade, mitochondrial genetic variation has been routinely tied to...

Personality-specific carry-over effects on breeding

Steph Harris, Stephanie M Harris, Sebastien Descamps, Lynne Sneddon, Milena Cairo, Philip Bertrand & Samantha Patrick
Carry-over effects describe the phenomenon whereby an animal’s previous conditions influence its subsequent performance. Carry-over effects are unlikely to affect individuals uniformly, but the factors modulating their strength are poorly known. Variation in the strength of carry-over effects may reflect individual differences in pace-of-life: slow-paced, shyly behaved individuals are thought to favour allocation to self-maintenance over current reproduction, compared to their fast-paced, boldly behaved conspecifics (the pace-of-life syndrome hypothesis). Therefore, detectable carry-over effects on breeding...

Muscle fiber size, myonuclear domain, and fat mass phenotypes in pre-migratory snow buntings

François Vézina, Ryan O'Connor, Audrey Le Pogam, Aliyah De Jesus, Oliver Love & Ana Jimenez
In long-distance migrants, preparation for migration is typically associated with increases in fat and body mass, and with an enlargement of pectoralis muscle mass that likely improves flight performance. Although changes in muscle mass or size have been well described in migratory birds, potential changes in muscle ultrastructure during this transition still deserves scrutiny. Using outdoor captive snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis n = 15) measured during their transition into a spring migratory phenotype as a...

Coping with the worst of both worlds: phenotypic adjustments for cold acclimatization benefit northward migration and arrival in the cold in an Arctic breeding songbird

Audrey Le Pogam, Ryan S. O'Connor, Oliver P. Love, Magali Petit, Lyette Régimbald & François Vézina
Cold acclimatization (phenotypic adjustments to cope with cold conditions) is an imperative requirement for birds living at high latitudes during the cold depths of winter. Despite the significant remodelling of key phenotypic traits and energetic costs associated with elevating cold endurance, winter cold acclimatization can also provide further carryover benefits to subsequent stages in species wintering, migrating and breeding in cold environments (e.g., the Arctic). We tested this beneficial carryover hypothesis using outdoor captive Arctic-breeding...

RADseq data for Atlantic Halibut in the Northwest Atlantic

Tony Kess, Anthony Einfeldt, Brendan Wringe, Sarah Lehnert, Kara Layton, Meghan McBride, Dominique Robert, Jonathan Fisher, Arnault Le Bris, Cornelia Den Heyer, Nancy Shackell, Daniel Ruzzante, Paul Bentzen & Ian Bradbury
Characterizing the nature of genetic differentiation among individuals and populations and its distribution across the genome is increasingly important to inform both conservation and management of exploited species. Atlantic Halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) is an ecologically and commercially important fish species, yet knowledge of population structure and genomic diversity in this species remains lacking. Here, we use restriction-site associated DNA sequencing and a chromosome-level genome assembly to identify over 86,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms mapped to 24...

Observations of turbulence and the geometry and circulation of windrows in a small bay in the St. Lawrence Estuary.

Seth Zippel, Ted Maksym, Malcolm E. Scully, Peter Sutherland & Dany Dumont
Measurements of ocean turbulence, waves, and the geometry and circulation of windrows were made over 5 days in early March in a small bay in the St. Lawrence Estuary. Measurements were made from a small zodiac and from a SWIFT drifter. Two acoustic doppler velocity profilers (ADCPs) were used from the zodiac to measure water velocity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) dissipation rates near the surface. The acoustic backscatter from the ADCPs was used in...

Notre Golfe - Old Harry

Données obtenues lors du déploiement d'un mouillage équipé de deux pièges à particules près du site Old Harry dans le cadre du projet Notre Golfe. Les particules ont été capturées à 34 et 100 m d'octobre 2014 à octobre 2015 afin de déterminer les variations saisonnières dans l'abondance et la composition du flux de matière particulaire dans le chenal Laurentien de la région du détroit de Cabot dans le Golfe du Saint-Laurent.

Data from: Meiofauna affect the macrobenthic biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationship

Adeline Piot, Christian Nozais & Philippe Archambault
The biodiversity–ecosystem functioning (B–EF) relationship has become of main interest in the last few decades, mostly because of the worldwide increase in species extinctions. However, most of these studies only consider species within single size-class or trophic level, thereby most likely underestimating ecosystem complexity. To reach more realistic scenarios, we assessed the role of meiofauna (lower size-class level) on the relationship between macrofaunal biodiversity and multiple benthic ecosystem properties. Experiments took place under controlled conditions...

Data from: Does water temperature affect the timing and duration of remigial moult in sea ducks? An experimental approach

Anouck Viain & Magella Guillemette
Aquatic birds have high cost of thermoregulation, especially during the moulting period, yet the effect of water temperature on the moulting strategy of aquatic birds has rarely been studied. Our general hypothesis is that energy savings associated with lower thermoregulation costs would be allocated to moulting processes. We predicted that aquatic birds moulting in warm water would have a higher level of body reserves, a faster growth rate of feathers, and an earlier remigial moult...

Data from: Evolution of vertebrate postcranial complexity: axial skeleton regionalization and paired appendages in a Devonian jawless fish

Marion Chevrinais, Zerina Johanson, Kate Trinajstic, John Long, Catherine Morel, Claude B. Renaud & Richard Cloutier
One of the major events in vertebrate evolution involves the transition from jawless (agnathan) to jawed (gnathostome) vertebrates, including a variety of cranial and postcranial innovations. It has long been assumed that characters such as the pelvic girdles and fins, male intromittent organs independent from the pelvic girdles, as well as a regionalized axial skeleton first appeared in various basal gnathostome groups if not at the origin of gnathostomes. Here we describe the first occurrence...

Data from: Nutrient starvation impairs the trophic plasticity of reef-building corals under ocean warming

Leïla Ezzat, Jean-François Maguer, Renaud Grover, Cécile Rottier, Pascale Tremblay, Christine Ferrier-Pagès & Jean‐François Maguer
1) Global warming of the world’s oceans is driving reef-building corals towards their upper thermal limit, inducing bleaching, nutrient starvation and mortality. In addition, corals are predicted to experience large fluctuations in seawater nutrient concentrations, following water column stratification or eutrophication problems, which can further alter their nutritional capacities and ultimately their resilience to global change. 2) We investigated the effect of thermal stress and dissolved inorganic nutrient (DINUT) availability on the auto- and heterotrophic...

Data from: Scaling of thermal tolerance with body mass and genome size in ectotherms: a comparison between water-and air-breathers

Félix P. Leiva, Piero Calosi & Wilco C. E. P. Verberk
Global warming appears to favour smaller-bodied organisms, but whether larger species are also more vulnerable to thermal extremes, as suggested for past mass-extinction events, is still an open question. Here, we tested whether interspecific differences in thermal tolerance (heat and cold) of ectotherm organisms are linked to differences in their body mass and genome size (as a proxy for cell size). Since the vulnerability of larger, aquatic taxa to warming has been attributed to the...

Data from: Predator-mediated negative effects of overabundant snow geese on arctic-nesting shorebirds

Jean-François Lamarre, Pierre Legagneux, Gilles Gauthier, Eric T. Reed & Joël Bêty
Overabundant species can strongly impact ecosystem functioning through trophic cascades. The strong increase in several arctic geese populations, primarily due to changes in agricultural practices in temperate regions, can have severe direct impacts on tundra ecosystems through vegetation degradation. However, predator-mediated negative effects of goose overabundance on other tundra species can also be significant but are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that goose abundance negatively affects arctic-nesting shorebirds by increasing nest predation pressure. We...

Variable strength of predator-mediated effects on species occurrence in an arctic terrestrial vertebrate community

Éliane Duchesne, Jean-François Lamarre, Gilles Gauthier, Dominique Berteaux, Dominique Gravel & Joël Bêty
Indirect effects resulting from species sharing the same enemy can shape spatio-temporal variations in species occurrence. The strength of such effects remains poorly known in natural communities composed of species from different trophic levels interacting in heterogeneous landscapes. Benefiting from a well-known arctic vertebrate community and marked spatio-temporal variations in the density of key prey species, we examined the effects of direct predator-prey and indirect predator-mediated effects on species occurrence in the landscape. We found...

Life-history trade-offs, density, lay date—not personality—explain multibroodedness in great tits

Sarah Senécal, Alexia Mouchet & Niels J. Dingemanse
In various taxa, multibroodedness is a common breeding strategy. Life-history theory predicts that individuals can increase fitness by producing multiple broods within a season. Despite the apparent increase in the number of offspring parents might produce per season, not all individuals are multibrooded, suggesting a trade-off. We studied ecological and behavioral factors influencing the initiation of second clutches in great tits (Parus major), an optionally multibrooded bird species, by distinguishing two types of clutches: replacement...

A tale of two conifers: Migration across a dispersal barrier outpaced regional expansion from refugia

Matias Fernandez, Feng Sheng Hu, Daniel Gavin, Guillaume De Lafontaine & Katy Heath
Aim: Understanding how climate refugia and migration over great distances have facilitated species survival during past climate changes is crucial for evaluating contemporary threats to biodiversity, particularly in the face of dispersal barriers. We address this longstanding question on the refugial origins and post-glacial development of mesic forests. Location: Pacific Northwest, North America. Taxon: Mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana) and western redcedar (Thuja plicata) Methods: Range-wide genotyping-by-sequencing (ddRADseq) of both study species and a pollen reconstruction...

Behavioral variation in natural contests: integrating plasticity and personality

Charline Couchoux, Dany Garant, Maxime Aubert, Jeanne Clermont & Denis Réale
Animals often interact aggressively when competing over limited resources. Aggressive decisions can be complex, and may result from multiple sources of behavioral variation. The outcome of contests may be explained through contest theory and personality, by considering conjointly plasticity and individual consistency. This integrative approach also allows investigating individual differences in responsiveness to environmental changes. Here we observed multiple agonistic interactions occurring among eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) competing for food resources supplied at different distances...

Snow bunting respirometry data

Ryan O'Connor, Audrey Le Pogam, Kevin Young, Francis Robitaille, Emily Choy, Oliver Love, Kyle Elliott, Anna Hargreaves, Dominique Berteaux, Andrew Tam & François Vézina
1. Arctic animals inhabit some of the coldest environments on the planet and have evolved physiological mechanisms for minimizing heat loss under extreme cold. However, the Arctic is warming faster than the global average and how well Arctic animals tolerate even moderately high air temperatures (Ta) is unknown. 2. Using flow-through respirometry we investigated the heat tolerance and evaporative cooling capacity of snow buntings (Plectrophenax nivalis; ≈ 31g, N = 42), a cold specialist, Arctic...

The predator activity landscape predicts the anti‐predator behavior and distribution of prey in a tundra community

Jeanne Clermont, Alexis Grenier-Potvin, Éliane Duchesne, Charline Couchoux, Frédéric Dulude-De Broin, Andréanne Beardsell, Joël Bêty & Dominique Berteaux
Predation shapes communities through consumptive and non-consumptive effects. In the latter case, prey respond to perceived predation risk through proactive or reactive risk management strategies occurring at different spatial and temporal scales. The predator-prey space race and landscape of fear concepts are useful to better understand how predation risk affects prey behavioral decisions and distribution. We assessed predation-risk effects in a terrestrial Arctic community, where the arctic fox is the main predator of ground-nesting birds....

Données sur les hydrocarbures aromatiques polycycliques dans les sédiments de l'estuaire et du golfe du Saint-Laurent (est du Canada)

Anne Corminboeuf
The St. Lawrence Estuarine System is a major seaway connecting eastern Canada with the Atlantic Ocean. Approximately 4000 vessels travel along this seaway every year that contribute, in addition to industrial activities, to anthropogenic stress in regard to many pollutants, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, the concentrations of 23 PAHs (16 parent PAHs and 7 alkyl-PAHs), total organic carbon (TOC) as well as grain-size distributions were determined in 45 surface sediment and...

Data from: Movement tactics of a mobile predator in a meta-ecosystem with fluctuating resources: the arctic fox in the High Arctic

Sandra Lai, Joël Bêty & Dominique Berteaux
Animal movement is a fundamental process shaping ecosystems at multiple levels, from the fate of individuals to global patterns of biodiversity. The spatio-temporal dynamic of food resources is a major driver of animal movement and generates patterns ranging from range residency to migration and nomadism. Arctic tundra predators face a strongly fluctuating environment marked by cyclic microtine populations, high seasonality, and the potential availability of sea ice, which gives access to marine resources in winter....

Data from: A spatial theory for characterizing predator–multiprey interactions in heterogeneous landscapes

Daniel Fortin, Pietro-Luciano Buono, Oswald J. Schmitz, Nicolas Courbin, Chrystel Losier, Martin-Hugues St-Laurent, Pierre Drapeau, Sandra Heppell, Claude Dussault, Vincent Brodeur & Julien Mainguy
Trophic interactions in multiprey systems can be largely determined by prey distributions. Yet, classic predator–prey models assume spatially homogeneous interactions between predators and prey. We developed a spatially informed theory that predicts how habitat heterogeneity alters the landscape-scale distribution of mortality risk of prey from predation, and hence the nature of predator interactions in multiprey systems. The theoretical model is a spatially explicit, multiprey functional response in which species-specific advection–diffusion models account for the response...

Data from: Highly overlapping winter diet in two sympatric lemming species revealed by DNA metabarcoding

Eeva M. Soininen, Gilles Gauthier, Frédéric Bilodeau, Dominique Berteaux, Ludovic Gielly, Pierre Taberlet, Galina Gussarova, Eva Bellemain, Kristian Hassel, Hans K. Stenøien, Laura Epp, Audun Schrøder-Nilsen, Christian Brochmann, Nigel G. Yoccoz & Audun Schrøder-Nielsen
Sympatric species are expected to minimize competition by partitioning resources, especially when these are limited. Herbivores inhabiting the High Arctic in winter are a prime example of a situation where food availability is anticipated to be low, and thus reduced diet overlap is expected. We present here the first assessment of diet overlap of high arctic lemmings during winter based on DNA metabarcoding of feces. In contrast to previous analyses based on microhistology, we found...

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