47 Works

Data from: Restoration and management for plant diversity enhances the rate of belowground ecosystem recovery

Ryan P. Klopf, Sara G. Baer, Elizabeth M. Bach & Johan Six
The positive relationship between plant diversity and ecosystem functioning has been criticized for its applicability at large scales and in less controlled environments that are relevant to land management. To inform this gap between ecological theory and application, we compared recovery rates of belowground properties using two chronosequences consisting of continuously cultivated and independently restored fields with contrasting diversity management strategies: grasslands restored with high plant richness and managed for diversity with frequent burning (n=20)...

Data from: Filter-dispersal assembly of lowland Neotropical rainforests across the Andes

Jordan B. Bemmels, S. Joseph Wright, Nancy C. Garwood, Simon A. Queenborough, Renato Valencia & Christopher W. Dick
Numerous Neotropical rainforest species are distributed in both Amazonia and Central America, reflecting a rich history of biotic interchange between regions. However, some plant lineages are endemic to one region, due in part to the dispersal barrier posed by the northern Andean cordilleras and adjacent savannas. To investigate the role of biogeographic filtering across the northern Andes in regional community assembly, we examined environmental tolerances, functional traits, and biogeographic distributions of >1000 woody plant species...

Data from: Environmental heterogeneity has a weak effect on diversity during community assembly in tallgrass prairie

Sara G. Baer, John M. Blair & Scott L. Collins
Understanding what constrains the persistence of species in communities is at the heart of community assembly theory and its application to conserving and enhancing biodiversity. The “environmental heterogeneity hypothesis” predicts greater species coexistence in habitats with greater resource variability. In the context of community assembly, environmental heterogeneity may influence the variety and strength of abiotic conditions and competitive interactions (environmental filters) to affect the relative abundance of species and biodiversity. We manipulated key resources that...

Data from: Stacking the odds: light pollution may shift the balance in an ancient predator-prey arms race

Corneile Minnaar, Justin G. Boyles, Ingrid A. Minnaar, Catherine L. Sole & Andrew E. McKechnie
1. Artificial night-lighting threatens to disrupt strongly conserved light-dependent processes in animals and may have cascading effects on ecosystems as species interactions become altered. Insectivorous bats and their prey have been involved in a nocturnal, coevolutionary arms race for millions of years. Lights may interfere with anti-bat defensive behaviours in moths, and disrupt a complex and globally ubiquitous interaction between bats and insects, ultimately leading to detrimental consequences for ecosystems on a global scale. 2....

Vertebrate and invertebrate herbivory data

Melinda Smith & David Gibson
Data are from a factorial experiment designed to test the effects of small mammals and above- and below-ground invertebrates on plant species richness and composition in native tallgrass prairie (Gibson et al. 1990, https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00318268).

Data from: Relative preference and localized food affect predator space use and consumption of incidental prey

Tyler E. Schartel & Eric M. Schauber
Abundant, localized foods can concentrate predators and their foraging efforts, thus altering both the spatial distribution of predation risk and predator preferences for prey that are encountered incidentally. However, few investigations have quantified the spatial scale over which localized foods affect predator foraging behavior and consumption of incidental prey. In spring 2010, we experimentally tested how point-source foods altered how generalist predators (white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus) utilized space and depredated two incidental prey items: almonds...

Data from: Illuminating prey selection in an insectivorous bat community, exposed to artificial light at night

Zachary M. Cravens, Veronica A. Brown, Timothy J. Divoll & Justin G. Boyles
1.Light pollution has been increasing around the globe and threatens to disturb natural rhythms of wildlife species. Artificial light impacts the behaviour of insectivorous bats in numerous ways, including foraging behaviour, which may in turn lead to altered prey selection. 2.In a manipulative field experiment, we collected faecal samples from six species of insectivorous bats in naturally dark and artificially lit conditions, and identified prey items using molecular methods to investigate effects of light pollution...

Data from: Finer-scale habitat predicts nest survival in grassland birds more than management and landscape: a multi-scale perspective

Justin J. Shew, Clay K. Nielsen, Donald W. Sparling & Clayton K. Nielsen
1. Birds may respond to habitat at multiple scales, ranging from microhabitat structure to landscape composition. North American grassland bird distributions predominantly reside on private lands, and populations have been consistently declining. Many of these lands are enrolled in U.S. federal conservation programmes, and properly guided management policies could alleviate declines. However, more evaluative research is needed on the effects of management policies juxtaposed with other multi-scale habitat features. Furthermore, research focused on nest survival...

Data from: A before-and-after assessment of patch-burn grazing and riparian fencing along headwater streams

Danelle M. Larson, Walter K. Dodds, Matt R. Whiles, Jessica N. Fulgoni & Thomas R. Thompson
Fire and grazing are common in grasslands world-wide to maintain grass cover and cattle production. The effects of fire, cattle grazing and riparian fencing efficacy on prairie stream ecology are not well characterized at catchment scales. We examined alterations to stream water quality and biology from patch-burn grazing (PBG) in tallgrass prairie during a five-year, replicated, catchment scale experiment that used a Before-After/Control-Impact (BACI) design and was analysed by mixed-effects models. Treatments included two patch-burned...

Data from: Lights out: the evolution of bacterial bioluminescence in Loliginidae

Frank E. Anderson, Alexis Bergman, Samantha H. Cheng, M. Sabrina Pankey & Tooraj Valinassab
Representatives of several metazoan clades engage in symbiotic interactions with bioluminescent bacteria, but the evolution and maintenance of these interactions remain poorly understood. Uroteuthis is a genus of loliginid squid (Cephalopoda: Loliginidae) characterized by paired ventral photophores (light organs) housing bioluminescent bacteria. While previous phylogenetic studies have suggested that Uroteuthis is closely related to Loliolus, a genus of non-bioluminescent species, this relationship remains unresolved. To illuminate Uroteuthis and Loliolus phylogeny and its implications for the...

Data from: Tillage and fertilizer effects on crop yield and soil properties over 45 years in southern Illinois

Rachel L. Cook & Andrew Trlica
Reducing soil disturbance may limit erosion, but many still consider tillage essential for seedbed preparation, particularly on poorly drained soils. Our objective was to quantify tillage and fertilizer management effects after 45 yr {21 in continuous corn [Zea mays L.] [CC] and 24 in corn–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] [CS] rotation} on a somewhat poorly drained silt loam near Belleville, IL. Four tillage (moldboard plow [MP], chisel tillage [ChT], alternate tillage [AT], and no-till [NT])...

Data from: Purple pitcher plant (Sarracenia rosea) dieback and partial community disassembly following experimental storm surge in a coastal pitcher plant bog

Matthew J. Abbott & Loretta L. Battaglia
Sea-level rise and frequent intense hurricanes associated with climate change will result in recurrent flooding of inland systems such as Gulf Coastal pitcher plant bogs by storm surges. These surges can transport salt water and sediment to freshwater bogs, greatly affecting their biological integrity. Purple pitcher plants (Sarracenia rosea) are Gulf Coast pitcher plant bog inhabitants that could be at a disadvantage under this scenario because their pitcher morphology may leave them prone to collection...

Morphological, molecular, and biogeographic evidence for specific recognition of Euthamia hirtipes and Euthamia scabra (Asteraceae, Astereae)

Marisa Szubryt, Lowell Urbatsch, Yalma Vargas-Rodriguez, David Barfknecht & Kurt Neubig
The number and identity of species in the North American genus Euthamia (Asteraceae, Astereae) have varied considerably among taxonomic treatments. Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. is often treated to broadly include plants from the northern and eastern United States and Canada, including the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. Broad-leaved, largely glabrous plants from New Jersey to the Florida Panhandle have been inconsistently treated as E. graminifolia, E. graminifolia var. hirtipes (Fernald) C.E.S. Taylor & R.J. Taylor E....

Data from: No effect of seed source on multiple aspects of ecosystem functioning during ecological restoration: cultivars compared to local ecotypes of dominant grasses

Sara G. Baer, David J. Gibson, Danny J. Gustafson, Allison M. Benscoter, Lewis K. Reed, Ryan E. Campbell, Ryan P. Klopf, Jason E. Willand & Ben R. Wodika
Genetic principles underlie recommendations to use local seed, but a paucity of information exists on the genetic distinction and ecological consequences of using different seed sources in restorations. We established a field experiment to test whether cultivars and local ecotypes of dominant prairie grasses were genetically distinct and differentially influenced ecosystem functioning. Whole plots were assigned to cultivar and local ecotype grass sources. Three subplots within each whole plot were seeded to unique pools of...

Data from: Intraspecific variation among clones of a naïve rare grass affects competition with an invasive forb

David J. Gibson, Justin Dewey, Hélène Goossens & Misty M. Dodd
Intraspecific variation can have a major impact on plant community composition yet there is little information available on the extent that such variation by an already established species affects interspecific interactions of an invading species. The current research examined the competitiveness of clones of a globally rare but locally common native grass, Calamagrostis porteri ssp. insperata to invasion by Alliaria petiolata, a non-native invasive species. A greenhouse experiment was conducted twice over consecutive years in...

Data from: Molecular phylogenetics of Kosteletzkya (Malvaceae, Hibisceae) reveals multiple independent and successive polyploid speciation events

Kurt M. Neubig, , W. Mark Whitten, Stuart F. McDaniel & Orland J. Blanchard
Kosteletzkya s.s. is a genus of 17 species (excluding the endemic species of Madagascar), found in the New World, continental Africa, Madagascar, and Southeast Asia. Recent chromosome counts revealed diploid, tetraploid, and hexaploid species. To estimate the history of the genus, we sequenced nuclear and plastid loci for nearly all Kosteletzkya spp., in the majority of cases, with multiple accessions per species. The African species form a paraphyletic grade relative to a New World clade....

Data from: Does landscape connectivity shape local and global social network structure in white-tailed deer?

Erin L. Koen, Marie I. Tosa, Clayton K. Nielsen & Eric M. Schauber
Intraspecific social behavior can be influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. While much research has focused on how characteristics of individuals influence their roles in social networks, we were interested in the role that landscape structure plays in animal sociality at both individual (local) and population (global) levels. We used female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in Illinois, USA, to investigate the potential effect of landscape on social network structure by weighting the edges of...

Data from: Stream community richness predicts apex predator occupancy dynamics in riparian systems

Angela M. Holland, Eric M. Schauber, Clayton K. Nielsen & Eric C. Hellgren
Streams and adjacent riparian habitats represent linked terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems that exchange materials and energy. Recognized relationships among apex predators and ecosystem biodiversity led us to hypothesize that these predators in riparian-stream systems were more likely to be found in sites with high stream quality, defined as increased ecosystem function and integrity. In our freshwater study system, river otter (Lontra canadensis) and mink (Neovison vison) play critical roles as apex predators. We used multi-season...

Data from: Innovative sandbag propagation method for giant cane (Arundinaria gigantea (Walter) Muhl.)

Alexander W. Eade, Gurbir Singh, Jon E. Schoonover, James J. Zaczek & Karl W. J. Williard
Sandbag Propagation data for Giant CaneData file is excel file having emergence and survival data of giant cane in sand bag propagation method. The excel file also contains soil moisture data of the sandbags. Please refer the materials and methods section and graphs for reading the treatment name.bag mosiiture data.xlsx

Data from: Habitat patch use by fishers in the deciduous forest-dominated landscape of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

Hance Ellington E., Sean W. Gess, Erin L. Koen, Joe Duchamp, Matthew Lovallo, Matthew R. Dzialak, Jeffrey Larkin, Joseph E. Duchamp & Jeffery L. Larkin
Fishers (Pekania pennanti) are often associated with the coniferous and mixed forests of the northern United States and central Canada, and their ecology has been studied extensively in portions of their distributional range. Recently, natural range expansion and reintroductions have led to recolonization by fishers of portions of the central Appalachian Mountains, USA, where deciduous forest is the dominant vegetation type. We used noninvasive hair snare surveys and microsatellite genetic analysis to detect fishers in...

Data from: Variation in thermal niche of a declining river-breeding frog: from counter-gradient responses to population distribution patterns

Alessandro Catenazzi & Sarah J. Kupferberg
When dams or climate change alter the thermal regimes of rivers, conditions can shift outside optimal ranges for aquatic poikilothermic vertebrates. Plasticity in thermal performance and preference, however, may allow temperature-vulnerable fauna to persist under challenging conditions. To determine the effects of thermal regime on Rana boylii (Ranidae), a threatened frog species endemic to rivers of California and Oregon, we quantified tadpole thermal preferences and performance in relation to thermal conditions. We monitored temperature and...

Data from: Genetic sorting of subordinate species in grassland modulated by intraspecific variation in dominant species.

Danny J. Gustafson, Charles Major, Dewitt Jones, John Synovec, Sara G. Baer & David J. Gibson
Genetic variation in a single species can have predictable and heritable effects on associated communities and ecosystem processes, however little is known about how genetic variation of a dominant species affects plant community assembly. We characterized the genetic structure of a dominant grass (Sorghastrum nutans) and two subordinate species (Chamaecrista fasciculata, Silphium integrifolium), during the third growing season in grassland communities established with genetically distinct (cultivated varieties or local ecotypes) seed sources of the dominant...

Data from: Continuous corn and corn–soybean profits over a 45-year tillage and fertilizer experiment

Andrew Trlica, Maninder K. Walia, Ron Krausz, Silvia Secchi & Rachel L. Cook
Studies comparing profitability of tillage systems often examine narrow historic windows or exclude annual price fluctuations. This study uses a continuous corn (Zea mays L.) (CC; 1970–1990) and corn–soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] (CS; 1991–2014) Tillage × Fertilizer study in somewhat poorly drained soils in southern Illinois to reconstruct partial annual budgets with historical prices for crops, fertilizers, lime, herbicides, fuel, labor, and machinery. Combinations of tillage (moldboard plow [MP], chisel tillage [ChT], alternate tillage...

Data from: Na+/K+‐ATPase gene duplications in clitellate annelids are associated with freshwater colonization

Kevin M. Horn, Bronwyn W. Williams, Christer Erséus, Kenneth M. Halanych, Scott R. Santos, Michel Des Châtelliers Creuzé & Frank E. Anderson
Major habitat transitions, such as those from marine to freshwater habitats or from aquatic to terrestrial habitats, have occurred infrequently in animal evolution and may represent a barrier to diversification. Identifying genomic events associated with these transitions can help us better understand mechanisms that allow animals to cross these barriers and diversify in new habitats. Study of the Capitella telata and Helobdella robusta genomes allows examination of one such habitat transition (marine to freshwater) in...

Data from: Worth the reward? An experimental assessment of risk-taking behavior along a life history gradient

Adam C. Behney, Ryan O'Shaughnessy, Mike W. Eichholz & Joshua D. Stafford
Life history theory predicts that species with faster life history strategies should be willing to risk their survival more to acquire resources than those with slower life history strategies. Foraging can be a risky behavior and animals generally face a tradeoff between food consumption and predation risk. We predicted that the degree to which animals invest in current vs. future reproduction (i.e., life history strategy) would determine how they approach this tradeoff. We manipulated food...

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